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Full text of "The World's Congress of Representative Women : a historical résumé for popular circulation of the World's Congress of Representative Women, convened in Chichago on May 15, and adjourned on May 22, 1893, under the auspices of the Women's Branch of the World's Congress Auxiliary"

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DATE.. SEP 1.3 10*9 

1 1 OH 


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President World's Congresses of 1893. 


THE series of World's Congresses which convened in 
Chicago during the World's Columbian Exposition 
under the auspices of the World's Congress Auxiliary, 
of which the Hon. Charles C. Bonney is president, were opened 
by a Congress of the Representative Women of all Lands. 
This Congress was, without doubt, the largest and most repre- 
sentative gathering of women ever convened in this or any 
other country. It assembled at n o'clock A. M. on Monday, 
May 1 5th, immediately after the general opening of the World's- 
Congress series, and adjourned Sunday evening, May 2ist. 
There were seventy-six sessions and over six hundred partici- 
pants. The greatest interest was manifested by participants 
from all parts of the world, and the aggregate attendance for 
the week was over one hundred and fifty thousand.' 

While the officers of the World's Congress Auxiliary pro- 
vided for the liberal participation of women in the other great 
departments of thought, like Education, Science, Music, Re- 
ligion, Moral and Social Reform, Government, etc., they also 
wisely decided to give a full week to a Woman's Congress 
for the purpose of presenting to the people of the world the 
wonderful progress of women in all civilized lands in the 
great departments of intellectual activity. 

This great Congress, which represents the Department of 
Woman's Progress in the general programme of the World's 
Congress Auxiliary, was under the direct supervision of the 
Woman's Branch of the Auxiliary, of which Mrs. Potter 
Palmer is president and Mrs. Charles Henrotin vice-presi- 
dent. The work of organization was committed, under the 
supervision of those officers, to a general committee composed 
of the following ladies: 

Mrs. May Wright Sewall, chairman; Mrs. Rachel Foster 
A very, secretary; Miss Frances E. Willard, Dr. Sarah Hackett 


Stevenson, Dr. Julia Holmes Smith, Mrs. John C. Coonley, Mrs. 
Elizabeth Boynton Harbert, Mrs. William Thayer Brown. 

The proceedings of this Congress of Representative Women 
present in a remarkably compact yet comprehensive form all 
the varied interests in which the women of the world are con- 
cerned. The two volumes in which those proceedings are pub- 
lished, under the editorial supervision of Mrs. May Wright 
Sewall, chairman of the Committee of Organization, constitute 
a complete and comprehensive yet condensed and readable 
library on all the great themes in \vhich the enlightened women 
of our time are concerned. No other book or collection of 
books on these important subjects can take the place of this 
history of woman's progress. To every woman who holds any 
place of leadership among her sex these volumes may be truly 
said to be indispensable. Without them she can not be in 
touch with the vital influences of the great movement of the 
nineteenth century which is known as Woman's Progress. 

CLARENCE E. YOUNG, General Secretary, 

World's Congresses of 1893. 







PREFACE, - xix 


Opening Address of Hon. Charles C. Bonney, President World's 

Congress Auxiliary, - 8 
Address of Welcome Bertha M. Honore Palmer, President Board of 
Lady Managers, and President Woman's Branch World's Congress 
Auxiliary, n 
Greeting to the Representative Women of the World Ellen M. 
Henrotin, Vice-President Woman's Branch World's Congress Aux- 
iliary, - 12 
Address May Wright Sewall, Chairman of the Committee of Organiza- 
tion for the World's Congress of Representative Women, 13 
Response The Countess of Aberdeen, Scotland, - 19 
Florence Fenwick Miller, England, 20 
Jane Cobden Umvin, England, 23 
Hanna Bieber-Boehm, Germany, - 23 
Isabelle Bogelot, France, - 23 
Margaret Windeyer, New South Wales. - 24 
Augusta Foerster, Germany, - - 25 
Baroness Thorborg-Rappe, Sweden, 26 
Callirrhoe Parren, Greece, - 26 
Josefa Humpal-Zeman, Bohemia, - 28 
Kaethe Schirmacher, Germany, - 29 
Kirstine Frederiksen, Denmark, - 30 
Mrs. John Harvie, Canada, - - 31 
Hulda Lundin, Sweden, - 31 
Dr. Augusta Stowe Gullen, Canada, - 32 
Mrs. Foster, Canada, 32 
Mary McDonnell, Canada, - 32 
Elizabeth M. Tilley, Canada, 33 
Laura Ormiston Chant, England, 33 
Margaret V. Parker, Scotland, 34 
Nico Beck-Meyer, Denmark, - - 35 
Meri Toppelius,. Finland, - 35 

( vii ) 



The Economy of Woman's Forces through Organization May Wright 
Sewall, - - 37 


Object of the World's Congress Auxiliary, - - 45 

Officers of the World's Congress Auxiliary, 46 

Inception of the World's Congress of Representative Women, - - 46 
Committee of Organization for the World's Congress of Representative 

Women, 48 

Correspondence Relative to Organization of the Congress, - 49 

Official Call for the Congress Issued by the Woman's Branch of the 

World's Congress Auxiliary, 60 

Programme of the World's Congress of Representative Women, - - 67 


Introductory Paragraphs by the Editor, - - 88 
The Kindergarten as an Educational Agency and the Relation of the 

Kindergarten to Manual Training Mrs. Sarah B. Cooper, - 90 

Discussion Mrs. Caroline M. Severance, - - 99 

Rev. Mila Frances Tupper, 99 

The Kindergarten and the Primary School Miss N. Cropsey, - 103 

' The Ethical Influence of Woman in Education Mrs. Kate Tupper 

Galpin, 107 

Discussion Mrs. W. D. Cabell, - - 114 

Mrs. Anna Byford Leonard, 116 

Frances Stewart Mosher, - 117 

The Popular Inculcation of Economy Sara Louise Vickers Oberholtzer , 1 19 

Educational Training in Its Bearing Upon the Promotion of Social 

Purity Dr. Jennie de la M. Lozier, - 127 

The Highest Education Mrs. Charles Kendall Adams, - 131 

The Catholic Woman as an Educator Mary A. B. Maher, - 134 


Introductory Comment by the Editor, - 138 

Woman's Place in the Republic of Letters Annie Nathan Meyer, - 140 
Woman in the Republic of Letters Alice Wellington Rollins, - 144 

Organization as a Means of Literary Culture Charlotte Emerson 

Brown, - 147 

Address Josephine Bates, - 151 

The Polish Woman in Literature Prepared by T. E. C., M. D., - 154 
Extracts from the Address of Mrs. Volmar of Utah in the Conference 

Congress on Literature, - 156 



Insurance Against Piracy of Brains Kate Brcnvnlee Sherwood, - 158 

Woman and the Drama Introductory Note, - - 161 

Woman and the Stage Helena Modjeska, - 164 

Woman in the Emotional Drama Clara Morris, - 175 

The Stage and Its Women Georgia Gay van, 179 

Woman's Work Upon the Stage Julia Marlowe, - 188 

Telegram from Mme. Janauschek, - 164 


Prefatory Remarks by the Editor, - - 193 

Woman in Science Dr. Mary Putnam Jacobi, 195 

Discussion Dr. Julia Holmes Smith, - 207 

Mrs. Leander Stone, - 207 

Dr. Mary A. Dixon Jones, - - 207 

The Medical Woman's Movement in the United Kingdom of Great Brit- 
ain and Ireland to January, 1893 Dr! Elizabeth Garrett Ander- 
son, - - - 209 
The Medical Education of Women in Great Britain and Ireland Dr. 

Sophia Jex-Blake, - - 214 

Discussion Mrs. Ellis R. Shipp, M. D., - - 221 

Woman in the Pulpit Rev. Florence E. Kollock, - 221 

Woman's Call to the Ministry Rev. Caroline J. Bartlett, - - 229 

Discussion Rev. Eugenia T. St. John, 233 

Rev. Mary L. Moreland, - - 234 

Woman as a Minister of Religion Rev. Mary A. Safford, - 236 

Discussion Mrs. Amelia S. Quinton, - - - 240 


Prefatory Comment by the Editor, - 242 

The Modern Deaconess Movement Jane Bancroft Robinson, Ph. D. , 244 
Organization among Women Considered with Respect to Philanthropy 

Mary E. Richmond, - - 254 

Discussion Clara C. Hoffman, 258 

The Organized Work of Catholic Women Lily Alice Toomy, - 260 

Woman's Place in Hebrew Thought Minnie D. Louis, - 267 

''Woman as a Religious Teacher Ursula N. Gestef eld, - 275 

Discussion Alice May Scudder, 279 

Sarah B. Cooper, - 281 

Lois A. White, - 283 

Zina D. H. Young, - - 284 

Elizabeth B. Gran nis, 285 

Fanny M. Harley, - - 285 



The Light in the East Eliva Anne Thayer, 286 

Subject Continued Ella Dietz Clymer, - 289 
Organization Among Women as an Instrument in Promoting Religion 

Mary Lowe Dickinson, - 292 

Address on Same Subject Rev. Ida C. Hultin, - 297 
The Elevation of Womanhood Wrought through the Veneration of 

the Blessed Virgin Emma F. Cary, - 298 

The Sisters of the People Mrs. Hugh Price Hughes, - 303 


Prefatory Comment by the Editor, - 313 

The Moral Initiative as Related to Woman Julia Ward Howe. - 314 

Discussion Rev. Antoinette Brown Blackwell, - 321 

Mrs. John F. Unger, - 322 

Miss Josephine C. Locke, - - 324 

The Civil and Social Evolution of Woman Elizabeth Cady Stanton, 327 

Discussion Margaret Parker, 329 

M. Louise'Thomas, - - 331 

Dr. Emily Howard Stowe, 332 

Woman as a Social Leader Josefa Humpal-Zeman, - - 333 

The Ethics of Dress Alice Timmons Toomy, 339 

Discussion Margaret Windeyer, 345 

Rev. Antoinette Brown Blackwell, - 346 

Laura Ormiston Chant, - - 347 

Elizabeth Krecker, 350 

Octavia Williams Bates, - -351 

Woman's Dress from the Standpoint of Sociology Prof. Ellen Hayes, 354 

Discussion Dr. Lelia A. Davis, 362 

Prof. Helen L. Webster, 365 

Dress Reform and Its Necessity Viscountess F. W. Harberton, - 367 

Organization as an Instrument in Promoting Moral Reform Maud 

Ballington Booth, - 371 
The Double Moral Standard, or the Moral Responsibility of Woman 

in Heredity Helen H. Gardener, - 374 
The Moral Reform Union Helen Taylor, 387 
Temperance Education Mary H. Hunt, - 388 
The Power of Womanliness in Dealing with Stern Problems Flor- 
ence Collins Porter, 391 
Origin and Early History of the British Women's Temperance Asso- 
ciation Lady Henry Somerset, - - 395 
The Origin, History, and Development of the World's Woman's 

Christian Temperance Union Elizabeth Wheeler Andrew, 400 





Prefatory Comment by the Editor, . . ^3 
The Origin and Objects of the Women's Franchise League of Great 

Britain and Ireland Mrs. Jacob Bright, - 415 

Work of the Franchise League Florence Fenwick Miller, - - 420 

Woman as an Actual Force in Politics The Countess of Aberdeen, 424 

Address on Same Subject Lillie Devereux Blake, - - 430 

Woman's Political Future Frances E. W. Harper, - - 433 

Discussion Margaret Windeyer, . - 437 

Woman as a Political Leader Mrs. J. Ellen Foster, 439 

Discussion Rev. Eugenia T. St. John, - 445 

Mary Frost Ormsby, - 446 


Women in Municipal Government Ida A. Harper, 451 

( >ne Phase of Woman's Work for the Municipality Lillian Davis 

Duncanson, - - 457 

Woman's Participation in Municipal Government Laura M. Johns, 459 
Discussion Dr. Sarah C. Hall, - - 462 

Organization Among Women as an Instrument in Promoting the 

Interests of Political Liberty Susan B. Anthony, - 463 

Address on Same Subject Lillie Devereux Blake, - 466 

Woman's Position and Influence in the Civil Law Martha Strickland, 467 
The Ethics of Suffrage Elizabeth Cady Stanton, 482 

Woman as an Annex Helen H. Gardener, 48$ 

The Value of the Eastern Star as a Factor in Giving Women a Better 
Understanding of Business Affairs, and Especially those Relat- 
ing to Legislative Matters Mary A. Flint, - 500 
The Relation of Woman to Our Present Political Problems Abbie 

A. C. Peaslie, - 505 

Women's National Indian Association Mrs. William E. Burke, - 510 
The Women's Liberal Federation of Scotland The Countess of 

Aberdeen, - 515 

Finsk Qvinnoforening, the Finnish Women's Association Baroness 

Gripenberg, - 521 

The Association for Married Women's Property Rights Baroness 

Thorborg-Rappe, - 527 




Prefatory Comment by the Editor, - 537 

Woman the New Factor in Economics Augusta Cooper Bristol, 539 

Discussion Lina Morgenstern, - - 550 

Elizabet Kaselowsky, - 554 

A New Avenue of Employment and Investment for Business Women 

Juana A. Neal, - 559 

The Bohemian Woman as a Factor in Industry and Economy 

Karla Machova, - 561 
The Contribution of Women to the Applied Arts Florence Eliza- 
beth Cory, - 565 
Discussion Emily Sartain, - 567 
The Influence of Women in Ceramic Art M. B. Ailing, - 571 
Discussion Luetta E. Braumuller, - 573 
Pottery in the Household M. Louise McLaughlin, - 575 
The Trades and Professions Underlying the Home Alice M. Hart, 578 
Discussion Helena T. Goessmann, - 589 
The Effect of Modern Changes in Industrial and Social Life on 

Woman's Marriage Prospects Kaethe Schirmacher, - 592 

Discussion Alice Timmons Toomy, - - 598 

Anna H. Shaw ; - 599 

Emily Marshall Wadsworth, - 603 

Organization Among Women as an Instrument in Promoting the 

Interests of Industry Kate Bond, 605 

Address on Same Subject Harriette Keyser, - - 617 

The Women's Protective and Provident League of Glasgow E. E. 

Anderson, - 622 

Cooperative Housekeeping Mary Coleman Stuckert, - 625 

Domestic Service and the Family Claim Jane Addams, 626 


Prefatory Comment by the Editor, - 632 

The Solidarity of Human Interests Isabelle Bogelot, - 634 

Address on Same Subject Callirrhoe Parren, 639 

Women in Spain for the Last Four Hundred Years Catalina d'Alcala, 644 
Woman's Position in the South American States Matilde G. de 

Miro Quesada, 650 

The Women of Brazil Martha Sesselberg, - 657 

Women in South America Isabel King, - 658 

The Progress of Women in England Helen Blackburn, - 672 

A Century of Progress for Women in Canada Mary McDonnell, 682 

Address on Same Subject A. M. Blakely, - 687 

Discussion Mrs. John Harvie, - - 689 

Emily Cummings, 689 



The Progress of Women in New South Wales C. C. Montefiore, - 690 

Our Debt to Zurich Helen D. Webster, 692 

Discussion Kirstine Frederiksen, - 695 
The Intellectual Progress of the Colored Women of the United States 

Since the Emancipation Proclamation Fannie Barrier Williams, 696 

Discussion Mrs. A. J. Cooper, - - 711 
Fannie Jackson Coppin, 715 
The Organized Efforts of the Colored Women of the South to Im- 
prove their Condition Sarah J. Early, - - 718 

Discussion Hallie Q. Brown, . 724 

Woman's War for Peace Nico Beck-Meyer, - - 729 

Address on Same Subject Rev. Amanda Deyo, - 733 

Discussion Lizzie Kirkpatrick, - - 736 

Woman as an Explorer May French-Sheldon, - 736 

The Organized Development of Polish Women Helena Modjeska, 738 

Woman in Italy Fanny Zampini Salazar, - 747 

Discussion Sofia Bompiani, - 760 

Women in Agriculture in Siam Lady Linchee Suriya, - 765 

The Position of Women in Iceland Sigrid E. Magniisson, - - 770 

The Position of Women in Syria Hanna K. Korany, - 773 


Editorial Comment, - 778 

The International Kindergarten Union Sarah A. Stewart, - - 779 
The History, Aims, and Methods of the Association of Collegiate 

Alumnae Marion Talbot, 784 
Results of Club Life Among Women upon the Home Lucilia W. 

Learned, - 796 
Western Women Authors and Journalists Emmeline B. Wells, 800 
Education of the Swedish Woman Laura Kieler, - - 802 
The New England Woman's Press Association Belle Grant Arm- 
strong, 806 
The Writer's Club John Strange Winter (Henrietta E . V. Stannard), Sio 


Editorial Comment, - 816 

Catholic Women's Part in Philanthropy Mary Josephine Onahan, 818 

Post Office Missions Mrs. Jenkin Lloyd Jones, - 821 
The Relation of Young Women to Church Missions Rev. Lorenza 

Haynes, - 826 

Christ on the Avenue Marion E. Isaacs, - 828 
Woman's Missionary Society of the Methodist Church, Canada 

Mrs. E. S. Strachan, - - 833 
The Organization and Work of the Christian Woman's Board of Mis- 
sions Mrs. O. A. Burgess, 836 


Woman's Work in the Society of Christian Endeavor Alice May 

Scudder, 840 
The Order of King's Daughters and Sons of Canada Elizabeth M. 

Tilley, 843 
The Young Woman's Christian Association in Sweden Sigrid 

Storckenfeldt, - 846 
The Young Women's Christian Association, Its Aims and Methods 

Mrs. William Boyd, 847 

Sermon in the Hall of Washington Rev. Anna H. Shaw, - 857 


Introductory Comment by the Editor, 870 

Organization of Working Women Mary E. Kenney, - 871 

A Bird's-eye View of the National Woman's Christian Temperance 

Union Clara C. Hoffman, 874 

Physical Education for Women Frances W. Leiter, - - 877 

The National Christian League for the Promotion of Social Purity 

Elizabeth B. Grannis, 880 
The Columbian Association of Housekeepers and Bureau of Informa- 
tion, with Plans for the Work Outlined in the National Colum- 
bian Household Economic Association Laura S. Wilkinson, - 887 
A Statement of Facts Grace Greenwood (Mrs. Sara J. Lippincott), 891 
The Needlework Guild of America Mrs. John Wood Stewart, 895 
The Anti- Vivisection Society Mrs. Fairchild-Allen, 903 
Die Jugendschutz Hanna Bieber-Boehm, - - 905 
The Royal British Nurses' Association Mrs. Bedford Fenwick, 908 


Editorial Comment, - 912 

The Legal and Political Status of Woman in Utah Emily S. 

Richards, - . 913 

Response to an Address of Welcome Mrs. Adlai E. Stevenson, - 915 
The Past, Present, and Future of the Woman's Relief Corps Kate 

Brownlee Sherwood, 917 
The Eastern Star, Its Origin, Progress, and Development Mary C. 

Snedden, - 920 

Organization and its Relation to the International and National 

Councils of Women Rachel Foster Avery, - 924 

APPENDIX, 9 2 9 

INDEX, ... - 945 



The New Art Institute, where the World's Congresses 

were held, Frontispiece 

Hon. Charles C. Bonney, President World's Congresses of 1893, - iv 
Bertha M. Honore Palmer, President Board of Lady Managers World's 
Columbian Exposition, and President Woman's Branch World's 
Congresses of 1893, --------- X xv 

Ellen M. Henrotin, Vice-President Woman's Branch World's Con- 
gresses of 1893, 12 

Mr. Clarence E. Young, General Secretary World's Congresses of 1893, 29 
May Wright Sewall, Chairman Committee on Organization for the 

World's Congress of Representative Women, - 44 

Rachel Foster A very, Secretary Committee on Organization for the 

World's Congress of Representative Women, - 61 

Dr. Sarah Hackett Stevenson, Member Committee on Organization, 76 
Dr. Julia Holmes Smith, Member Committee on Organization, - 76 

Elizabeth Boynton Harbert, Member Committee on Organization, - 76 
Mrs. William Thayer Brown, Member Committee on Organization, 76 

Mrs. John C. Coonley, Member Committee on Organization, - - 76 
Mrs. Adlai E. Stevenson, 93 

Lady Henry Somerset, 108 

Julia Ward Howe, -- - 125 

Mrs. William D. Cabell, - - 140 

Dr. Jennie de la M. Lozier, - - - 140 

Miss X. Cropsey, ---- _- 140 

Frances Stewart Mosher, 140 

Sara Louisa Vickers Oberholtzer, 140 

Caroline M. Severance, 173 

Kate Tupper Galpin, -.-..-_--- 173 

Anna Byford Leonard, - 173 

Mary A. B. Maher, ----------173 

Sarah B. Cooper, ---------- 17.3 

Helena Modjeska, .._. jgg 

Georgia Cayvan, 188 

Julia Marlowe, 188 




Josephine Bates, 205 

Annie Nathan Meyer, ... 205 

Charlotte Emerson Brown, 205 

Rev. Mary L. Moreland, - - 220 

Rev. Eugenia T. St. John, - - - - - - - - 220 

Dr. Mary Putnam Jacobi, ---.--..,_ 220 

Rev. Florence E. Kollock, 220 

Rev. Caroline J. Bartlett, 220 

Minnie D.Louis, ------____ 237 

Alice May Scudder, 237 

Rev. Ida C. Hultin, 237 

Mary Lowe Dickinson, 237 

Zina D. H. Young, 237 

Elizabeth B. Grannis, - - - 237 

Ella Dietz Clymer, 237 

Mary E. Richmond, -------- _ 252 

Jane Bancroft Robinson, 252 

Rev. Mary J. Safford, 252 

Helen H. Gardener, 285 

Maud Ballington Booth, - - 285 

Kate Bond, 285 

Rev. Antoinette Brown Blackwell, 285 

Josefa Humpal-Zeman, - - - 285 

Margaret Windeyer, __. g 00 

Elizabeth Cady Stanton, 300 

Lillie Devereux Blake, .__ 300 

J. Ellen Foster, 300 

Baroness Thorborg-Rappe, - - 300 

Baroness Alexandra Gripenberg, - 300 

The Countess of Aberdeen, - - 349 

Laura Ormiston Chant, - 364 

Frances E. Willard, 413 

Susan B. Anthony, ------ 428 


Hon. Harlow N. Higinbotham, President World's Columbian Exposi- 
tion, ---. 449 

Hon. Benjamin Butterworth, Secretary of the World's Congress 

Auxiliary, - 460 

Hon. Lyman J. Gage, Treasurer World's Congress Auxiliary and ex- 
President World's Columbian Exposition, 493 

Hon. Elbridge G. Keith, Director World's Columbian Exposition and 

Chairman Finance Committee. 508 



Group of Officials and Members of Press Bureau, - 541 

Hon. Charles C. Bonney, President World's Congresses, 541 

Clarence E. Young, General Secretary World's Congresses, - - 541 

Eugene J. Hazard, Assistant Secretary World's Congresses, - - 541 

David S. Geer, Official Reporter, ... 541 

W. H. Burke, Chicago Times, 541 

Basil C. Brooke, Press Stenographer, - - 541 

Mr. Holman, Chicago Record, 541 

Nina Estabrook, Chicago Record, 541 

H. E. Chamberlin, The Post, 541 

Thomas Baird, Chicago Inter Ocean, 541 

W. O. Brown, Chicago Tribune, - - - 541 

Harriette A. Keyser, 556 

Augusta Cooper Bristol, - - 556 

M. Louise McLaughlin, 556 

Alice M. Hart, 556 

Lady Linchee Suriya, .-_------ 589 

Isabelle Bogelot, '589 

Callirrhoe Parren, 589 

Rev. Amanda Deyo, 604 

Hanna K. Korany, ---------- 604 

Sigrid E. Magniisson, ---------- 604 

Fannie Barrier Williams, --------- 637 

Prof. Helen L. Webster, 637 

Sarah J. Early, - 637 

Kirstine Frederiksen, -637 

Fanny Zampini Salazar, --------- 637 

Sarah A. Stewart, 652 

Grace Greenwood (Mrs. Sara J. Lippincott), 652 

Mrs. Henry Ward Beecher, 652 

HuldaLundin, - 652 

Mrs. John Harvie, 685 

Lillian M. N. Stevens, 685 

Gene vie ve Stebbins, 685 

Octavia Williams Bates, 700 

Mary McDonnell, 700 

Sigrid Storckenfeldt, 7 

Mary Josephine Onahan, 749 

Mrs. Jenkin Lloyd Jones, --------- 749 

Rev. Lorenza A. Haynes, - 749 

Mrs. J. T. Gracey, 749 

Rev. Anna Howard Shaw, - 749 

Amelia Stone Quinton, - 764 

Carrie Lane Chapman, 764 

Juanita Breckenridge, - . - - - 7^4 



Meri Toppelius, 764 

Dr. Mary H. Stilwell, 861 

Laura S. Wilkinson, 861 

Mrs. Lorraine J. Pitkin, 861 

Emily S. Richards, 861 

Mary C. Snedden, 861 

Florence Elizabeth Cory, ... 876 

Florence Fenwick Miller, 876 

Emmeline B. Wells, 876 


IN presenting to the public the following report of the 
World's Congress of Representative Women, which ccjn- 
vened at Chicago Monday, May 15, 1893, in the Memorial 
Art Palace, under the auspices of the Woman's Branch of the 
World's Congress Auxiliary, the officers of the Woman's Branch 
have judged it expedient to preface this report with a few words 
of explanation as to the inception of the Congress. 

An invitation was extended by Mrs. Potter Palmer, president, 
and Mrs. Henrotin, vice-president of the Woman's Branch, to 
the " National Council of Women of the United States," at the 
meeting in session in Washington during February, 1891, invit- 
ing the Council, in the name of the World's Congress Auxiliary 
to hold its annual meeting in Chicago during the Exposition 
of 1893. Invitations and circulars were specially prepared by 
the World's Congress Auxiliary, and delivered by the president 
and vice-president of the Woman's Branch to the members of 
the National Council, the General Federation of Women's 
Clubs, the Woman's Christian Temperance Union, and mem- 
bers of other organizations present at that meeting, inviting 
them also to hold their annual meetings in Chicago, under the 
auspices of the Woman's Branch of the Congress Auxiliary, 
during the Exposition year. 

Mrs. May Wright Sewall, as president of the National Council 
of Women of the United States, and as representing the Inter- 
national Council of Women, in response to the invitations from 
the officers of the Woman's Branch, and in the absence from 
Chicago of those officers, wrote to the Hon. Charles C. Bonney, 
president of the World's Congress Auxiliary, requesting that 
the quinquennial meeting of the International Council of 
Women be also held in Chicago as one of the series of World's 



At the request of the officers of the Woman's Branch, Presi- 
dent Bonney, in replying to Mrs. Sewall, outlined the plan for 
the Congress of Representative Women, to convene under the 
direction of, and to be presided over by, the officers of the 
Woman's Branch; and at the request of those officers, Mrs. May 
Wright Sewall was invited to become chairman of the Local 
Committee of Organization. 

From the inception of the Congresses the officers of the 
Woman's Branch had in mind a Congress of Women, in which 
the presentation of the professions and trades now open to 
woman would have been given great prominence; but having 
received written applications and verbal requests from the 
officers of many associations to hold annual meetings in Chicago 
during 1893, they realized that the holding of so many separate 
meetings would be impossible, and would greatly interfere 
with the general scheme of the Congresses. They therefore 
abandoned the project of convening a Special Congress of 
Business Women, and exerted their influence to secure the 
representation in the World's Congress of Representative 
Women of all women in active business. 

The formation of dual committees of men and women to 
assist in the organization of each of the twenty departments of 
the series of Congresses which were to be held during the 
Columbian Exposition, secured for woman an equal representa- 
tion with man along every line of human thought and progress; 
and it was not to supply any lack in the original scope of the 
Congresses that that of Representative Women was added to the 
list. Great care was taken in issuing the preliminary circulars of 
this Congress, and in arranging programmes, that it should be 
distinctly understood that in this Congress the contribution of 
woman alone to the general progress of society, the reform 
of social evils, and the bettering of the industrial conditions 
should be presented, while the other Congresses should treat 
all subjects in their entirety. 

Mrs. Potter Palmer, president of the Woman's Branch of the 
World's Congress Auxiliary, and as president of the Board of 
Lady Managers of the World's Columbian Exposition, had 
already secured for the committees of foreign women the 
official recognition of the various European governments, and 


the Woman's Branch of the World's Congress Auxiliary was 
thus put in relationship, through the Secretary of State, with 
the women forming these governmental committees. The 
president of the Woman's Branch in her journeys to Europe 
lost no opportunity of urging the officers of foreign societies to 
send delegates to Chicago to participate in each Congress of 
the series. 

A large number of circulars both in French and German 
were mailed by the Woman's Branch of the World's Congress 
Auxiliary to the celebrated women of the world, giving the 
scope of the proposed Congresses, and urging women every- 
where to visit the Columbian Exposition and participate in the 
Congresses. The delegates who in response to this invitation 
attended the World's Congress of Representative Women and 
the Congresses that followed during the Exposition season 
were, in most cases, accredited representatives of the different 
European governments; and the reports which they will make 
on their return will be published and widely read. 

Mrs. May Wright Sewall's trip to Europe in the interest of 
the Congress of Representative Women also bore abundant 
fruit, and to her untiring efforts were due the presence at the 
Congress of some of the most brilliant foreign representatives. 

Early in the formation of this Congress, that its relation to 
the World's Congress Auxiliary might be clearly understood, 
the president and vice-president of the Woman's Branch issued 
the following circular: 


The undersigned take great pleasure in announcing that the Congress 
of Representative Women of all lands will be opened in the Permanent 
Memorial Art Palace, on the Lake Front Park, city of Chicago, on Monday, 
May 15, 1893, and that the Congress promises to realize the highest expec- 
tations of those who have been engaged in its organization. 

That there may be a perfectly clear understanding of the nature and 

purpose of the Woman's Congress, the undersigned will say that while it 

was called by, and convened under the auspices of the World's Congress 

Auxiliary of the World's Columbian Exposition, and is particularly under 



the direction of the general officers of the Woman's Branch of the Auxiliary, 
it is not intended to supersede the proper work of women in any other 
department of the World's Congress work. In Temperance; in Moral and 
Social Reform; in Education; in Science; in Music, and the other depart- 
ments of progress, woman will still have her appropriate part to perform. 
This Congress of Representative Women is intended to afford a proper and 
convenient opportunity for presenting the progress of women, in all lands 
and in all departments of human progress, more fully than there would be 
opportunity to do in the other departments of the World's Congress work. 
In this Congress all organizations of women of whatever name or object, and 
all distinguished women, whether they belong to any particular organiza- 
tion or not, will meet on absolutely equal terms for the advancement of the 
common interests of women everywhere. This explicit statement is made 
for the purpose of setting at rest any question which may have arisen in 
regard to the relations of the various organizations to the World's Congress 

The work inaugurated by the Committee of Organization, of which Mrs. 
May Wright Sewall is chairman, has been prosecuted with indefatigable 
zeal in all parts of the world, and has elicited responses of the most cordial 
and satisfactory nature from the representative women of all countries. 
Almost without exception, the organizations of women in various countries 
have readily enlisted in the support of the Congress and the furtherance 
of its plans. The National and International Councils of Women, the 
Federation of Women's Clubs, and other organizations of women, readily 
acceded to the proposal of the World's Congress Auxiliary that a World's 
Congress of the representative women of all countries be convened to take 
the place of the usual annual meetings of such organizations, and have 
ever since labored with untiring zeal to promote the success of the Congress. 

We therefore earnestly invite the leaders of women in all countries, and 
the associations of women in all lands, to vie with each other to the utmost 
of their power in endeavoring to make the success of the Woman's Con- 
gress the crowning event of woman's progress to the year 1893. 

BERTHA M. H. PALMER, President, 
ELLEN M. HENROTIN, Vice-President, 
Woman 's Branch World's Congress Auxiliary. 

The societies and associations of women throughout the 
United States responded most generously, even enthusiastically, 
to the call for the Congress. The list of foreign societies 
whose reports appear in the Report Congresses is a long and 
brilliant one, and all present united in bearing testimony to 
the eager interest which women are taking all over the world 
in social, economic, and political questions. 

The American associations were nearly all represented in the 
Congress, and by their zeal and enthusiasm rendered it the 

PREFACE. xxiii 

most brilliant as well as the largest gathering .of women ever 

The officers of the Woman's Branch tender their sincere 
thanks to Mrs. May Wright Sewall, chairman of the Committee 
of Organization, and Mrs. Rachel Foster A very, the secretary, 
for the untiring energy and unselfish devotion with which they 
labored to secure the success of this unique Congress, and to 
the members of the Local Committee, who faithfully attended 
committee meetings, and who exerted their influence to 
secure the cooperation of every association in the United 
States. How great and far-reaching was that influence may be 
judged from the personnel of the members composing the 
committee Miss Frances E. Willard, president of the 
Woman's Christian Temperance Union; Dr. Sarah Hackett 
Stevenson, president of the Chicago Women's Club; Dr. Julia 
Holmes Smith, vice-chairman of the Woman's Committee on 
a Congress of Homeopathic Physicians and Surgeons; Mrs. 
Elizabeth Boynton Harbert, of the Evanston Women's Club; 
Mrs. William T. Brown, vice-president of the Chicago Women's 
Club, and Mrs. John C. Coonley. 

It would not be practicable to mention by name every or- 
ganization of women participating in the Congress, but the 
officers of the Woman's Branch desire to convey to each and 
every one their sincere thanks for the interest evinced and 
the practical support which they gave in the General Con- 
gress as well as in the Report Congresses, by holding their 
annual meetings under the auspices of the World's Congress 

The thanks of the officers of the Woman's Branch are cor- 
dially extended to the various clubs and organizations who 
so generously entertained this Congress. 

The Chicago Women's Club, which opened their record as 
hosts by giving a brilliant reception to the World's Congress 
of Representative Women, entertained almost every Congress 
which convened during the season. 

This Congress was also entertained by the West End 
Woman's Club, the Board of Lady Managers of the World's 
Columbian Exposition, and the National Council of Women, 
besides many private receptions. 


The Congress will undoubtedly be productive of great good 
in arousing the enthusiasm of women for association, for 
already many new associations, some of which are destined to 
be a great power, have been formed, having taken their impetus 
from the Congress of Representative Women. 

The subjection of woman is nearing its end, for she has now 
secured governmental, industrial, and social recognition. She 
will, like man, remain under the dominion of physical law, 
inherited tendencies, and social conditions until they both 
acquire that fuller knowledge which will enable them to 
conquer these great forces. 

The majority of men and women alike struggle from morn- 
ing until night to keep a roof over their heads and bread 
in their mouths, and the entire energies of woman should from 
this day forth be united with those of man, to better existing 
economic and social conditions, so that joy and beauty may 
become as much a part of life as sorrow and labor. 

President Woman's Branch W. C. A. 


Vice-President Woman's Branch W. C. A. 


President Board of Lady Managers, World's Columbian Exposition; 
President Woman's Branch World's Congresses of 1893. 





THE two volumes now given to the public contain an 
abridged record of the proceedings of a group of 
meetings probably among the most remarkable ever 
convened. This is not said in forgetfulness of the councils 
of Nice and Trent, of the pregnant interview between King 
John and his Barons, and of the first Continental Congress ; 
but in the belief that with these, and with similar creed- 
making, epoch-making assemblies, the World's Congress of 
Representative Women must be counted. 

The addresses and discussions partially reproduced in 
these volumes have no mean degree of intrinsic value and 
interest ; but only when they are read in the light that it is 
hoped will be thrown upon them by this introduction can 



their entire significance and suggestiveness be understood. 
In this light, whether one considers its origin or its motive, 
its dramatis persons, or the character and the range of the 
topics discussed in it, it will appear that the World's Con- 
gress of Representative Women was not only an event in 
the social history of our country, but a mile-stone in the 
evolution of our race. 

The preparations for the Congress, characterized by a 
remarkable unanimity of purpose among those engaged 
therein, were met by a corresponding unanimity of sym- 
pathy among those invited to participate in the programme, 
and in other ways to promote its success. Notwithstanding 
the prevailing sympathy, invitations were now and again 
answered with the questions, "Why hold a congress of 
representative women any more than a congress of rep- 
resentative men?" " Since women are to be permitted, 
nay, invited and solicited, to have a place on the committees 
of arrangements, the advisory councils, and the programmes 
of most if not all of the hundred other congresses to be 
held in behalf of as many different classes, subjects, and 
interests, why hold a separate, exclusive congress of women 
at all?" 

The uniform reply to such queries was, in substance, 
that in all the other congresses women would appear, not 
in the role of women, so to speak, but in that of teacher, 
physician, preacher, author, stenographer, insurance agent, 
banker, archaeologist, philanthropist, etc:, to discuss, in com- 
pany with men belonging to the same professions, engaged 
in the same businesses, and interested in the same themes, 
the questions pertaining to their respective professions and 

It was admitted that by their presence and participation 
in these various congresses women would illustrate inci- 
dentally the changing attitude of the world toward them- 
selves, as women ; but it was urged that such incidental 
illustration would present most inadequately the revolu- 
tion wrought in recent years in the world's conception of 


woman's natural capabilities and her consequent just posi- 
tion, while it would fail utterly to record or commemorate 
the struggle through which some women (aided by some 
men) have won for all women the place conceded to them 
in modern life. The motive of the entire scheme of the 
Congress Auxiliary was to ascertain and exhibit the present 
status of the human race in respect to all important activi- 
ties : to all great movements ; to all fundamental interests. 

Xo interest can be more fundamental than that at once 
expressed and awakened by the questions: What is the 
relation of one-half of the race to the other half? to the 
whole ? What is its part in the development of the whole 
and in the work of the world? As no question can be 
more fundamental than these, so none has been more per- 
sistently asked : and it must be added, that none has 
received more answers or more contradictory ones. 

The importance attached to women's entertaining a 
proper conception of their powers, position, and scope can 
be inferred from the number of dissertations of all kinds 
sermons, essays, tracts, lectures, and letters that clergy- 
men, teachers, scientists, and moralists have devoted to it ; 
a number which, in comparison with that devoted to men's 
conception of their position and scope, seems dispropor- 

That women have been dissatisfied with the conceptions 
of their place in the divine economy enjoined upon them 
by men, that they have been discontented in the position 
arbitrarily assigned to them, is evident from the changes in 
this conception and position conceded already, and from the 
efforts being made to secure further changes. Xay, it is 
evident that women are dissatisfied with any conception of 
themselves, with any position which implies their natural, 
necessary, and, therefore, perpetual subordination to men. 

It is easy to say that the changes already made in the inter- 
pretation of woman, and in the laws, the customs and ideals 
concerning her, are but the modifications incidental to the 
general development and improvement of the human race. 


Doubtless, as enlightenment and the sentiment of humanity 
have increased, the sense of delicacy has grown more acute, 
and consequently the most humiliating element in the posi- 
tion of women has been less brutally emphasized ; and there 
are many who maintain that woman's position has experi- 
enced no greater alteration than that of man ; that both 
have been equally subject to the law of progress and are 
equally indebted to its results. But any student of history, 
any student of current literature, any close observer of 
to-day's life, knows that between the changes made in the 
last half-century in the condition, attitude, and outlook of 
men which are indeed due to the general progress and 
improvement of the race and the changes made in the 
same time in the attitude and condition of women, there is a 
fundamental difference. It is just this fundamental differ- 
ence, by far the most vital element in the changes already 
wrought in woman's position, which can not be ascribed to 
the general movement of civilization. The progress of civ- 
ilization as it has affected man (i. e., man as distinguished 
from woman), wonderful as it is, has been in perfect harmony 
with the very ancient conception of man as an independent 
individual, a conscious son of God. It was impossible that 
woman should not share with man the opportunities for 
work, pleasure, and culture incident to the growth of civ- 
ilization ; but in addition to these gains she has acquired a 
new conception of herself, as also an independent individ- 
ual and a conscious daughter of God, which is not har- 
monious with the former prevailing conception of her as 
man's addendum, his helpmeet, his subordinate. 

Hence it was that a congress in which women should meet 
to present their position and work in every field of labor 
which they have entered ; a memorial congress in which 
women might read their own interpretation of their 
natures, their own version of their rights, responsibilities, 
duties, and destiny, seemed an indispensable feature of 
the Congress Auxiliary scheme. 

The universal willingness among progressive women to 


assist in stating woman's view of herself may be inferred 
from the fact that, although a few women hesitated and 
delayed, no woman invited to a place on the Advisory 
Council or on the programme finally declined, excepting 
because of illness, distance, expense, or prior engagements 
which made acceptance impossible. In response to such 
invitations, the women of twenty-seven distinct, separate 
countries were represented on the Advisory Council by 
five hundred and twenty-eight names. Of these, two hun- 
dred and nine served as official representatives of one hun- 
dred and twenty-six organized bodies of women. 

According to their nationality, these one hundred and 
twenty-six formal organizations of women may be classified 

The United States of America... 56 Ireland i 

Belgium i Italy i 

Canada 6 New South Wales i 

Denmark 2 Norway 2 

England 30 Scotland 3 

Finland 2 South America . i 

France 7 Sweden 3 

Germany 9 Switzerland i 

According to their respective purposes or objects, the 
same organizations may be grouped as follows : 

Education n Moral and social reform . 15 

Literature and art 5 Civil and political reform 34 

Science 4 Industry 6 

Religion 30 Orders 2 

Charity and philanthropy 17 Miscellaneous 2 

No complete record of the lay membership of all these 
organizations has been obtained, but it must run into the 

During an entire week from four to twenty meetings 
were held daily, exclusive of the Conference congresses and 
of the numerous meetings that were improvised, in response 
to irresistible public appeal, to fill the afternoon recess. 
That is, there were held in this one week eighty-one meet- 


ings, at each of which a carefully prearranged programme 
was rendered, besides the meetings held under the auspices 
of the eight committees on conferences and the indefinite 
number of informal meetings above referred to. 

From Tuesday to Friday, inclusive, there were never less 
than seven nor more than eighteen meetings in simultane- 
ous progress. In these meetings three hundred and thirty * 
women contributed addresses or joined in discussions. 
Adding this number to the four hundred and twenty-six 
who served only on the Advisory Council and to the eighty- 
one * women who served only on the different conference 
committees, we have a total of eight hundred and thirty- 
seven different women whose united efforts secured the 
success of this Congress. 

From the above statements one must infer that for some 
reason the most thoughtful, the most finely developed and 
most highly cultured women considered it important to 
seize this unique opportunity to present their estimate of 
woman's place and possibilities. 

The secretary of the World's Congress Auxiliary has- 
stated that the total attendance upon the meetings above 
enumerated exceeded one hundred and fifty thousand per- 
sons. This seems an excessive estimate ; however, the max- 
imum capacity of the Art Palace is ten thousand ; and its 
maximum capacity was taxed by throngs that, filling every 
room or hall where a meeting was announced, overflowed 
all these and surged through anterooms and passages, 
patiently or otherwise waiting the withdrawal of some 
listener for a chance to obtain standing-place in the always 
crowded aisles. 

The policemen in attendance (of whom there were fifteen) 
testified that often hundreds of people were sent away long 
before the hour of opening a meeting arrived. From the 

*Many women spoke in two or more Congresses or served on two or 
more Conference Committees; and one hundred and two members of the 
Advisory Council served the Congress also in other ways; but these figures 
include no duplicates, each woman being counted but once. 


preceding statements may be inferred the eager desire of 
the public to hear women's views of woman. The desire 
in woman to tell her own story, to paint her own portrait, 
to read her own future, a desire so deep that it seemed a 
duty, so dominating that it amounted to a necessity made 
the World's Congress of Representative Women possible. 
The corresponding eagerness of the world at large to listen 
to the story, to look at the picture and the vision this 
made the Congress successful. 

In all the other (more than a hundred) congresses fewer 
women participated than in this one ; in all the others com- 
bined (excluding possibly the Educational congresses and 
the Parliament of Religions) there were fewer listeners. 
What is the import of these facts ? 

It were idle to try to reproduce in print the impression 
made by the Congress upon the minds of those who were 
fortunate enough to attend it. One might show photographs 
of the throngs vainly endeavoring to elbow their way through 
the packed mass of eager would-be auditors filling the space 
in front of the Art Palace, crowding the steps and trying to 
effect an entrance at the police-guarded doors ; of the ante- 
rooms filled to suffocation with those who, happy in gaining 
admittance, but miserable in finding every session-room 
overflowing with earlier arrivals, spent entire sessions in 
pushing their way from one door to another only to find all 
doors blocked ; of the halls where the flags of all the coun- 
tries of the world float above platforms crowded with 
distinguished women of a score of nationalities, upon whom 
are focused the eyes and thoughts of audiences character- 
ized by serious enthusiasm. From all these photographs, 
however, the color and movement are inevitably lacking. 
One might show diagrams of the rooms wherein standing- 
space was at a premium, and rapt listeners were quite obliv- 
ious to the stifling atmosphere, realizing only that it was 
palpitant with eloquence; but these diagrams would hold 
small suggestion of the feeling of the occasion. One may 
read the words that were spoken, but only to realize that 44 it 


is the spirit which giveth life," and that the spirit which 
was kindled by the circumstances, the scene, the event, 
has in large measure with these passed away. However, 
the word, though cooled by time, is the best symbol of the 
spirit, and that readers of these volumes may be prepared 
to peruse them sympathetically, and therefore intelligently, 
it is desirable to give them in this introduction the point of 
view and the key-note of the Congress. 

At no one session of the Congress were these made more 
intelligible than at the sessions on Monday, May i5th, in 
the official opening addresses and in the speeches of the 
foreign delegates. While it has not seemed desirable to 
give complete abstracts of these addresses in the body of 
the report of this Congress, it seems necessary for the pur- 
poses above indicated to insert brief extracts from them at 
this point. It is hoped that through these extracts readers 
will get a reflection of the spirit of the Congress that will 
prepare them to weigh its importance and compute its 


ceremonies of the World's Congresses of 1893 having been 
closed, it is now my agreeable duty to announce the open- 
ing of the first Congress of the series the World's Con- 
gress of Representative Women. To you has been allotted 
the high honor of leading the way in the great series of 
presentations to be made in this Memorial Art Palace 
during the six months of the Exposition season. This 
Congress will be in the especial charge of the Woman's 
Branch of the World's Congress Auxiliary ; and thus the 
magnificent achievements of woman in the upward and 
onward march of civilization will be presented first in the 
review of human progress which has been arranged for the 


intellectual and moral exposition which will make ever 
memorable this year of grace 1893. 

This is peculiarly appropriate in view of the fact that the 
nineteenth century will be known in history as the century 
of woman's progress, as much if not more than by any other 
name. It is in this age that woman has become distinguished 
along the higher lines of human progress, carrying with her 
wherever she has gone a higher civilization, greater refine- 
ment and culture, and, as might have been expected, a 
beneficent influence on every interest with which she has 
come in contact. What woman's progress signifies is, not 
the degradation of man, but the elevation of woman. In 
the deeper philosophic sense, the distinguishing develop- 
ments of the nineteenth century along the line of what is 
known as woman's progress, represent the substitution of 
the law of love for the law of force. Just in proportion as 
nations and peoples substitute the law of love for the law of 
force, and seek to do to each other good instead of evil, just 
in that proportion will come the higher and better civiliza- 
tion of the race. 

Woman holds in her hand no agency of for.ce by which 
she can compel a compliance with her desires, and accom- 
plish the objects which she has in view. She must attain 
her ends solely by the exercise of the spiritual graces and 
refinements, the moral beauties and powers, of which she 
has always been the supreme mistress. 

It was for reasons such as are indicated in these remarks 
that a distinct organization was created, called the Woman's 
Branch of the World's Congress Auxiliary, to represent the 
interests of women in the World's Congresses of 1893. It 
was deemed important that this should be done for a double 
purpose to give woman's work in this connection such dis- 
tinctness and comparative independence that it should be 
seen and judged by itself, and to secure to woman that 
power and independence of action which would be impos- 
sible in case mixed committees of men and women had 
been appointed. The higher work of women in the world 


is so new and so important that it is due both to her and her 
achievements that the distinctions indicated should be pre- 
served. Working side by side with the corresponding com- 
mittees of men, the committees of women for the organiza- 
tion of each of the congresses, acting under their own 
general officers, have pursued their work with such fidelity, 
such subordination to the general plans and purposes of the 
work, and such conformity to the rules and regulations for 
the various congresses, that no words of mine can well 
exceed the praise which is their due. 

By what has proved a most fortunate circumstance, one 
which seems indeed almost like a special dispensation 
of providence in favor of the Woman's Congress, it has the 
great honor of leading the way as the first of the series. 

When representatives of the National and International 
Councils of Women first called upon me to propose a con- 
gress of their organizations, there was no week subsequent 
to that of May isth which could be assigned for such a pur- 
pose. Asking those representatives to embrace all organi- 
zations of women, and all representative women whether 
affiliated with any organization or not, I agreed to hold 
that week for a short time to give them an opportunity to 
confer with their associates in regard to its acceptance, and 
promised, if accepted, to appoint the proper committee of 
organization for a World's Congress of Representative 
Women. A few days later I was notified that this week 
had been accepted, and that the arrangements for the con- 
gress would be prosecuted with the utmost energy and 

The Committee of Organization was thereupon appointed, 
consisting of Mrs. May Wright Sewall (chairman), Mrs. 
Rachel FosterAvery (secretary), Dr. Sarah Hackett Steven- 
son, Miss Frances E. Willard, Dr. Julia Holmes Smith, Mrs. 
Elizabeth Boynton Harbert, Mrs. William Thayer Brown, 
Mrs. John C. Coonley. This committee, acting under the 
general supervision of the president and vice-president of 
the Woman's Branch of the World's Congress Auxiliary, 


entered at once upon its labors. With incomparable ability, 
energy, and zeal they published their plans and purposes 
throughout the civilized world, in the form of the custom- 
ary preliminary address issued by the various committees 
of organization, and soon aroused an intense interest in the 
proposed congress. It is but simple justice to say that the 
burden of the great labor was borne by the distinguished 
chairman and secretary of the organizing committee. 
This magnificent assembly, convened in response to the call 
of the World's Congress Auxiliary, through its Woman's 
Branch and Woman's Committee of Organization, is the 
highest possible praise of the work that has been accom- 
plished, and the highest possible promise of a successful, 
harmonious, and world-influencing congress. 


As president of the Woman's Branch of the Congress 
Auxiliary, I have the privilege and pleasure of welcoming 
to Chicago the brilliant women of well-known achievement 
who will inaugurate the series of congresses to be held in 
this building during the coming months. Their apprecia- 
tion of the significance of this occasion and the value of this 
opportunity has caused representatives from every part of 
the world to be here. Each has been moved by the desire to 
assist in properly focusing the last and best thought devel- 
oped in the various departments of the world's work. Wis- 
dom will be drawn from women of all nations ; all bring their 
votive offerings to help to build and make beautiful the great 
temple of truth. The influence for good emanating from 
these halls can not be overestimated, for the words here 
spoken will be widely read and felt. They will express not 
only the actual conditions and potent forces which are 
working for good to-day, but also the influences that lie 


just back of them, which will make possible a better and 
happier to-morrow. 


Of the inestimable value of the participation of women 
in the Columbian Exposition and in the Auxiliary Con- 
gresses it is vain even to conjecture. 

We feel to-day, in reviewing the past, as if great things 
had been accomplished, but this is the opportunity to cent- 
ralize thought the results of which are destined to bring 
about a peaceful revolution in the social, legal, and moral 
status of women. 

What advantage is it if a few make brilliant records, and 
fail to raise man and \voman to the heights of the serenity 
of knowledge? 

The rights of the individual are sacred, but only as one 
of a great social unity ; and it is just on this line that women 
must bestir themselves to be good citizens of the city, the 
state, and the nation ; to enter into the paths of commerce 
and finance ; to supervise and educate the young ; to create 
new trades and professions for women. In truth, what 
stands in the way, not of women, but of the world, to-day is 
woman's ignorance of practical affairs her lack of partici- 
pation in public affairs, the fatal conservatism in the leisure 
classes, equally marked among working-women. 

Our reason and our judgment approve the modern con- 
ception of education, of democracy, of religion but we 
shrink from the actual inauguration of new principles of 
life, and weakly cling to the past. 

If these congresses can arouse women to the magnificent 
possibilities, not alone of womanhood, but of humanity, 
surely the world will look back to the summer of 1893 as 

Vice-president Woman's Branch World's Congresses of 1893. 



From the outset of this great work every member of the 
committee charged with the organization of the World's 
Congress of Representative Women has felt her strength 
to be the strength of ten, not through any self-confidence, 
but through confidence in those allied with us ; for back of 
our committee has stood the Woman's Branch of the 
World's Congress Auxiliary ; its president, Mrs. Potter 
Palmer, and its vice-president, Mrs. Charles Henrotin, bear 
names to conjure with ; back of the Woman's Branch has 
stood the World's Congress Auxiliary itself, whose presi- 
dent, the Hon. Charles C. Bonney, from the outset avowed 
it to be his desire that this Congress should be the first in 
influence and excellence, as it should be earliest of all the 
long list of congresses in date ; back of the World's Con- 
gress Auxiliary was felt the potent influence of the National 
Government, which by the statute under which the Auxiliary 
is organized pledged substantial aid and spiritual sponsor- 
ship to all congresses which should be convened in the 
name and under the protection of the Congress Auxiliary ; 
back of the National Government, surrounding, directing, 
and controlling it, was felt the still more potent influence 
of that world spirit (der Zeit Geist) to whom alone it is 
given to declare when the fullness of time shall have 
come for any event, for the prosecution or for the success 
of any cause. Though the confidence of the committee is 
justified by its indorsers, the committee knows that its 
work will be judged only by its success. Hence, before the 
World's Congress shall have passed into history, it avails 
itself of this opportunity to make a brief statement of the 
motives and methods of its work. What is excluded from 
any motive is not unimportant in deciding its character ; 
nor is it, indeed, less important than what is included in it. 


May I then say that the committee has from the begin- 
ning of its work consciously and persistently excluded from 
its purpose the promulgation of any one cause, the exploita- 
tion of any single society, the exaltation or promotion of any 
one woman ? Excluding all these fractional considerations, 
it has as persistently endeavored to promote that whole cause 
which is as yet lacking in the feminine correspondent of the 
masculine name, " fraternity " ; to uplift that whole society 
to which we might and to which we do all belong, which we 
name humanity ; to exalt that perfect woman, who, uniting 
in her own person the characteristics of Eve, Venus, and 
the Virgin, is the ideal that can be conceived only by the 
high-hearted man, the lofty-minded woman ; that ideal 
-which, taking a different name in every country, is Hera in 
Greece, Minerva in Rome, and in America the Goddess of 
Liberty. The exaltation of this universal womanhood it is 
which the Committee of Arrangements seeks. 

By what method ? Although the method has been out- 
lined by the president of the Congress Auxiliary and by the 
acting president of the Woman's Branch, it may not be out 
of place to make a plea for the high-sounding name of our 
Congress. Abroad, it is charged against Americans that 
they are fond of high-sounding names ; and we must confess 
that by naming the school a college, and by calling the col- 
lege a university, the ideal of education in our country has 
been debased. Heaven forbid that the size of the world 
shall be reduced in the public imagination, or that the dig- 
nity of this Congress shall be abated in the public mind, by 
its high-sounding title, " The World's Congress of Repre- 
sentative Women." 

Almost all of the countries of Europe, India, China and 
Japan, Turkey, Syria, and other oriental states, divers 
border states of Africa, Iceland, Australia, and our next 
neighbors, Mexico, Canada, Central and South America, are, 
in this Congress, united to all the states within our own 
borders. May we not say that this is a world's congress ? 
Are its members representative ? That is a question, answer 
to which must depend upon point of view and definition. 


" Organization is the tendency of the present age." How 
many times have we heard this in the last decade as organiza- 
tions have been springing tip all over the world. Notwith- 
standing that it has become a hackneyed statement, the 
hackneyed statement clothes a vital truth. Recognizing 
that organization is the tendency of the age, it was to organ- 
izations of women that our committee made its first appeal. 
It was our first necessity to find a roster of these organiza- 
tions. Adding to bona-fide national organizations the begin- 
nings of such formed in the capitals of countries wherein 
national organizations in the full sense of the term are 
not yet effected, we made a list of one hundred and twenty- 
six. Each of these organizations was regarded by our com- 
mittee as a constituency, and was invited to name its repre- 
sentative on the Advisory Council and on the list of 
speakers. It was optional with each one of these one hun- 
dred and twenty-six independent constituencies to decide 
whether the same person should serve in both capacities or 
not. Therefore, it will be understood by every woman, 
present and absent, belonging to a national organization 
anywhere, that if she has not been consulted in the prepa- 
rations for this Congress, or if she has not been invited to 
speak in its sessions, she must appeal to her constituency 
for an explanation and not to the committee ; since each 
constituency made its own nominations, which in every 
instance have been respected. 

Though it was our desire to recognize isolated individu- 
als equally with the representatives of organizations, it is 
with a higher pride, with a deeper gladness, that we wel- 
come to our platform representatives of those arts who 
hitherto have achieved their fame, scored their successes, 
carried their career from beginning to end, under the im- 
pulse of individualism as distinguished from that of asso- 
ciated endeavor. I know that no other woman whose name 
is upon our list of speakers will feel it invidious if I men- 
tion those queens regnant of the realm of art, Janauschek, 
Modjeska, Clara Morris, and those princesses of the same 


realm, Mile. Rhea, Julia Marlowe, and Georgia Cay van; for 
I count it one of the realized dreams that such representa- 
tives of art will come here and let the concentrated luster 
of their brilliant achievement be added to the more diffused 
light that shines upon the paths of the women who work in 
education, in philanthropy, in charity, in religion, in moral 
and social reform. 

Again, in seeking for individuals outside as well as within 
the arts who should be invited to participate in this Con- 
gress, the selection was not made by our committee un- 
aided. Indeed, for the most part, our committee simply 
has confirmed the nominations made by a constituency of 
twelve hundred men and -women selected by us, to whom 
were issued letters asking them to nominate the women 
outside of organizations who should stand upon the Advis- 
ory Council of this Congress or should be asked to speak 
from its platform ; and no woman has been placed upon 
the Advisory Council or the programme who has not thus 
been vouched for by some man or woman in the picked 
constituency of twelve hundred.* 

Glad as we are to unite in this Congress mistresses of the 
different arts, we feel it a gladder if a humbler duty to unite 
in it the races that are at work together within our own land 
for liberty. It is a wonderful truth that the capability for 
forgiveness, that divinest of attributes, is a human inherit- 
ance. You will find upon the list of our speakers a descend- 
ant of the last hereditary chief of the Cherokees, and also 
some descendants of that other more greatly outraged race, 
imported only to be reduced to servitude, who come to us but 
one remove from the generation of their own blood which 
was sold from the block. Is not this a magnificent proof of 
the capacity for forgiveness possessed by these two races ? 

In our own country, where all races are mingling, differ- 
ence of race has never made so deep a chasm as religious 
difference makes, especially when the latter is intensified 
through its being a racial inheritance. Therefore it is 

* See Appendix A. 


with peculiar joy that we read upon our lists side by side 
with the names of representatives of the mother church, 
the great Catholic church, in Europe and in the United 
States, names of women representing all the leading sects 
of that great subdivision of religious faith named Protest- 
antism. It is with a still keener pleasure that the committee 
welcomes to this congress a representative of a still older 
faith, the Hebraism out of which Christianity evolved. The 
preparations for the Parliament of Religions have so empha- 
sized the fraternity of faiths that the propriety of emphasiz- 
ing the mingling of the adherents of different religions in 
this Woman's Congress may be questioned. But more is 
implied by this meeting of women of different creeds of 
the same general faith than would be indicated by the meet- 
ing of men of entirely different faiths ; for, however men 
may have led religious struggles by virtue of simply external 
forces, such struggles have always drawn their inspiration 
from the woman heart ; from the heart to which reverence 
is a native principle ; from that heart which cherishes its 
religion, by whatever name, as its first and final love. 

The educative character of the Congress must not be for- 
gotten. Its best work will not be done during its sessions ; 
much of its best work has been done already. The commit- 
tee can never express the gratitude it owes to the press of 
foreign countries in disseminating its plans. All of the 
documents so generously printed at the expense of the 
United States Government have been reproduced in the 
papers of Italy, France, Germany, England, Bohemia, and 
in abridged form in Denmark, Norway, Russia, and Fin- 
land. Leading journals of all these countries have opened 
their columns from time to time to notice our letters and 
appeals in successive order since the first preliminary 
address, and have followed their notices of our work with 
eulogistic editorials, thus commending it to thousands of 
women who, although they can not share the privileges of 
these sessions, have already shared the inspiration of the 


The influences that have mingled in these preparations 
can not be enumerated. The Honorable Mr. Bonney told 
us this morning that seven centuries of human progress 
were reaching their climax in this series of congresses. 
With his permission, I will say that the influences which 
are to be gathered up in this Congress must include that of 
Miriam as she gave instruction to the great leader, Moses, 
and that of Sappho as she sat in her proud island home, 
gathering about her her disciples, those women to whom 
with the art of poetry she imparted also the principles of 
religion and government. 

I wish I could intimate at what sacrifice our delegates 
have come to us. I wish I could indicate to you the char- 
acter of the women whose eyes are fixed upon these halls 
to-day. I hold in my hand cablegrams from England, 
Scotland, Russia, Finland, Holland, Belgium, and France, 
from organizations of women in all these countries, who 
send their loving greetings, their words of cheer and 
sisterly affection. 

I wish I could enumerate all of the delegates gathered 
here at this hour, and to the name of each append a recital 
of her good works. But could I enumerate all, I should 
close with the name of the only one to whom I shall refer. 
Sitting upon this platform, to be introduced to you by and 
by, is a woman who sailed from the Cape of Good Hope. 
Is it not indeed from the CAPE OF GOOD HOPE, from that 
promontory of eternal and boundless aspiration jutting out 
into the wonderfully radiant waters of infinity, that we set 
sail to-day? A great leader marshaling his forces for a 
mighty battle reminded them that from the heights of the 
pyramids twenty centuries looked down upon them. Can 
we not feel to-day that twenty centuries of aspiration lying 
back of us find some response in this event, and that twenty 
centuries of hope fulfilled lying before us, looking back shall 
find that this Congress dates the hour of a new march not 
for divided womanhood as against a separate manhood, but a 
new march for a unified, harmonious, onstepping humanity? 



On behalf of the women of my own country, on behalf of 
the various associations that have asked me to act here, and 
especially on behalf of the largest political association of 
women in the world, I beg to thank the preceding speakers. 

It is only, after all, a very short time back that this asso- 
ciated work of women has become strong ; really it is only 
within our day and we have heard even to-day the whisper 
of the thought that perhaps our danger lies now in over- 
organization ; that everything must be done through com- 
mittees, associations, and meetings ; but I think we are 
already finding out that the way to create a larger useful- 
ness is to bring together all of these various associations 
into a larger union, so that they may together find out the 
sources and the causes of their weaknesses and failures as 
well as of their strength and their successes. During the 
last five years in Great Britain there have been such meet- 
ings where representatives of secular as well as of religious, 
political, philanthropic, and social work have gathered 
together to learn to know one another. I am proud to say 
that the first conference of that sort, although it was con- 
ducted in a small school, was held in our town of Aberdeen 
in Scotland. It was held five years ago, and we can trace 
to it very great results, upon the workers out in the country 
districts, who before that time were working in loneliness, 
not knowing what a sisterhood they had to look to. That 
conference has been followed by others, by larger ones, 
which are increasing from year to year, and large meetings 
are being held throughout England at cities like Birming- 
ham, Liverpool, and Bristol. During the last three years 


meetings have been held \vhich have given out great 
inspiration to all the women workers who had the privilege 
of attending them. If such results come from these meet- 
ings in one country, who can foretell the results which will 
come from this wonderful Congress which you of the New 
World have convened together ? 

I can only say on my own behalf that I feel it is an 
enormous responsibility to stand here as the representative 
of the women of my own country ; an enormous responsi- 
bility, filling me with apprehension lest I may not be able to 
catch the spirit which pervades this meeting and to convey 
it to those whom we, as representatives here, are acting for. 
I can only pray that the womanhood of the world may 
indeed arise to the greatness of the opportunity which is 
now presented. 


It is an amusing fact that in Mother Shipton's prophecies 
it is said that the twentieth century should be the century 
of women ; assuredly, Mother Shipton made a very happy 
hit. When I first began to take in women's questions 
they were generally spoken of as "Americanisms." lean 
remember this word in my early girlhood as the term 
indicative of, I will not say, opprobrium, but of a spirit 
which dismissed a subject at once in old-fashioned Eng- 
land. Any new idea as to the education of women, or the 
admittance of women to the learned professions, or any 
improvement in woman's dress was an Americanism. 

It has been said very truly that the discovery which men 
have made in this age of the true powers of women is as 




great a discovery in its consequences as the discovery of 
the powers of electricity. Those powers always existed. 
It is only to-day that they are being utilized ; it is only to-day 
that women are being asked to step forward, that they are 
being allowed even to exercise to the full all those powers 
that have been bestowed upon them, assuredly 
pose of being used, but that in past ages hav 
completely crushed within the bosoms w 

In England we have gone ahead \ 
advanced ideas about women from the 
ideas were mere ''Americanisms," and 
think that as far as the laws go we stand 
higher position than the women of any other nation. 

In England women exercise every franchise except the 
parliamentary one. Women have sat upon the school 
boards over there from the beginning. The London School 
Board has never been without one or more lady members, 
I myself having been a member of it for nine years. The 
London County Councilors are elected in part by the votes 
of women. My friend and fellow-delegate, Mrs. Cobden 
Unwin, was elected by a large constituency to sit upon the 
London County Council, but the judges decided that as the 
law had not explicitly made a woman eligible she could 
not sit. In the new bodies of parish councils, that are now 
being established by an act which is before Parliament, 
women are entitled both to vote and to sit. They can also 
exercise all rights of property, whether they are married 
or single, and they can stand before the law in all matters 
in regard to property on an absolute equality with men. 
Medicine is now open to w^omen after a long and hard 
struggle. The law is not, and the orthodox church is not. 
The orthodox church I am inclined to think will be the 
last stronghold that will give way. I fear it will be found 
to be even worse than the law ; but things go ahead so fast 
that perhaps before I die I shall see a lady Archbishop of 
Canterbury. In almost every way women in England now 
find an avenue open to them for the exercise of their 


special and peculiar talents. As an illustration of what we 
yet require I will just mention to you what are the specific 
laws for which the Woman's Franchise League is at present 
working. In the first place we are working for the par- 
liamentary vote, because we feel that that must be the bul- 
wark behind which we intrench every other privilege and 
every other right that we obtain, and because we feel that 
it is a slur and an insult that the most highly cultivated, 
the most competent, the most business-like, the best trained 
of women should be held incapable of giving any opinion 
upon the affairs of their country, while the lowest, the most 
ignorant, and the most illiterate of men is supposed to be 
equal to having such an opinion. 

The next measure we advocate in the House of Commons 
is one for amending the divorce laws, which are very un- 
equal between men and women. Our next bill is one for 
making equal the condition of men and women before the 
law in case of inheritance of property where there is no 
will. At present if a man dies without leaving a will his. 
wife and his daughters are postponed by the law to the 
interests of his eldest son in particular, and to those of all 
his sons in general. If it were not our duty to do these 
things, if it were not our duty to cultivate our minds and 
to exercise our opinions, the power to do it would have 
been denied us. Powers and duties are correlative, stand 
in opposite scales, and are absolutely balanced. Let no 
one suppose that a power which is not used is anything 
else but the talent that was buried in the napkin ; let no- 
one shelter herself under the idea that she is unselfishly 
giving up what she might have claimed for herself, that 
she is putting aside her own claims and generously taking 
a lower place. It is by such subterfuges that we are led 
away from difficult and tiresome duties. Whatever powers 
a woman has it is her duty to exercise to the full, and it 
is because we believe that the exercising of those powers 
to the full will be a benefit to mankind at large that we 
are so much in earnest about the woman question. 



As one of the delegates from England I desire to thank 
you most heartily for the reception you have accorded me. 
I recognize the warm interest which is felt in this country 
for the work the societies which I represent are carrying 
forward in England for advancing the position of woman 
in public and political life. I can assure you that in Eng- 
land we fully appreciate the progress in this direction 
which you are making in this country, and we look forward 
hopefully to the not very distant date when the women of 
these two countries shall have won for themselves the 
absolute rights of free citizens. 


The women of Germany give their greeting to the women 
of the world here assembled, and especially to the noble 
women of America, who have done so much for the 
advancement of our woman cause, and who by their brave 
and persevering activity have raised the position of woman 
to a heretofore unknown prominence. 


In the name of France I first greet our hosts, the Amer- 
ican ladies, and then all who represent here their different 


countries. To-day we wish to have only one country, that 
where reigns justice ; a single flag, that which will make 
all our hearts beat for the amelioration of the condition of 
women in the entire world. 

I bow before the recollection of the noble ones who have 
left this earth before a definite victory. I am proud to find 
myself in the midst of women whose names will be handed 
down to posterity, shining with the recognition of their 
enfranchised sisters, for to have struggled for the rights of 
women is to struggle a second time for the abolition of 

I conclude my sincere and modest wishes by congratulat- 
ing the young women who will come to take part in our 
work and to enjoy the happy results which have crowned 
persevering efforts. In walking upon the path traced by 
their elders, and working in their turn, the generation 
which follows us will see, I hope, the triumph of the cause 
of woman. Who knows whether the complete recogni- 
tion of the rights of woman will not take for its annually 
recurring gala-day the glorious date of the i5th of May, 
1893, a day when all the nations, uniting at Chicago, opened 
the international congress of women. 


Coming as I do from the newest country represented in 
this august body, words fail to express how highly I esteem 
it an honor and privilege to be among your number. The 
members of this Congress stand upon the immovable basis 
of a common interest, viz., the advancement of women and 
through them of the whole human race ; and it is no light 
matter to stand among you as the representative of that 
country of great actualities and greater possibilities, Aus- 
tralia. Though widely separated from the thinking women 


of Europe and America, there are women in Australia who 
have the courage of their opinions; who unflinchingly 
strive toward the good and true ; who try to bear each 
other's burdens; who seek to obtain right and justice for 
all ; who show themselves capable of attaining higher edu- 
cation, and of taking an active part in the organizations 
which exist for the welfare of the young and for the alle- 
viation of human misery. 


I have the honor to bring you the cordial greeting from 
three German associations of women. We are highly inter- 
ested in all the work our American and foreign friends 
have done. In regard to the higher public education of 
women, you enjoy all the advantages that we are longing 
and fighting for. 

The three associations I have the honor to represent are : 
General German Association of Women, whose leader is the 
well-known Frau Luise Otto-Peters in Leipzig ; Associa- 
tion for the Education of the Working Classes ; General Fed- 
eration of All the Societies of Lady Teachers in Germany, 
whose members are just now holding their annual meeting 
under the splendid leadership of Helene Lange. There are 
in this federation, which was established in 1890, thirty- 
eight societies, with four thousand five hundred members. 
Our aim is to have more lady teachers and superintendents 
in our public schools; to give women a greater influence 
in public education at large, and to qualify them for these 
responsible tasks by a higher education. Last, not least, we 
demand a higher public education for all women. 



A Norwegian authoress, Mrs. Camilla Collett, has, in a 
series of essays on the " Woman Question in Europe," ex- 
pressed herself thus regarding its progress in Sweden : 

" Sweden stands first among the northern states in the 
movement for the education of woman. She early out- 
stripped the others in a more lively and general interest in 
woman's rights, and the result is that to-day the country is 
blessed with many noble reforms in this direction. This 
striking fact is unquestionably due to the liberal senti- 
ments which Swedish men entertain for women them- 
selves, as well as for the cause which the women advocate. 
From early times the men of Sweden have been considered 
to represent the specifically chivalrous virtues of our 
northern climes, and if the daughters of the land have not 
yet reaped the full benefit of this inestimable trait, now 
assuredly the harvest-time has come." 

The reports from the Swedish Ladies' Committee, which I 
shall have the honor of presenting you, will bear witness to 
this fact. It is, no doubt, a great victory that the American 
women have gained over the prejudices which have long 
kept in bondage the capacities of woman, thus having suc- 
ceeded in getting her accepted as the equal collaborator 
with man in this great international competition. 

It will be your just reward that the impressions and ideas 
which shall be kindled in this Congress will contribute to 
the betterment and elevation of mankind. 


I come from a distant but not unknown country, the 
Kingdom of Greece. I have crossed the sea and the ocean 


that I might meet \vith you and join with you in celebrat- 
ing on this occasion the progress of woman, in a country in 
which women continue the work of my ancestors. Ameri- 
can ladies, from their colossal progress, may be considered 
the younger sisters of the women of ancient Greece. Have 
you not done in this age what they did twenty centuries ago ? 
Are not you the athletic heroines of progress who have 
raised up the flag of woman's intellectual independence, and 
have achieved by your native intelligence and by your ardent 
devotion to science and art the realization of the great idea 
of Christ the equality of the sexes ? 

Have not your great nation and your great men, the 
wealth of your country, the millions of dollars to your 
credit in your national budget proved that the developed 
woman is the greatest and richest factor in a common- 
wealth ? that women with systematic culture, \vith purpose 
and with heart, not only fashion honorable men and invalu- 
able patriots, and consolidate homes, but also make nations 
and countries strong ? As the first Christians looked intently 
toward Jerusalem as the spot whence, through Christianity, 
the regeneration of nations was to be effected, so all the 
civilized world looks intently toward America as the point 
whence shall issue the true civilization and the permanent 
progress of the people. We, far away to-day in our small 
Greece, with our beautiful sky, our smiling landscapes, and 
with the living and instructive monuments of our ances- 
tors we, the small descendants of great progenitors, 
follow your course with enthusiasm. 

Age-long servitude has rendered our minds inert, our 
bodies weak. The darkness of the Middle Ages has spread 
a thick cloud over Greece, and the tyrannical yoke which 
but just now we have thrown off has left ineffaceable scars. 
Nevertheless we advance, if only slowly. The monuments 
of our ancestral fame are colossal evidences of genius 
which remind us of our descent. They say to us that 
a nation does not die whose works time, the great destroyer, 
has not been able to render tame and weak. 


I shall not try, ladies, to inform you as to my ancient 
country. You know its great and glorious history, from 
which has been nurtured all the human race. Generally 
the name of Athens has been accepted to mean light, 
progress, civilization, letters, art, science; but before all 
these it had another meaning, to many unknown. It meant 
in general the predomination of the goddesses in Olympia, 
and the predomination of woman in society. Our women in 
ancient times, according to a very old tradition, had the same 
civil rights as men. When it was to be decided what deity 
should be the protector of their city, while the men, who 
were more lazy than the women, voted, in small numbers, for 
a god, the women all voted for a goddess. Thus Athens 
came under the rule of Pallas Athena of wisdom. 


What can I say for the Bohemian women to you ? We 
have come thousands of miles, as have many other noble 
representatives. I only regret that my friend who was to 
represent the women of Bohemia to-night is not able to be 
here, because she has been delayed on the voyage and may 
not arrive until a week later. We have in our country, 
among those high hills, and in those quiet valleys, women 
who are to-day struggling for the same ideas, the same aims 
which you are struggling for ; and the very fact that I, a 
Bohemian, a descendant of that famous educator who dared 
to advocate equal education for women and men that I 
stand here a Bohemian woman, Bohemian born, Bohemian 
educated, to assist in this Congress, proves my statement. 

Ladies, I need not make any excuses for the women of my 
nationality. They have struggled ; they have tried to per- 
form their duties in their own homes. They have also gone 
to the wars and stood side by side with their husbands in the 
Thirty Years' War, where they fought bravely. They have 

General Secretary World's Congresses of 1893. 


become educators, artists, and students ; and more than that, 
they have tried three years ago to establish the first school 
for the higher education of women in Central Europe, and 
did establish at Prague a private school to prepare women 
for the university of that city ; and the Reichsrath has said 
that just as soon as the women of Bohemia get the young 
women prepared for the university, that it shall be open to 
them, and women will have equal education. The women 
of Bohemia are now out of their own private money sup- 
porting this school, where they have over eighty students 
studying the classical languages, mathematics, and medi- 
cine. More than that, the first two physicians that have 
been appointed by the government of Austria as state phy- 
sicians, as army physicians, in the county of Bosnia, are 
Bohemian women. I know that women in our land are 
interested in your good work, because I have been requested 
by the leading newspaper men of Bohemia to keep this 
Congress before the eyes of our women. I wish that I could 
make you understand how happy, how proud I am that I can 
have a part in this great movement, in this great current 
which is pushing with all its force forward, and which is 
bound to sweep away all narrow prejudices and put woman 
where she belongs, by the side of man, as a human being. 


If you will give me your attention a few minutes, I will 
tell you how I happen to be here, because I think it is such 
a fine illustration of the liberal mindedness of American 
women. Ever since I heard of the World's Fair at Chicago, 
I set my heart on being here, because I wanted to see great 
things, because I wanted to see great men and great women. 
For a long time I found it very hard to get any opportunity 
for gratifying my wishes. Then it came to me all at once. 
We have at the place I live a woman's association, the pres- 
ident of which was asked to take part in the World's Con- 


gress. Our president, though she was very sensible to the 
honor of being invited, could not come ; and as I am the 
secretary of the association, she told me to answer the letter. 
I did so. At the same time I suggested some subjects for 
discussion, and one of the subjects, namely, " The Effect 
of Modern Changes in the Industrial and Social Position of 
Women upon Their Marriage Prospects," had the good 
fortune to please the chairman of the committee, so she 
asked me to come, and I am here. I have a great interest in 
the question above stated. 


My country is a small one, so small that all its inhabit- 
ants might get into the city of New York, but it has 
been very anxious to be represented at this World's Con- 
gress of Women, and has sent four representatives. I for 
my part stand here with the greetings of nine hundred 
Danish women, all members of our Danish association of 
women, which for twenty years has worked hard for the 
advancement of womankind in every position, in the family, 
in society, and in public life. As the name of that associa- 
tion tells you, it is national, and it represents every class in 
the nation. You will find among its members simple- 
minded country women, hard-working, self-supporting 
women, who are leading out into new paths for themselves 
and their kind ; and you will find both the high born and 
the lowly. You will find there those who love liberty and 
who enjoy the light of the highest education in Copen- 
hagen. You will find among these nine hundred women 
representatives of our leading families. When they chose 
to send me over here it was because I, in my daily work, 
labor for the women and children. We think America the 
very best place in the world for women and children. 



As Canadian women we scarcely feel like foreigners, but 
know that we have much in common with our American 
sisters. We proudly boast the same noble ancestry. Our 
countries are geographically contiguous, and we are very 
near together in many respects, so near that we feel we are 
almost one. It seems to me that we feel the differences 
more on account of the political lines which separate us. 
On the higher plane of thought and power we can see and 
feel that we are one. 

As women representing the great sisterhood of women of 
the world we stand shoulder to shoulder with the long pro- 
cession moving forward for the emancipation of women in 
this nineteenth century. We feel assured there will go out 
from this noble gathering unlimited influences for the en- 
lightenment of our sex, and the strengthening of the tie 
that binds us all together in a great sisterhood of women, 
regardless of nationality. 


I am living in a corner of the world which is a small piece 
of that country inhabited in the olden time by the Vikings. 
It was a country too small for them, and so they left it and 
went out to foreign countries. I do not know whether I 
have any of the blood of those Vikings in my veins, but I 
do know that I have drunk of their spirit ; so I could not 
stay in my own little country, but have several times left it 
to go out in the world to see and to study. I have gone to 
Italy, to France, to Germany, and to many other countries 
of Europe. But at last I found even that continent too small 
for me. I had to go farther on, and so I came to the New 
World, to America. I am happy to be here, and I hope that I 


shall feel deeper, that I shall learn more, that I shall be able 
to work harder for my dear old Sweden when I go back to it. 


May we not congratulate you and ourselves that we are 
together permitted to behold this day, a day so representa- 
tive of woman's advancement toward the goal of her 
liberty and freedom ? 

Woman's discovery of her own potentialities is full of 
prophetic meaning ; meaning which can not be more fully 
explained than in the language of Victor Hugo, who de- 
clared that the twentieth century would record the death of 
war, and the scaffold of dogma, but that man would live. 
There will be but one country, and that the whole earth ; 
but one hope, and that the whole heaven. All hail to the 
twentieth century, which shall own our children, and which 
our children shall inherit. 


I have just one word to say, and that is that this Congress 
of Representative Women is starting a greater electric 
current than any that Edison ever started. He has done a 
great deal, and we are to see in the White City such exhibi- 
tions of electricity as the world has never seen before, but I 
believe that an electric current has been started by this 
Congress and will continue to be carried on by its influence 
that will arouse the women of the whole world, and that we 
shall see such results as we have never even dreamed of. 


With sentiments of the deepest gratitude we acknowledge 
the debt we owe the women of this republic, not forgetting 


the pioneers of the woman suffrage movement. When we 
recall the scorn and ridicule so needlessly hurled and so 
patiently endured, we are reminded that martyrs have made 
smooth the path we now tread. Our hearts go out in lov- 
ing sympathy to the women who drove the van cart of this 
movement for woman's freedom ; the pioneers who endured 
all the persecutions that narrow minds could inflict while 
clearing away false sentiment that was found blocking every 
avenue to human progress. Opinions, it is said, govern the 
world, but ideals draw souls, and in truth women from all 
nations have been drawn to this one common center by one 
common ideal. 


We were introduced as foreign delegates, but I assure 
you that we don't feel like that at all. We are more like 
members of the same family, with some slight differences 
perhaps, but all the same we are of one kin, and in coming 
here we feel that we have come among our friends and 
relatives. As Mrs. Harvie remarked before, there is noth- 
ing but the custom-house that seems to divide us. We 
hope some day there may be a change there. 


I come to you this morning as a simple messenger from 
the mother country to say how my heart is beating to think 
of the great dream that you have thrown into realization 


to-day. If you and I could but look forward to the future 
and see how five hundred years to come they will look back 
to us, the happy men and the happy women, the happier all 
the world over for the realization of this great dream, we 
should feel even gladder than we do ; but this morning our 
hearts are taken up in fraternal greeting ; we are shaking 
hands with all the world, with no distinctions of race, or 
creed, or time, or nationality. We are all one, children of 
one common Father, sunning ourselves in the magnificence 
of our common humanity. We stand before our Father, 
God, men and women, two halves of this great human race, 
confessing that on both rests the great work of lifting the 
world out of its sorrow into the joy of which we have sighted 
the shore this morning. To-day you have touched in this 
great Congress the divine majesty of woman. Oh, how one's 
heart aches to think how many there are who will not yet 
be able to take in the great thought, who have not yet 
room enough in their hearts to house this magnificent con- 
ception. But for you and. for me, who have had room 
enough, by means of sorrow, by means of great love, by 
means of long work and self-abnegation, by means of com- 
munion with the highest and loftiest teachers, to you and 
myself, who have housed this magnificent conception, what 
henceforth, dear women, is our vocation in this great life of 
ours? What is the duty that is forever laid upon our 
shoulders after this morning, after this great event ? It is 
that we shall go on being the creators of this noble order 
of womanhood, God's world over, in whatever country and 
under whatever name, and speaking whatever outward 


I am glad to find myself here to-day, because I had the 
honor of moving the first resolution out of which the first 
international council of women proceeded. We were giving 


a reception to your noble women, Elizabeth Cady Stanton 
and Saint Susan B. Anthony, in Liverpool, when I submitted 
this resolution. 


The Danish women of the Associated Women's Union 
of Denmark, to-day send their greetings to their sisters, 
the American women, with their deepest wishes for 
success and blessing on the work of this Congress. Calm 
as the land of our homelike Denmark is, that peaceful 
country of meadows and of lakes, so is the character of our 
nation calm ; but where its interest once becomes aroused 
it is interested in earnest ; therefore I say if there were any 
possibility of it, every progressive woman of Denmark 
would be in this building. 

It is strange how little influence distance has. Distance 
is nothing. Difference among nations is nothing. Time 
is nothing. It is all eternity. And if we have an open eye 
we shall see that when work is commenced in one country 
the same kind of work is, on account of the power of the 
spirit, commenced in other countries at the same time. 


The first International Council of Women, at Washington, 
in 1888, was of great importance to all the women's associa- 
tions in the world, and the result of that Council will for- 
ever be a blessing to the women everywhere. Now this, 
the third one, is the second in America, and will, as it 
is an auxiliary to the World's Exposition, be of still 
greater importance. In the last decade strength of coop- 
eration has been more and more considered among the 


women's associations in the world. Therefore the women 
in all civilized lands are feeling both proud and gratified 
by an invitation to an international woman's congress. My 
own beloved native land, Finland, does not have any polit- 
ical prominence, but in an international battle on the field 
of intelligence it has always been in the front rank. The 
women of Finland have faithfully and enthusiastically 
worked for the progress of mankind in knowledge and 
truth. The women in Finland believe in cooperation, and 
therefore they work in associations for women's rights ; the 
oldest one of these is the Finsk Qvinnoforening, the Finland- 
ish women's association, founded in 1888. The president 
of the association, Alexandra Gripenberg, represented it 
at the International Council at Washington, and brought us 
many new thoughts and impressions from the New World. 
As I have the honor to represent the same association at 
this World's Congress, I desire to bear to the president of 
the International Council of Women, and to the represent- 
ative women of the world present to-day, the cordial regard 
and greeting of Finland. 


It is believed that the preceding extracts show the sig- 
nificance of the Congress to those participating in it more 
clearly than any formal statement could. Unfortunately 
many of the foreign delegates whose knowledge of English 
was imperfect, were deterred by the diffidence thus caused 
from speaking at the opening sessions. Still more unfort- 
unately the representatives of Italy, Iceland, and Siam did 
not arrive until after the close of the Congress, and those 
of Spain and Syria were too late for the opening sessions. 
The utterances on subsequent occasions of the delegates 
from these countries prove, how r ever, that had they been 
present, their contributions would have been but variations 
of the prevailing note. 


" To him who hath ears to hear " their voices all unite in 
the following simple proclamation : 

Woman has attained her majority ; she recognizes herself 
as an individual, and is entering with conscious responsi- 
bility into her inheritance of this world as joint heir with 
man ; joint heir of its labors, joint heir also of its rewards. 
In her possession of liberty woman founds her claim of 
equality; and she sees that acknowledged equality with 
man is the only possible basis of permanent and satis- 
factory cooperation with him. The method of attaining 
such cooperation is indicated in the following address, 
the last delivered in the Congress: 


The subject which I am to present is "The Economy 
of Woman's Forces through Organization." It is the most 
important question that confronts either the men or the 
women of our time. We have reached nearly the end 
of a marvelous week, a week from which many events 
in the history of progress will be dated ; but when the 
history of this week shall be accurately and completely 
written, the one feature of it that will stand out most 
conspicuously will be its vast extravagance. What prodi- 
gal expenditure of time, money, and strength has been 
poured into this Congress, simply because to convene it we 
were obliged to bring together isolated individuals from 
the ends of the earth who have stood for ideas, about 
which should have gathered great national organizations ; 
to reach whom we have been forced to address each 
one separately. It is true that it is the glory of this 
Congress to have convened one hundred and twenty-six 
national organizations of women, or organizations approxi- 


mately national. But what are one hundred and twenty- 
six national organizations, each of which holds itself distinct 
from every other of the one hundred and twenty-five? 
What are they compared to what they might be if linked 
together in organized form ? Take for example the fifty- 
seven national organizations of women in the United States,, 
representatives from which have been gathered in this- 
Congress. If all of the fifty-seven had been made one body, 
however loose the bonds that bound them together, what 
an easy thing it would have been to send along the line all 
of the watchwords necessary to advise every member of 
the preparations for this great Congress. But with the 
exception of the fourteen national organizations that are 
linked together in the National Council of Women of the 
United States, each stands by itself alone ; and for the most 
part each stands by itself in proud isolation, apparently 
unconscious of the fact that its isolation is its weakness. 
Therefore to gather them together, to each society had 
to be sent the letters and the documents ; to each one had 
to be sent letter upon letter to convince those at its head 
that coming into this Congress did not mean yielding up 
its individuality. It is painful to consider the record of 
this correspondence, to estimate the time and strength that 
have been put into over ten thousand letters and forty-five 
thousand documents ; each of the former addressed and 
mailed by itself; each committed to an individual with 
the hope that that particular individual would possess a 
heart and a head capable of comprehending the magnificent 
generosity of the idea underlying the plan. It is a story 
of tremendous waste. Do I tell it now to mourn over and 
deplore it? Nay, but simply to call you to face the fact. 
Now that it is over, and now that all of the representatives of 
each of the organizations which finally gave their adhesion 
to the Congress find their own character untouched, except- 
ing only as they have been quickened and magnified ; find 
their own individuality unimpaired ; their own identity 
not permanently lost, but found in a larger identity than 


any they had ever dreamed of before, we may perhaps 
dispassionately discuss the idea. 

Not an organization has held a department congress 
under the roof of this Art Palace without experiencing the 
economy of organizing along these large lines ; because 
every department congress has had provided for it an audi- 
ience outside of itself. We know that whenever an organi- 
zation holds its semi-annual, its annual, its biennial, or its 
triennial meeting, as the case may be, it gathers to itself as 
participants and auditors only those people who already 
believe in it, who already are a part of it, who already 
have given their adhesion to the idea for which it stands. 
Is it not true that the National American Woman's Suffrage 
Association, holding its little department congress in Hall 
III, had an opportunity to place before people who never 
before had heard them, the arguments upon which the 
advocates of suffrage base their claim ? 

Is it not equally true that the department congress of our 
Catholic sisters had a Protestant hearing that its members 
never would have obtained from the annual meetings of 
their own societies? That the temperance women found 
strangers coining into their meeting ? That the women who 
stand for the higher education, and who ordinarily convene 
no one in their sessions excepting members of the alumnae 
association and the mothers of daughters who are reaching 
the age when the question whether they are going to have 
the higher education must be settled, saw in their meetings 
other people who are not wont to consider problems of the 
higher education ? 

I venture to speak of another association in which I am 
deeply interested, and to say that I believe for the refin- 
ing, elevating, and enlarging ideal which is , personified 
in the Federation of Clubs, it was a most felicitous 
circumstance to meet here in a congress where were 
convened for other purposes many women who are not 
club women. If that association had held its own con- 
gress, under its own name, isolated from everything else, 


only club women would have come to it. Here is one 
economy; it is by no means the only one. 

I have spoken of the great extravagance of this Congress ; 
but great as has been its extravagance, how much greater 
would have been the cost of convening each one of the 
organizations composing it at a separate time? Each 
doing all its own printing, not being mentioned at all on 
the documents of other organizations ; each organization 
writing all the letters for itself, not being named at all in 
the letters that were sent out from any general headquar- 
ters ; each engaging its own hall ; each securing its own 
reporters and stenographers, and making its own arrange- 
ments with the Associated Press and the daily press? 
What do you think would have been the relative cost of 
holding all of the meetings that have been held within this 
building under the auspices of the one committee, if each 
one had been held under the auspices of its own sepa- 
rate committee ? The cost would have been multiplied 
by the number of associations that have been convened. 
Therefore, while this Congress has been a vast extrava- 
gance, it has illustrated a vast economy. 

However, up to this point I have spoken only of the 
baser forms of economy the economy of money, of phys- 
ical strength, and of time. Valuable as is money ; more 
valuable as is physical strength ; more valuable than both 
as is time, there are things still more valuable than money, 
strength, and time. Spiritual force, sympathy, a sense of 
the relations that exist between one set of people and 
another set of people, an appreciation of the relation that 
exists between one idea and another idea, all of these 
things are infinitely more valuable than those I have 
hitherto enumerated. Yet all of these things are utterly dis- 
regarded when we hold ourselves in a state of isolation. It 
is only, as every woman who has spoken on this platform, 
illustrating her statement from the standpoint of the idea 
for which she has spoken, has said it is only when one 
adds herself to another, in the recognition of a common 


interest, of a common motive, of a common ideal, that the 
two find they can accomplish twice the task with half the 
effort. If this be true of the individuals that unite them- 
selves into associations, is it not equally true of the associa- 
tions that unite themselves together for large purposes for 
which no association by itself stands, but which all together 
can accomplish? 

For what does such organization as we have witnessed 
this week stand ? It stands as an illustration of one of 
the most important subjects on the week's programme; it 
stands for a recognition of THE SOLIDARITY OF HUMAN 
INTERESTS. No paper that has been presented in the 
general Congress has more beautifully, more forcibly enun- 
ciated and advocated that doctrine than a paper presented 
in the Department Congress of the International Council 
of Women. There Frau Bieber-Boehm gave her idea of 
the International Council from the standpoint of moral 
education ; she said : " It is only when the women of every 
country have made the highest possible moral claim, viz.: 
that there shall be but one moral standard for both men 
and women, and that that shall be, not the standard by 
which we now measure men, but the standard by which we 
now measure women ; not until all the nations of the world 
shall have adopted that standard," said she, " can I work 
to a successful issue in my society in Berlin, which stands 
for the moral protection of the young." It was a true word. 
We may illustrate it along all the lines of effort that have 
been presented in this Congress, and there is no line of 
effort that has been presented here from which any of us 
can afford to hold ourselves isolated. Consider industry. 
To-night Miss Addams (known in connection with Hull 
House) told us that hitherto woman has stood in the indus- 
trial world as a casual, simply because she has stood in the 
industrial world unorganized ; each woman unrelated to 
every other woman, each woman regarding every other 
woman as her competitor, and because her competitor, her 
enemy. Consider education. We all know the enormous 


failure that results from attempting to educate a nation on 
the system of private, of individual instruction. Whatever 
tutors, whatever governesses the families of the rich may 
be able to provide for the petted child in the bosom of its 
own family, little will it avail if all the other children in the 
community are left uneducated. Education must be organ- 
ized in order that there may be a common ideal, that 
there may be a touch of common ambition ; that one 
young woman may be an incentive to another young 
woman, and one young man to another young man. It 
is only as education is organized in systems of schools and 
colleges that the highest possible culture can result. If 
this is true of industry and education, it is equally true 
of moral and social reform. This has been illustrated a 
thousand times over by the papers and discussions in the 
various congresses during the last week. The lesson of 
it all has been " I can keep my children pure only if you 
keep your children pure ; my child must be affected, even 
to infection, so long as he breathes the atmosphere of the 
children who are not measured by the same moral standard 
by which I try to measure him." That is what organiza- 
tion along moral lines means. What of organization in its 
relation to civil liberty? We have the history of our own 
country back of us, and we know very well that civil liberty 
would never have been obtained for any one if all had not 
been consciously related to one another by virtue of a 
common need. We know that the town meeting in which 
the men of the little country districts used to meet, the 
larger organization of the county, and the still larger 
organization of the State were necessary in order to 
secure the still greater organization of a United States, 
and that only through the demand for civil liberty by men 
already organized was civil liberty obtained. So along 
all lines of effort. If each of us had had to make the 
struggle of life alone, we know that no one ever could 
have advanced beyond the most debased barbarism. It is 
-only because even in barbarism the race has found itself 


related to itself, and has moved together, that it has moved 
at all. 

This being the lesson of history along whatever line one 
reads it to the present time, how shall we apply it to 
to-day's need? What shall be the practical result of this 
Congress ? When five years shall have rolled by, and the 
time for the next quinquennial session of the International 
Council of Women shall have arrived, is the same vast 
.amount of unnecessary work to be done in order to bring the 
women of the world together, or shall we respect the dignity 
of continuity ? Shall we be willing in this development of 
organized effort to recognize our ancestry? Shall we be 
willing to see the origin of this great Congress in the little 
meeting held in Seneca Falls ? in a more remote little meet- 
ing held in Boston by a number of women organized to 
secure liberty for the blacks of the South ? Shall we then 
recognize that every one of the organizations represented in 
this Congress was necessary to the making such a Congress 
possible? The International Council of 1888 was the first 
conscious step toward this Congress, all the steps that pre- 
ceded it having been necessary for that, but not consciously 
having been taken toward that goal. The Universal Con- 
gress of Women, convened in Paris in 1889, was the second 
conscious, intentional step on the same road. The first trien- 
nial session of the National Council of our own country, in 
1891, was the third step toward this Congress, and this may 
be but a fourth step toward an assembly as much surpass- 
ing this in numbers, in objects, in organization, in effort, 
in accomplishment, as this surpasses the first puny band 
of women ever organized. It is only necessary that the 
continuity of the work shall be respected. If each one of 
us insists in moving along in a series of unrelated spasms, 
never will the \vorld of women be organized. 

This morning, at a meeting of the foreign delegates with 
the regularly elected delegates of organizations belonging 
to councils in our own country, in France, and in Belgium, 
where national councils are already firmly organized, and 


in Canada,* Finland, Norway, Sweden, and Denmark, where 
they are partially organized, it was determined to appoint 
some woman in every nation represented in this great 
Congress of Representative Women to stand in her country 
for the national and international council idea. The coun- 
cil idea means the grouping of organizations into an organ- 
ization in which individual membership shall be unknown ; 
wherein every organization which is national in its char- 
acter or in its scope shall be represented. Thus the coun- 
cil will be a republic of ideas. That is what a world's 
council of women should be a republic of ideas. 

The national council is a republic composed of national 
organizations, each standing- for a separate purpose. The 
international council is a republic composed of national 
councils. We who believe in this national and interna- 
tional council idea see as its ultimate incarnation a PERMA- 
meetings at regularly appointed intervals, where not only 
the questions which are supposed peculiarly to concern 
womankind shall be discussed, but where all the great 
questions that concern humanity shall be discussed from 
the woman's point of view. Such an INTERNATIONAL PAR- 
LIAMENT OF WOMEN is the logical outcome, the necessary 
evolution of such a meeting as we have held during the 
past week. The hearts of all the greatest women of all the 
nations represented here are fired with this conception. 
They will be lured on by this ideal until this ideal shall 
have been realized, and the next ideal to captivate the 
imaginations and compel the activities of the true leaders 

* The organization in Canada has been completed since May, with the 
Countess of Aberdeen as its president. 




Chairman Committee on Organization for the World's Congress of 
Representative Women. 



THE World's Congress of Representative Women was 
convened in the city of Chicago on the 1 5th day of 
May, 1893, under the auspices and the control of 
the World's Congress Auxiliary of the World's Columbian 
Exposition. The organization and the work of the World's 
Congress Auxiliary are so well known that they do not need 
detailed statement in this volume. The following para- 
graphs are taken from the official publications of the 
Auxiliary : 

The World's Congress Auxiliary is not only the accredited representative 
of the World's Columbian Exposition, but also of the Government of the 
United States, for the following purposes : 

The general object of the Auxiliary is to convene in the city of Chicago, 
during the Exposition season of 1893, a series of world's congresses in 
every department of thought. Its official announcement has been sent to 
foreign countries by the President of the United States, and the various 
governments have been invited by the Department of State to appoint 
delegates, in addition to those who will attend as the representatives of 
institutions and societies. 

The chief purpose of the Auxiliary is to procure the maturest thought of 
the world on all the great questions of the age in a form best adapted to 
universal publication. Unprepared discussion or miscellaneous debate will 
not be desirable, but instead thereof the time at disposal after the delivery 
of a discourse will be given to the most eminent persons present, who will 
speak on the call of the presiding officer and to whom such previous notice 
as may be practicable will be given. The summaries of progress to be 
presented and the problems of the age to be stated will not be submitted to 
the vote of those present, but will be published for subsequent deliberate 
5 () 


examination by the enlightened minds of all countries; for unrestricted 
discussion in the forum, the pulpit, and the public press; and, finally, for 
the impartial judgment of that exalted public opinion which expresses the 
consensus of such minds. 

The work of the Auxiliary has been divided into nineteen great depart- 
ments, with more than one hundred divisions in which congresses are 
to be held. Each division has its own local committee of arrangement, 
and each committee has its own advisory council, composed of eminent 
representatives, selected from different parts of the world, who are inter- 
ested in the subject to which it pertains. 

The officers of this body are as follows : President, 
Charles C. Bonney ; vice-president, Thomas B. Bryan ; 
treasurer, Lyman J. Gage ; secretaries, Benjamin Butter- 
worth and Clarence E. Young. The officers of the Woman's 
Branch of the World's Congress Auxiliary are Mrs. Potter 
Palmer, president, and Mrs. Charles Henrotin, vice-presi- 

The inception of the World's Congress of Representative 
Women maybe traced back to February, 1891, when the 
National Council of Women of the United -States, then in 
session in Washington, D. C., decided to recommend to the 
officers of the International Council of Women that the first 
quinquennial session of the International Council should be 
held in Chicago in the summer of 1 893 instead of in Lon- 
don as originally intended. This decision was reinforced 
by the very cordial invitation of Mrs. Potter Palmer, who 
attended the sessions of the National Council as the delegate 
of the Board of Lady Managers, and as president of the 
Woman's Branch of the World's Congress Auxiliary. In 
her address before the Council Mrs. Palmer said : " The 
Board of Lady Managers most cordially and pressingly 
invites this Council to hold its international meeting in 
Chicago at the time of the Columbian Exposition, when it 
-will place at the service of the ladies the Assembly Room in 
the Woman's Building, and, should that not prove large 
enough, through our Congress Auxiliary, the magnificent 
Auditorium can be secured for the meeting of the Interna- 
tional Council of Women."-' 

* Printed transactions of the National Council of Women, page 317. 


This invitation was supplemented by a similar one from 
Mrs. Charles Henrotin, vice-president of the Woman's 
Branch of the World's Congress Auxiliary, who also was in 
attendance at the Council sessions. 

In pursuance of the plan thus initiated, the American 
officers of the International Council obtained the consent of 
the foreign officers to the proposed change from London to 
Chicago. The Executive Committee of the National Coun- 
cil of Women of the United States pledged the National 
Council to entertain free of expense all foreign delegates 
while in attendance upon the proposed meeting of the Inter- 
national Council. 

The call for the meeting of the International Council in 
Chicago was promptly issued, accompanied by the pledge of 
entertainment above referred to, and both call and pledge 
were given wide publicity through the home and foreign 
press, and through private and official correspondence, in the 
early summer of 1891. The documents bear date May 31, 

In due time, as the plan of the World's Congress Auxil- 
iary developed, the officers of the National Council of 
Women of the United States entered into correspondence 
with the Hon. Charles C. Bonney, president of the World's 
Congress Auxiliary, requesting that the quinquennial meet- 
ing of the International Council of Women, announced for 
the summer of 1893, should be adopted as one of the series 
of congresses organized by the Auxiliary, with the under- 
standing that its scope should be enlarged to the greatest 
possible extent ; that it should take the name of " The 
World's Congress of Representative Women ; " and that it 
should be subject to the same rules and enjoy the same 
privileges as the other congresses in the series. 

This formal application from the officers of the National 
Council of Women of the United States was made by its 
president, Mrs. May Wright Sewall, of Indianapolis, under 
date of May 29, 1892. In reply President Bonney wrote as 
follows, under date of June i, 1892 : " To Mrs. May Wright 


vSewall, president National Council of Women of the United 
States, Indianapolis, Ind. Dear Madam : The application 
of the National Council of Women of the United States for 
a World's Congress of Representative Women, in the series 
of congresses to be held at Chicago during the Exposition 
season of 1893, under the auspices of the World's Congress 
Auxiliary, is allowed, and, in accordance with your request, 
the week beginning May 15, 1893, is assigned for the pro- 
posed congress." Mr. Bonney, at the request of the officers 
of the Woman's Branch of the Auxiliary, at once appointed 
Mrs. May Wright Sewall chairman of the committee in 
charge of the preparations for this congress. Mrs. Rachel 
Foster Avery, corresponding secretary of the National and 
International Councils of Women, was made the secretary of 
the committee. To these two ladies was thus committed the 
task of laying the plans, shaping the programme, and corre- 
sponding with leading organizations and individuals in all 
countries, with a view to securing their support and partici- 
pation. The committee was completed by the addition of 
Dr. Sarah. Hackett Stevenson, Dr. Julia Holmes Smith, Mrs. 
John C. Coonley, Miss Frances E. Willard, Mrs. Elizabeth 
Boynton Harbert, and Mrs. William Thayer Brown, all of 
Chicago. All the work of this committee was subject to the 
approval of the head of the Congress Auxiliary, Hon. 
Charles C. Bonney, of Chicago, and also to that of the pres- 
ident and the vice-president of the Woman's Branch of the 
Auxiliary, Mrs. Potter Palmer and Mrs. Charles Henrotin, 
both of Chicago. 

The following extracts from the initial correspondence 
between President Bonney, of the Congress Auxiliary, and 
Mrs. May Wright Sewall, president of the National Coun- 
cil of Women, will show in clear detail the gradual devel- 
opment of the plan, from the mere holding of a session of 
the International Council of Women to the convening of a 
World's Congress of Representative Women. 

There are unavoidable repetitions in the following letters 
and in the preliminary address, which it is hoped will be 


pardoned in consideration of the importance of setting forth 
fully the preparatory steps of this great undertaking., May 19, 1892. 

HQN. CHARLES C. BOXXEY, President of the IVorld's Congress Auxil- 
iary of the World's Columbian Exposition. 

MY DEAR SIR: At the recent meeting of the Executive Committee of 
the National Council of Women of the United States, held in Chicago on 
May gth and loth, it was decided to make to the board which you repre- 
sent certain requests. 

May I preface these requests with a statement explanatory of the char- 
acter of the International Council ? In the year 1888, at the close of the 
International Council of Women, convened in Washington, D. C., two per- 
manent organizations were effected the National Council of Women of 
the United States and the International Council of Women, representing the 
world. It was decided that the International Council should be convened in 
five years, that is, in 1893, and it was then intended to convene it in 
London. However, when the Columbian Exposition was set for 1893, 
Chicago became the proper place for the meeting of the International 
Council. More than a year ago, at the first triennial meeting of the 
National Council of Women of the United States, Mrs. Potter Palmer 
of Chicago offered the National Council a room in the Woman's Building 
for its headquarters during the Columbian Exposition; and Mrs. Charles 
Henrotin, in speaking for the Congress Auxiliary, assured the Council 
that, in making preparations for convening the International Council in 
Chicago, reliance could be placed upon the board managing the Congress 
Auxiliary for help in securing ample announcements, halls for the sessions, 
printing, etc. 

Supported by these voluntary pledges of Mrs. Palmer and Mrs. Henrotin, 
the National Council commenced its correspondence one year ago, issued its 
preliminary call, and undertook to entertain all foreign delegates during 
the time of the sessions of the International Council in Chicago. To give 
you a fuller comprehension of the scope of both International and National 
Councils, I shall send you herewith a copy of the report of the first sessions 
of each body. 

With this preliminary statement, may I set forth our requests? First, we 
should be glad to have the International Council of Women convene prior 
to the World's Woman's Temperance Congress, because, as it does not exist 
for the promotion of any one object, but for the cultivation of a larger 
mutual sympathy and intelligence among the advocates of different objects, 
it seems proper that it should precede and introduce the other congresses. 
Second, if the first request cannot be granted, or in any case, we desire to 
be authorized to issue our call for an indefinite approximate date between 
May i5th and June isth, 1893. Third, we wish to have fourteen public 
sessions of the Council, which will necessitate the Council's lasting one 


week at the very least. Fourth, we desire to apply for one of the large 
auditoriums and for five of the smaller rooms in the Art Palace, during the 
sessions of the International Council. 

From my conversation with you on last Saturday, I feel confident that 
you will be able to accede to our requests. It seems necessary to issue a 
preliminary call at once, because it is our intention to secure for our pro- 
gramme the strongest women in the world to represent the different depart- 
ments of activity in w r hich women are engaged. 

Asking such an immediate reply as will warrant the officers of the 
National Council in assuring the officers of the International Council of 
their ability to redeem pledges already made, and to go forward with 
necessary correspondence and preparations, I have the honor to subscribe 

Yours with high esteem, 


CHICAGO, U. S. A., May 26, 1892. 
MRS. MAY WRIGHT SEWALL, President National Council of Women of 

the United States, 343 N. Pennsylvania Street, Indianapolis, Ind. 

DEAR MADAM: Your favor of the igth inst., in which you request an 
assignment of dates for a congress of your organization, prior to the World's 
Temperance Congresses to be held during the first week in June, 1893; and, 
if that request can not be granted, an assignment of some date for such a 
congress between May isth and June isth of next year; and expressing a 
desire for meetings of your Council, extending through a week, including 
sessions in one of the large auditoriums of the World's Congress Art Palace, 
and special meetings in five smaller rooms, came duly to hand, and has 
received preliminary attention. The communication of the same date, in 
which Mrs. Rachel Foster Avery, corresponding secretary of your Council, 
joins, has also been received. 

While I can not, at this time, make a definite assignment of the Art 
Palace rooms for the use of your Council, I think it safe to say that arrange- 
ments can be made for a congress of your own and allied women's organ- 
izations, to be held within one or two weeks of the date fixed for the con- 
gresses of the Department of Temperance. I expect to be able to give 
definite dates for the various congresses by the ist of July, next. 

Should an application be made, as \vas suggested in your interview with 
me, for a general congress of women, under the leadership of your organ- 
ization, to be held during the week commencing May 15, 1893, ver y much 
better facilities can be afforded than will be practicable at any later date. 
* * * * -* * * 

As expressed to you in the interview to which I have referred, it seems 
to me peculiarly appropriate that in this century, so highly distinguished 
by the advancement of women in nearly all the departments of human prog- 
ress, aside from the particular congresses in which her work will, more or 
less, be set forth, an occasion should be arranged in which a graphic pres- 


entation of the whole scope of woman's advancement may be made under 
the most auspicious circumstances. 

Cordially inviting all and any such further suggestions as you may be 
pleased to make, and awaiting with special interest the decision whether 
an application for such a woman's congress will be made, I am, my dear 
Mrs. Sewall, 

Very sincerely yours, 

President World's Congress Auxiliary. 

INDIANAPOLIS, IND., May 28, 1892. 
HON. CHARLES C. BONXEY, President of the World's Congress Auxiliary ', 

Chicago, 111. 

MY DEAR SIR : Yours of May 26th, in reply to mine of the igth inst., 
has been duly received and carefully read. I fear that my request was less 
definitely and carefully made than I intended it to be. I intended it to be 
framed in strict accordance with the general understanding reached in our 
interview. What the officers of the National Council really desire is this 
that a general congress of women shall be convened under the leadership of 
the National Council of Women of the United States. 

We wish it to be prefatory to all other meetings of women, and the only 
reason that I did not specify the week beginning May isth was because I 
understood that you preferred the request as to date to be more general. If 
you can at once grant permission to convene this congress at this date, our 
organization will gladly avail itself of this time. 

We expect to be subject to the general rules and regulations of the 
World's Congress Auxiliary, and feel that our own work will be dignified 
by this association. * * * 

If I receive a favorable reply, as from the tone of your letter and of our 
interview I anticipate, I shall at once issue the preliminary address in con- 
junction with the president of the International Council for this general 
congress of women. I have the honor to remain, 

Yours very sincerely, 

President of National Council of Women of the United States. 

CHICAGO, U. S. A., June i, 1892. 
MRS. MAY WRIGHT SEWALL, President Xational Council of Women of thr 

United States, Indianapolis, Ind. 

DEAR MADAM : Your favor of May 2Sth was duly received, and has had 
attention. The application of the National Council of Women of the 
United States for a World's Congress of Representative Women, in the 
series of congresses to be held in Chicago during the Exposition season of 
1893, under the auspices of the World's Congress Auxiliary, is allowed, and 


in accordance with your request the week beginning May 15, 1893, is 
assigned for the proposed congress. 

As in all the other cases, the general sessions of the congress will be 
under the direction of the World's Congress Auxiliary, and, as in other 
cases of congresses of women, under the special supervision of the officers 
of the Woman's Branch of the Auxiliary; but, of course, in those general 
sessions your own and other general organizations of women will be most 
conspicuously represented. The sessions of the congress of your own organ- 
ization will, of course, be held under your own officers; and the same rule 
will apply to any other organization, like the Federation of Women's Clubs. 

To secure the necessary unity and completeness of the programme for 
the entire Congress of Women, the programmes for the various sessions, 
both general and special, will be arranged in a conference with represent- 
atives of the important interests involved. 

All to whom I have mentioned the matter believe that the proposed 
congress of representative women of the world may be made a brilliant and 
imposing success. * * 

I have the honor to remain, 

Very sincerely yours, 

President World's Congress Auxiliary. 

HON. CHARLES C. BONNEY, President of the World's Congress Auxiliary. 

MY DEAR SIR: Your two letters of June ist and June 4th, together con- 
taining very full replies to mine of May 28th, have been carefully re-read 
with Mrs. Rachel Foster Avery, the corresponding secretary of the National 
Council of Women, with whom I have conferred upon every point. 

We thank you for the ample information your letters afford concerning 
the general plan of the World's Congress Auxiliary, and the requirements 
^vith which all associations must comply which seek to hold meetings under 
its auspices in Chicago, in 1893. As we understand them, we find all of 
these requirements not only reasonable, but helpful. That we may be 
guarded against any possible misconception, and be able to prosecute our 
w r ork energetically during the summer, will you permit me to recapitulate 
the situation at some length ? 

First. All announcements of this General International Council of 
Women must bear on their title page the names of the officers of the 
World's Congress Auxiliary, and of the different officers of the Woman's 
Branch of said Auxiliary; but may be signed by the names of the Local 
Committee of Arrangements and of the Advisory Councils. 

Second. The chairmanship of the Local Committee of Arrangements is 
offered to me. This I accept, and pledge myself to come to Chicago as 
frequently, prior to the meetings, as may be necessary to perform the 
duties implied by the position. * * * 


Third. In our subsequent calls and programmes we shall \vish, besides 
our local committee, to provide for two Advisor}' Councils one American 
and one foreign. * * * 

In respect to these Advisory Councils, we ask these privileges. We ask to 
have the summer to correspond with leaders, at home and abroad, within and 
outside of organizations. In this way we shall prepare representative lists - 
representative both of diverse ideas and also of widely separated territory, 
home and foreign. Before publishing these lists they will be submitted to 
you for amendment, both by excision and by addition. Our organization 
includes so many different groups that we believe this is the best possible 
means of securing truly representative names on our two Advisory 

Fourth. We accept May i$th as the date of this international congress, 
knowing that it may be shifted a few days later, but understanding that it 
shall not be set earlier than that date. * * * 

Fifth. Our desire about the programme is your own. We wish every line 
of progress along which woman has advanced to be represented on the pro- 
gramme by its ablest exponent. We wish to avoid repetition within our 
own programme, and also to avoid duplicating in our programme the 
papers to be presented in subsequent congresses. Therefore, we shall 
gladly submit to you every name and topic, and shall expect the aid of your 
counsel at every step. 

Sixth. The correspondence involved in the foregoing statements will be 
largely in the hands of Mrs. Rachel Foster Avery, who is corresponding 
secretary of the International as well as the National Council of Women, 
though I shall also give my time to cooperating with her and with Mrs. 
Fawcett to secure the success of this gigantic undertaking. 

You understand that the work of the National Council to this end was 
begun one year ago, on May 30, 1891, when its Executive Committee passed 
a resolution to entertain all foreign delegates who should attend the Inter- 
national Council of Women to be convened in Chicago during the Colum- 
bian Exposition of 1893. This resolution was sent at that time to the 
leaders of all organized effort in foreign countries, and for the past year 
such leaders have been working with this meeting in view ; National 
Councils have been formed in France, Scandinavia, and Finland similar to 
our own, while in other countries leaders have been working toward such a 
consummation . 

You will see from this that we are now prepared for public steps. 

Seventh. The first public step is the second preliminary address, the first 
having been issued through women's papers at home and abroad nearly a 
year ago. 

We suppose that it will be your desire to have this address printed in a 
style uniform with the preliminary addresses of other congresses and issued 
from your office. I mail you herewith the copy of the address that seems 
appropriate to us. We, of course, wish this congress to have the prestige 
which can come from showing its relation to former International Councils 


of Women. Should you wish to revise the address in any way, will you 
kindly communicate with Mrs. Rachel Foster Avery ? And in any case will 
you send her a proof of the address before it is published ? I am myself going 
abroad for a few weeks, my main purpose being to arouse the women of Ger- 
many and of other countries where there is less public activity among women 
than there is in England and France, to a sense of what this General Congress 
of Women will be to all who participate or who are represented in it. So soon 
as this preliminary address is issued, will you kindly send me a hundred copies 
to distribute abroad? I shall also see that it is translated and published in 
progressive foreign papers. 

Eighth. Your plan of presenting as many different celebrities as possible 
to the audience, and of "distributing honors and dignities," is in entire 
accord with the fundamental ideas upon which the International and 
National Councils are based. I assure you we do not wish to exclude, but to 
include, as many different lines of work, as many different exponents of 
progressive thought, and as many distinguished women as can be convened, 
by the continual, harmonious effort of all of us, in the International Council 
of 1893, which will, I suppose, be known as the General World's Congress 
of Women. 

We do, of course, wish to recognize the continuity of effort which makes 
this congress, in its magnitude and representative character, possible. This 
is clearly indicated in our preliminary address and call. 

Copies of this letter and of the manuscript of the address will be sent to 
Mrs. Palmer and Mrs. Henrotin, that they may have a clear conception of 
our view of the plan and the manner in which it is to be executed. 

I thank you, dear Mr. Bonney, in advance for the patience which you 
will exercise in reading this long letter, and beg to assure you that I am 
profoundly grateful for the cordial sympathy which you have thus far given 
us, and which I am certain you will continue to extend to us until our plans 
are accomplished. I have the honor to remain, 

Yours with high esteem, 

President of National Council of Women of the United States. 

With the letter of June i3th, above given, was sent the 
manuscript copy of the Preliminary Address, copies being 
forwarded also to the president and the vice-president of the 
Woman's Branch of the World's Congress Auxiliary. Imme- 
diately after the dispatch of these documents the chairman 
of the Committee of Arrangements sailed for Europe, leav- 
ing further correspondence in charge of the secretary, who 
received from Mr. Bonney, under date of June 2/th, the 
following communication, approving the draft of the Pre- 


liminary Address and the various propositions offered by 
the chairman in her letter of June 1 3th. 

CHICAGO, U. S. A., June 27, 1893. 
MRS. RACHEL FOSTER AVERY, Corresponding Secretary of 1he National 

Council of Women, United States, Some r ton, Pa. 

DEAR MADAM: Please accept my thanks for your recent favors. Your 
note of the i7th inst., inclosing a copy of the constitution of the National 
Council of Women, and a copy of the constitution of the International 
Council, came duly to hand; and the communication of your president, Mrs. 
May Wright Sewall, accompanied by a draft of the Preliminary Address 
of the Committee on a World's Congress of Representative Women, had 
previously been received. I have taken time to reconsider carefully the 
whole subject of the proposed congress, and I take pleasure in saying that 
I am strongly confirmed in the conviction expressed to you, Mrs. Sewall, 
and others, that this congress may be one of the most brilliant and useful 
in the entire series proposed by the World's Congress Auxiliary. I am also 
glad to say that the proposed Preliminary Address, and the views expressed 
by Mrs. Sewall in her communication, have my hearty approval; and while 
I will reserve the liberty to make any suggestions for which there may seem 
to be cause hereafter, I do not now see occasion to advise any change in the 
plans thus far outlined. 

* * * I propose that the Woman's Congress shall have a department 
of its own, to be called the " Department of Woman's Progress." This will 
be better than assigning such a congress either to the Department of Moral 
and Social Reform, or to the General Department. Any suggestions in 
relation to the title of the new department will be cordially received. 

Please have the kindness to convey to Mrs. Sewall, with the foregoing 
information, my high regard and my congratulations on the auspicious 
outlook for the Congress of Representative Women. 

With the like respect and congratulations for yourself, I remain, my dear 
Mrs. A very, 

Very sincerely yours, 

President World's Congress Auxiliary. 

The Executive Committee of the National Council of 
Women, at a meeting held in Chicago on May 9th and loth, 
had authorized the President of the Council, Mrs. May 
Wright Sewall, to represent the interests of the Council in 
Europe during the summer of 1892, with a view to increase 
foreign interest in the proposed meeting of the Interna- 
tional Council of Women in Chicago in May, 1893. 


After this proposed meeting of the International Council 
of Women had been merged into the greater project of a 
World's Congress of Representative Women under the 
auspices of the World's Congress Auxiliary, Mrs. Sewall 
naturally devoted herself, during the three months spent 
in Germany, Belgium, and France, in the ensuing summer, 
to awakening among the prominent women with whom she 
came in contact an interest in the proposed World's Con- 
gress of Representative Women. While invested with no 
official authority to represent the Auxiliary, Mrs. Sewall 
was greatly aided in her efforts by her position as chair- 
man of the Committee of Arrangements, and by her con- 
nection with the National and International Councils of 
Women, the essential features of which were already well 
known abroad, and served to divest the idea of a World's 
Congress of Women of much of the strangeness it would 
otherwise have assumed in the minds of foreign women. 

The main objects to be accomplished in this foreign 
work were as follows: First, to make clear the distinction 
between the World's Columbian Exposition, the Board of 
Lady Managers, the World's Congress Auxiliary, with its 
Woman's Branch, and the National and International Coun- 
cils of Women, these bodies being naturally confounded 
continually, and almost hopelessly, by those who heard of 
them only through the vague paragraphs of the foreign 
press ; second, to impart a clear understanding of the mag- 
nitude of the proposed congress, both as a whole and in its 
infinite details and subdivisions ; third, to show the exact 
nature of the papers and reports desired from European 
delegates, and the character of the subjects to be treated ; 
fourth, to stimulate the foreign w r omen to appoint delegates 
from organizations already existing, and to form new organ- 
izations to be represented in like manner; fifth, to encour- 
age individuals to come to Chicago whether connected with 
organized bodies or not ; sixth, to endeavor to reach the 
general European public through reports, interviews, and 
articles published in the European press ; and, seventh, to 


combat unceasingly not only the general apathy in regard 
to a project so remote in time and place, but also the spe- 
cific objections everywhere encountered, based upon the 
date chosen for the congress, which did not fall within the 
foreign vacation period, upon the length, hazard, and cost 
of the journey, and upon the grossly exaggerated reports 
of the expense of living in Chicago, and the heat of 
Chicago summers. 

In Berlin Mrs. Sewall devoted a month to personal inter- 
views with ladies prominent in philanthropy and educa- 
tion, and to informal conferences with groups of ladies rep- 
resenting, among other organizations, the following : The 
Sclicppeler-Lette Verein, the Frauenwohl, the Jugendschutz, the 
VaterldndiscJic Frauen-Verein, the Edelweiss Verein, the Vic- 
toria Haus, the Victoria Lyceum, the Pestalozzi Froebel- Verein, 
the Kunstlerinnen- tend Schriftstellerinnen-Verein, the Mdd- 
chcn RcalscJinle-Verein, and the Volkskiichen. Many of these 
enjoy the protection of the Empress Frederick. 

Among the ladies who were most responsive to her 
appeals and most influential in spreading a knowledge of 
the movement among a wider circle were Frau Henriette 
Schrader, Frau Von Helmholtz, Frau Hedwig Heyl, Frau 
Elisabet Kaselowsky, Frau Lina Morgenstern, Fraulein 
Helene Lange, Fraulein Lucie Grain, Frau Dr. Tiburtius- 
Hirschfeld, Frau Direktor lessen, Frau Claere Schubert- 
Feder, Ph. D.; Frau Ulrike Henschke, Fraulein von Kobe, 
and Frau Hanna Bieber-Boehm. 

Airs. Sewall supplemented her work in Berlin by a visit 
to Homburg, where she was granted an extended interview 
with the Empress Frederick, who showed herself deeply 
interested in the plan of the proposed congress, and declared 
herself ready to aid by every means in her power in secur- 
ing an adequate representation of German women in its 

In Brussels Mrs. Sewall addressed the Belgian Woman's 
Rights League, an influential organization, whose leaders 
are Mile. Marie Popelin, docteur en droit, and M. Louis 


Frank, avocat. Mile. Popelin and M. Frank, by their learn- 
ing, their high position, their indefatigable labors, and their 
eloquence with tongue and pen, have powerfully advanced 
the cause of women in Belgium. 

In Paris Mrs. Sewall spoke in the Hall of the Mairie St. Sul- 
pice to a large audience, and devoted the following fourteen 
days to conferences with the leaders among the women of 
Paris, singly and in groups. Among the many women of 
the French capital who deserve mention for their sympa- 
thetic interest in this and other causes involving the higher 
interests of their sex are the following : Mile. Maria De- 
raismes, presidente de la Socie'te du Droit des Fcmmcs; Mme. 
Isabelle Bogelot, directrice de VCEuvre des Liber ees dc St. 
Lazare, and ex-treasurer of the International Council of 
Women; Mme. Emilie de Morsier; Mme. Maria Martin, direc- 
trice du Journal des Femmcs; Mme. Clemence Royer; Mme. 
Raymond Pognon; Mme. Nelly Lieutier, of the Socie'te des 
Gens de Lettres; Mme. Teresa Viele; Mme. Ernesta Urban, 
presidente de r Union Internationale des Sciences et des Arts; 
Mme. Griess-Traut, of the Fe f deration Feminist e de la Paix; 
Mile. Myrtile Rengnet ; Mile. Pauline de Grandpre ; Mile. 
Oilier, of the Patronage des Jeunes Filles; Mme. Marya 
Cheliga-Loevy ; Mme. Aline Valette, of the Federation 
Franc^aise des Socie'tc's Feministes; Mme. Blanche Edwards- 
Pilliet, docteur en medicine ; Mme. Rene Marcil, directrice 
de r Esprit de la Fcmmc; Mile. Marie Maugeret, directrice de 
VEcho Litteraire de France; Mme. Eugenie Potonie Pierre, 
secretaire du Groupe de la Solidarite des Fcmmcs. 

In addition to the interest aroused in these influential 
groups of German, Belgian, and French women by the visit 
and personal solicitations of the chairman of the Committee 
of Arrangements, wide publicity was given to her addresses 
by the press of France, Russia, Belgium, England, and Italy, 
and thus the scope of the great congress was made known to 
many thousands of European women of influence in their 
respective localities. 

Mrs. Sewall returned to this country early in September. 


Meanwhile Mrs. Rachel Foster A very, in her office at Som- 
erton, Pa., was planning and carrying out a voluminous and 
searching correspondence with prominent individuals in 
this and other countries, and especially with the executive 
officers of every national body of women at home and 
abroad, preparing the way for the selection and appoint- 
ment of prominent women from every nation on the Advis- 
ory Councils, for the selection of persons to prepare papers 
for the General Congress and reports for the Report Con- 
gresses, and for the formal enrollment of all national organ- 
izations of women as members of the World's Congress of 
Representative Women, entitled to send delegates thereto 
and to hold department congresses in connection therewith. 
The responses to the appeals thus made by the secretary 
were so prompt and so generally sympathetic that it became 
immediately evident that a wide-spread interest was aroused, 
and that the success of the congress was assured. Every 
precaution was taken to place the movement on the broadest 
possible plane, and thus .to allay any apprehensions of unfair 
treatment that might arise on the part of weaker or younger 

After the simple facts regarding the inception of the plan 
had been stated, all organizations were placed upon exactly 
the same level, and all official documents issued reiterated 
in appropriate terms the assurance that all organizations, 
whether large or small in membership and influence, stood 
upon an equal footing in the opportunities granted to each 
by the committee charged with the preparations for the pro- 
gramme of the great congress. The spirit of fairness was 
so manifest in all the preliminary work of the committee 
that organization after organization gave in its formal 
adhesion to the congress, until scarcely a national woman's 
organization in the United States or in Europe stood aloof. 

The various blanks and forms used by the secretary of 
the committee in this arduous correspondence may be found 
in the appendix to this volume, together with documents 
issued from time to time from the Chicago office.* The 

* It has not been thought necessary to reproduce all of these in the ap- 
pendix; for a partial statement see Appendix "A." 


Preliminary Address, issued in September, 1892, the manu- 
script of which had been sent to the officers of the Woman's 
Branch of the Auxiliary by the chairman of the committee on 
June 1 3th as before related, is of such importance, as being 
the first general statement given to the world by the com- 
mittee, and as outlining clearly the history of the movement, 
its condition in September, 1892, and the committee's plans 
for the final development and execution of the great proj- 
ect in hand, that it is here given in full, instead of being 
relegated with other documents to the appendix. Of all 
the documents issued by the committee it was the most 
important. It was distributed in French and in English 
versions by tens of thousands not at random, but to care- 
fully selected addresses in every civilized country. It was 
reprinted from time to time substantially without change, 
either alone or as a part of more comprehensive statements, 
as the needs of the work required, the latest edition bearing 
date April 12, 1893, about four weeks before the convening 
of the congress. 

Not Things, but Men. 

President, Charles C. Bonney. Treasurer, Lyman J. Gage. 

Vice-president, Thomas B. Bryan. Secretary, Benjamin Butterworth. 


Not Matter, but Mind. 

THE WOMAN'S BRANCH OF THE AUXILIARY. Mrs. Potter Palmer, president; 
Mrs. Charles Henrotin, vice-president. 

DEPARTMENT OF WOMAN'S PROGRESS. Preliminary Address of the Com- 
mittee on a World's Congress of Representative Women at Chicago, 
in 1893. 

This congress is proposed, not for the purpose of advocating any one 
cause, of promoting any one doctrine, or of advancing any special propa- 
ganda, but for the purpose of bringing together the representatives of all 
worthy organizations of women, whatever their nationality or their specific 

In June of 1887 the National Woman Suffrage Association issued a call to 
the women of the world, stating that on March 25, 1888, an International 
Council of Women would be convened in Washington, D. C., to celebrate 


Secretary Committee on Organization, World's Congress of Representative 



the fortieth anniversary of "the first organized demand for equal educa- 
tional, industrial, professional, and political rights for women, which was 
made in a convention held at Seneca Falls, N. Y. (U. S. A.), in the year 

The International Council convened in Washington on the appointed 
day, and continued its sessions through eight days, adjourning April i , 
1888. Fifty-one national organizations of women and seven different 
countries were represented in this meeting. 

The Council seemed too important to the women participating in 'its 
deliberations to permit of its being adjourned and dissolved without taking 
measures toward a permanent organization of the national and international 
movements represented in it. Accordingly, on the 3ist of March, 1888, the 
National Council of Women of the United States and the International 
Council of Women were both formally organized, under the form of consti- 
tution hereto appended.* The International Council of Women was 
officered as follows : 

f President, Millicent Garrett Fawcett, England. 
Vice-president, Clara Barton. United States. 
Corresponding secretary, Rachel Foster Avery, United States. 
Recording secretary, Kirstine Frederiksen, Denmark. 
Treasurer, Isabelle Bogelot, France. 

By the terms of the constitution, meetings of the International Council 
were to be held quinquennially, and the first was set for five years from its 
organization, viz., the spring of 1893. It was informally agreed that the 
first meeting of the International Council should be convened in London, 
unless, prior to the date fixed for it, circumstances should render it advisable 
to convene it elsewhere. 

In July, 1889, in response to an invitation of the progressive women of 
France, an International Congress of Women was convened in Paris, under 
the auspices of the French Government. 

The French leaders were generous in repeatedly ascribing the courage- 
ous impulse under which they had acted to the council held in Washington 
the preceding year. Before its adjournment, that congress, composed of 
delegates representing over one hundred societies and twenty-six different 
nationalities, by a unanimous vote passed a resolution \ approving the perma- 
nent International Council of Women, the organization of which had been 
effected in Washington the preceding year, and pledging its members 
to work for the establishment of National Councils in their respective 
countries, and for the dissemination of information concerning the Inter- 
national Council and its objects. 

So soon as the United States Government had, through Congress, made 
provision for celebrating the discovery of America by the World's Colum- 
bian Exposition, and had fixed the time and place for such Exposition, 

* It is not considered necessary to reproduce these constitutions here. 
tMrs. Fawcett resigned her position as president in June, 1892. 
$ See Appendix for the text of this resolution. 


the American officers of the International Council at once conceived it to be 
appropriate, inasmuch as the year fixed for its first meeting coincided 
with the year for the Exposition, that the International Council should be 
-convened in Chicago during the Exposition season of 1893, the exact date 
to be hereafter announced. Through correspondence concerning this plan 
the cordial concurrence of the foreign officers was received. The organiza- 
tion of the World's Congress Auxiliary, under the authority and with the 
support of the World's Columbian Exposition, and with the recognition and 
approval of the Government of the United States, affords to the officers of 
the International Council of Women an unanticipated ally in securing a 
meeting of the character they desire, viz., a general world's congress of 
the representative women of the world. 

It is desired to convene in this congress not only the delegates of organ- 
izations of women, but also women not affiliated with others in any organic 
relation, who have attained distinction in any line of worthy activity. 

It is believed that such a congress of women will be able to present the 
history of woman's development and progress, and her present status as an 
acknowledged factor in the worlds of Art, Science, and Industry, and as a 
potent influence in civil as well as in social and domestic life. 

In May, 1891, the National Council of Women of the United States, 
through its Executive Committee, passed a resolution pledging itself to 
entertain, during the congress, all delegates attending it from foreign 

This was announced to organizations of women wherever known, and in 
many countries, notably in England, France, Canada, Scandinavia, and 
Finland, and more recently in Italy, Switzerland, and Germany, the organ- 
ized activity of women has been quickened by it. Many women in all these 
countries are planning to attend this congress. 

Home and Foreign Advisory Councils will be formed to cooperate by 
correspondence with the Local Committee of Arrangements, to the end that 
this congress may be conducted to the distinguished success which the con- 
ditions demand. All officers of the International Council will be made 
members of the Foreign Advisory Council; all officers of the National 
Council will be made members of the Home Advisory Council. 

Women in all parts of the world, interested in any department of intel- 
lectual activity, in philanthropy or reform, are solicited to correspond with 
the chairman of the local committee, or with the secretary of the Interna- 
tional Council of Women, and freely suggest topics for discussion in this 
congress, the names of women who should be invited to present papers or 
to participate in the discussions of the congress, and also the names of 
women who should be included in either of the two Advisory Councils. 

Every living question pertaining to the education or the employment of 
women may be discussed in this congress. In its sessions the woman's 
view upon every issue affecting humanity upon the Home, the Church, 
the State, and her own function in these institutions may be presented. 
What such a congress may do for the uplifting of humanity if the women 


of the world avail themselves of its unique advantages for stating their 
views of the present condition of the race, of its struggles, its possibilities, 
its hopes, is incalculable. The aid which such a congress will give to 
the solution of the hundreds of problems included in what is massed under 
the phrase, " The Woman Question," is equally beyond measure. Humanity 
may well entertain eager anxiety regarding the manner in which women 
will respond to this matchless opportunity. 

In issuing this edition of the Preliminary Address, the committee is 
able to announce the general themes which will be discussed in this con- 
gress. Practically these themes will divide the congress into the following 
general divisions: First, education; second, industry; third, art; fourth, 
philanthropy and charity; fifth, moral and social reform; sixth, religion; 
seventh, civil law; eighth, government. 

It must be borne in mind that while congresses in each of the above 
divisions are provided for in the great scheme of congresses under the 
management of the World's Congress Auxiliary, these congresses will not 
take the place of, nor duplicate the work of, the Woman's Congress in the 
general subjects above given. 

In each of the separate congresses, to convene in Chicago during the 
summer of 1893, women will participate in the degree in which they have 
taken part in the interest or activity indicated by the title of the congress, 
and they will discuss the themes presented in such congress accordingly. 

In the General World's Congress of Representative Women, however, 
these great subjects will be viewed from a different standpoint, the object of 
this congress being to discuss, not the subject per se, but the relation of 
the women of the world to the subject. For example, in the papers and 
addresses to be presented in the World's Congress of Representative 
Women, on titles that will come under the general subject of education, it 
is not desired that Pedagogy, as a science, shall be discussed, but papers of 
two kinds upon this general theme will be demanded by the character and 
objects of this particular congress. 

First. Papers that may, with propriety, be called reports from each 
country represented in the congress, showing the history of woman's 
progress in that country in respect to education, and setting forth her 
present educational opportunities, and the agencies through which these 
opportunities have been received; and also the objects now sought in each 
country by its educational leaders. 

The object of these reports, which is to ascertain the historical progress 
and the present status of woman's education in each country, will deter- 
mine the character of the reports, in which accuracy and statistical detail 
will be required qualities which will make these reports invaluable to the 
student of Pedagogics and of Sociology, but which will in a large degree 
deprive them of that warmth and eloquence required in addresses that 
please the ear and stimulate the enthusiasm of such large popular 
audiences as it is hoped the Congress of Representative Women will convene. 
Hence the necessity for papers of the second kind, namely: Addresses 


upon themes bearing upon the general subject of women in education, 
under which title many topics can be suggested which would give free 
play for wit, pathos, illustration, aspiration, and all of the elements of 

What has been above said and suggested concerning the manner in 
which the subject of education will be treated in this congress, is equally 
applicable to all of the eight departments under which its work will fall. 

According to the present plan, no other congress will be convened dur- 
ing the time of the World's Congress of Representative Women. There- 
fore, all of the rooms necessary for the meeting of committees, or of groups 
particularly interested in the same question, will be at the command of the 
committee having the congress in charge. 

What is now necessary is that every society of women into the hands of 
whose officers this address may come shall immediately send to the chair- 
man or to the secretary of the local committee the names of women for 
the Advisory Council, the names of women best fitted to prepare reports 
upon the subjects included under the titles above given, and the names of 
women able to make the addresses to be delivered before the public sessions 
of the entire congress. 

Every one to whom this Preliminary Address is sent is further solicited 
to send suggestions as to subjects, titles of papers, etc., suitable for the 
programme of this congress. The results of the correspondence carried on 
by the committee during the last four months are an assurance that the 
plan of the congress has commended itself to the judgment of women 
everywhere, has aroused enthusiasm and stirred new hopes. Only six 
months now remain in which to complete the preparations for this con- 
gress, and, therefore, prompt response is solicited to every inquiry, whether 
made directly, or suggested in this appeal. 


343 N. Pennsylvania Street, Indianapolis, Ind. 

Somerton, Philadelphia Co., Pa. 



y Chicago. 


Committee of the World's Congress Auxiliary 

on a Congress of Representative Women. 

*This second edition of the Preliminary Address contains everything of importance 
in the first, and brings the statement down to the above date. 


From the time of the return of the chairman of the com- 
mittee from abroad, in September, 1892, until the opening 
of the congress, on May 15, 1893, an uninterrupted corre- 
spondence was carried on between the chairman of the com- 
mittee, in Indianapolis, and the secretary of the committee, 
in Philadelphia ; and between these officers and the execu- 
tive officers of the Auxiliary, in Chicago. This correspond- 
ence was summarized and tabulated from time to time, and 
the results submitted to the Committee of Arrangements, 
which held meetings in Chicago upon the call of the 
Woman's Branch of the Auxiliary. Four such meetings, 
including eight sessions, were held between October ist 
and May 1 5th, and all matters of importance were passed 
upon after deliberation in full committee. The reports 
submitted to these meetings by the chairman and the 
secretary show that from their offices alone there were 
issued 7,198 sealed letters, home and foreign, and 55,000 
printed documents. The records of the Chicago office of 
the Auxiliary would largely increase these totals. 

This correspondence, a considerable portion of which was 
in foreign languages, occupied the entire time of the chair- 
man of the committee and her secretary, and of the secre- 
tary of the committee, with from two to eight clerks in her 
office, for the nine months ending May 15, 1893. 

The greater part of the enormous load was carried by the 
secretary of the committee, Mrs. Rachel Foster A very, 
to whose familiarity with business methods, accuracy in 
detail, intelligence in plan, skill in execution, comprehen- 
sive grasp of multifarious lines of work, and unfailing 
industry, unstinted praise is due. Without her efficient 
aid success on the scale actually achieved would have been 

The other ladies included in the Committee of Arrange- 
ments, Dr. Sarah Hackett Stevenson, Dr. Julia Holmes 
Smith, Mrs. Elizabeth Boynton Harbert, Mrs. William 
Thayer Brown, Mrs. John C. Coonley, and Mrs. Matilda 
B. Carse (whom upon her own departure for Europe Miss 


Frances E. Willard nominated as her substitute), rendered 
invaluable assistance by the weight of their names, by reg- 
ular attendance upon the meetings of the committee, and 
by intelligent and sympathetic discussion and decision of 
the many delicate and puzzling questions that came before 

Unfailing courtesy, sympathy, and sound advice was 
expected and received from President Bonney, to whose 
generous devotion to the great cause intrusted to him was 
largely due the signal success of the long series of world's 
congresses of 1893. 

Mrs. Potter Palmer manifested toward those engaged in 
this arduous labor the same fairness of temper, quickness 
of perception, fertility of resource, soundness of judgment, 
and unfailing tact that have distinguished her in such 
marked degree since she entered upon her high position 
as president of the Board of Lady Managers. Although 
her exacting duties in other lines did not permit her to 
attend to the details of the work of this committee, she 
was frequently present at its meetings, and, whether pres- 
ent or absent, was always felt as a power upon which the 
committee could rely in every difficulty. 

Mrs. Charles Henrotin, as nominal vice-president, and 
acting president of the Woman's Branch of the Auxiliary, 
devoted herself with untiring assiduity to the supervision 
of the countless details involved in organizing the woman's 
side of the various congresses; and by interviews, corre- 
spondence, and personal direction, as presiding officer of the 
deliberations of the committee, was a potent factor in the 
preliminary work of the World's Congress of Representa- 
tive Women. 

Recognition should also be made of the unfailing courtesy 
and cordial cooperation of the secretary of the Auxiliary, 
Mr. Clarence E. Young. 

The preliminary labors outlined above resulted in the 
completion in good season of the following programme, of 
which seven editions of 10,000 copies each were distributed 


among the audiences that thronged the Art Institute dur- 
ing the memorable week of May 1 5th to 22d. Every name 
appearing on this programme was placed there by formal 
consent of its owner, after adequate correspondence. Each 
address, discussion, or report for the multitudinous meet- 
ings of the congress was pledged in advance. The pro- 
gramme was carried out almost intact; and this fact, 
combined with careful attention to detail in all matters 
devolving upon the Committee of Arrangements, contrib- 
uted very largely to the unprecedented success of the 
congress, in spite of the many serious inconveniences 
arising from the use of a temporary structure, in which 
the workmen were still busy. The building, moreover, 
was at first devoid of many simple conveniences which the 
experience of this first congress suggested for the comfort 
of those that followed it. 


TION OF 1893. 

President, Charles C. Bonney; vice-president, Thomas B. Bryan; 
treasurer, Lyman J. Gage; secretaries, Benjamin Buttenvorth, Clarence 
E. Young. 

Palmer; vice-president, Mrs. Charles Henrotin. 


Wright Se wall, chairman, Indianapolis, Ind. ; Rachel Foster Avery, secre- 
tary, Somerton, Philadelphia, Pa.; Sarah Hackett Stevenson, M. D.; Julia 
Holmes Smith, M. D.; Mrs. John C. Coonley, Frances E. Willard, Elizabeth 
Boynton Harbert, Mrs. William Thayer Brown. 


Addresses of welcome, Mrs. Potter Palmer, president Woman's Branch of 


World's Congress Auxiliary; Mrs. Charles Henrotin, vice-president 
Woman's Branch of World's Congress Auxiliary. Ode, "Columbia's 
Emblem" (Edna Dean Proctor}, Mrs. Albert Barker, England. Address, 
4 ' The World's Congress of Representative Women," May Wright Sewall. 
Introduction of foreign representatives and responses on behalf of their 
respective countries: Dr. Emily Howard Stowe, Mrs. John Harvie, Mrs. 
Dr. Todd, Mrs. Elizabeth M. Tilley, and other representatives from 
Canada; Jane Cobden Unwin, Florence Fenwick Miller, Marie Fischer 
Lette, Laura Ormiston Chant, and other representatives from England; 
Isabelle Bogelot, Ernesta Urban, Cecile Renooz, France; Mme. Quesada, 
South America; Sigrid E. Magniisson, Iceland; Marie Stromberg, Russia. 
EVENING SESSION, 7.45 O'CLOCK. Introduction of foreign representatives, 
continued: Elisabet Kaselowsky, Hanna Bieber-Boehm, Augusta Foerster, 
Kaethe Schirmacher, Agnes Burchard, Annette Hamminck Schepel, Ger- 
many; Kirstine Frederiksen, Nico Beck Meyer, Frederikke Olesen, Den- 
mark; Countess of Aberdeen, Scotland; Baroness Thorborg Rappe, Hulda 
Lundin, Sigrid Storckenfeldt, Sweden; Tauthe Vignier, Emilie Kempin, 
Switzerland; Margaret Windeyer, Australia; Meri Toppelius, Ebba 
Nordqvist, Finland; Callirrhoe Parren, Greece; Sefiorita Catalina de Alcala, 
Spain; Josefa Humpal Zeman, Sleona Karla Machova, Bohemia; Marie 
Marshall, Paris; Martha Sesselberg, Brazil. 

MORNING SESSION, 10 O'CLOCK. Honorary foreign president, 

honorary American president, Charlotte Emerson Brown. Introduction 
of foreign representatives by Mrs. Potter Palmer and Mrs. Charles Hen- 
rotin, with responses on behalf of their respective countries, continued. 
"The Civil and Social Evolution of Woman," Elizabeth Cady Stanton, 
New York. Discussion: Margaret Parker, Scotland; M. Louise Thomas, 
representative of the Woman's Centenary Association; Dr. Emily Howard 
Stowe, president of the Woman's Enfranchisement Association of Canada; 
Dr. Jennie de la M. Lozier, president of Sorosis. " The Evolution of the 
Russian Woman," Marie Stromberg, Russia. 

EVENING SESSION, 7.45 O'CLOCK. Honorary American president, Mrs. 
J. N. Grouse. " The Moral Initiative as Related to Woman," Julia Ward 
Howe, Massachusetts. Discussion: Rev. Antoinette Brow r n Blackwell, 
New Jersey; Mrs. John F. Unger, representative of the Woman's Foreign 
Missionary Society of the Reformed Church in the United States; Elizabeth 
McGregor Burt,* president of the National Association of the Loyal Women 
of American Liberty; Josephine C. Locke, Illinois. " The Ethical Influence 
of Woman in Education," Kate Tupper Galpin, California. Discussion: 
Mrs. W. D. Cabell, representative of the National Society of the Daughters 
of the American Revolution; Anna Byford Leonard, Illinois; Frances Stew- 
art Mosher, representative of the National Free Baptist W r oman's Mission- 
ary Society. 

*Mrs. Burt died a few days befoi-e the congress opened. 



MORNING SESSION, 10 O'CLOCK. Honorary foreign president, ; hon- 
orary American president, Laura S. Wilkinson. "Woman in Municipal 
Government," paper by Mrs. Jacob Bright, read by Jane Cobden Umvin, 
representative of the Woman's Franchise League of England. Discussion: 
Ida A. Harper, Indiana; Margaret Ray Wickins, president of the Woman's 
National Relief Corps. " Woman as an Actual Force in Politics," Countess 
of Aberdeen, representative of the Woman's Liberal Federation of England. 
Discussion: Lillie Devereux Blake, New York. " The Position and Influence 
of Woman in Civil Law," Martha Strickland, Michigan. 

EVENING SESSION, 7.45 O'CLOCK. " Woman in Science," Dr. Mary Put- 
nam Jacobi, New York. Discussion: Dr. Julia Holmes Smith, Illinois; 
Prof. Rachel Lloyd, University of Nebraska; Dr. Mary A. D. Jones; Louise 
Reed Stowell, Washington, D. C.; Mrs. Leander Stone. "Woman as a 
Physician" (paper), Dr. Garrett Anderson; read by Constance Elder, 
England. "Woman the New Factor in Industrial Economics," Augusta 
Cooper Bristol, New Jersey. Discussion: Lina Morgenstern (by a paper), 
Germany; Virginia C. Meredith, Indiana; Ellen J. Phinney, president Non- 
Partisan N. W. C. T. U.; Agnes Burchard, representative of Frauenbil- 
dung-Reform Verein, of Germany; Augusta Foerster, Elisabet Kaselowsky, 
representatives of the Comite fur die Deutsche Frauenabtheilung bei der 
Weltausstellung; Juana A. Neal, California. 


MORNING SESSION, 10 O'CLOCK. Presiding officer, Julia Ward Howe. 
L'Union des Femmes, Tauthe Vignier, Switzerland. Verein Jugendschutz, 
Hanna Bieber-Boehm, Germany. Women's Progressive Society, Mrs. War- 
ner Snoad, president; read by Clara Bewick Colby,. Nebraska. La Solidarite 
des Femmes; read by Clara Bewick Colby, Nebraska. Association for the 
Advancement of Women, Julia Ward Howe, Massachusetts. Sigrid E. Mag- 
niisson, Iceland. Anti-Vivisection Society, Mrs. Fairchild Allen, Illinois. 

EVENING SESSION, 7.45 O'CLOCK. Presiding officer, Mary McDonell. 
Woman's Anti-Opium Urgency Committee, Laura Ormiston Chant, England. 
Sociologic Society of America, Imogene C. Fales, New York. Dominion 
Woman's Christian Temperance L T nion, Mary McDonell, Canada. Moral 
Reform L T nion, Marie Fischer-Lette, England. British Section of the 
World's Christian Temperance Union, Laura Ormiston Chant, England. 


MORNING SESSION, 10 O'CLOCK. Presiding officer, Mary Frost Ormsby. 
International Board of Women's Christian Associations, Mrs. William O. 
Gould, California. Women's Franchise League, Jane Cobden L'nwin, 
England. Women's Auxiliary Keeley Leagues, Mrs. J. A. Stafford- Wood, 
Illinois. Writer's Club (England), report sent by Mrs. Henrietta E. V. 
Stannard (John Strange Winter). National Democratic Influence Clubs, 


Mary Frost Ormsby, New York. Women's Trades Union League (of 
England), report sent by Florence Routledge. 

EVENING SESSION, 7.45 O'CLOCK. Pacific Coast Woman's Press Associa- 
tion, Mrs. Lindon W. Bates, Illinois. New England Women's Press Asso- 
ciation, Belle Grant Armstrong, Massachusetts. Working Women's Society, 
Harriette A. Keyser, New York. De Samlede Kvindeforeningen, Nico 
Beck Meyer, Denmark. Kvindelig Fremskridtsforeningen, Frederikke 
Olesen, Denmark. 


MORNING SESSION, 10 O'CLOCK. Welcome by the president, May Wright 
Sewall. " Reminiscences of Early Dress Reform," Lucy Stone. Sketch of the 
work of the Society for the Promotion of Physical Culture and Correct Dress, 
Frances M. Steele. Report of the work of the committee, Frances E. Russell, 
chairman National Council's Committee on Dress. ' ' Line and Color in 
Costume How Beauty Makes Reform Possible," Henrietta Russell. ' ' Fash- 
ion versus Law in Dress," Helen Gilbert Ecob. " The Influence of Dress 
upon Development," Frank Stuart Parker. "The Essentials and Non- 
Essentials of Dress," Annie Jenness Miller. " Obstacles to Improved Dress," 
Octavia W. Bates. " Physical Culture a Necessary Preparation for Cor- 
rect Dressing," Frances W. Leiter. 

EVENING SESSION, 7.45 O'CLOCK. Addresses of the presidents of the 
members of the Council. National-American Woman Suffrage Association, 
Susan B. Anthony. Woman's Centenary Association of the Universalist 
Church, Cordelia A..Quinby. National Woman's Christian Temperance 
Union, Matilda B. Carse (representing Frances E. Willard). National Free 
Baptist Woman's Missionary Society, Laura A. De Merritte (representing 
Mary A. Davis). Illinois Industrial Reform School for Girls (National 
Charter), Mrs. M. R. M. Wallace. National Woman's Relief Society, Mrs. 
ZinaD. H. Young. Wimodaughsis, Rev. Anna Howard Shaw. Sorosis, Dr. 
Jennie de la M. Lozier. Young Ladies' National Mutual Improvement Asso- 
ciation, Elmina S. Taylor. National Christian League for the Promotion of 
Social Purity, Elizabeth B. Grannis. Universal Peace Union, Rev. Amanda 
Deyo. International Kindergarten Union, Sarah B. Cooper. Woman's 
Republican Association of the United States, J. Ellen Foster. National 
Association of Loyal Women of American Liberty, E. McGregor Burt. 
Closing address by the president, " The Idea of the National Council," May 
Wright Sewall. 


MORNING SESSION, 10 O'CLOCK. Mrs. Lorraine J. Pitkin will call the meet- 
ing to order, and introduce Mrs. Mary C. Snedden, Most Worthy Grand 
Matron. Prayer. Singing. Greeting, " The Dawn," Mrs. Elizabeth But- 


ler, Chicago, Most Worthy Grand Matron, 1878 to 1880. " Illinois and the 
Eastern Star," Mrs. Jane M. Ricketts, Illinois, Grand Matron, 1892 to 1893. 
Reading, Miss Bessie Waterbury, Chicago. William G. Bartels, Grand 
Patron of Illinois, 1892 to 1893. Miscellaneous greetings. Vocal selection, 
Mrs. Brinkerhoff, Chicago. "The Eastern Star and Its Ceremonials, as 
Based upon Bible History," Rev. H. A. Guild, Past Grand Patron of 
Nebraska. "Masonic Homes," Mrs. Jennie A. Walker, Illinois, Grand 
Matron, 1885 to 1887. 


EVENING SESSION, 7.45 O'CLOCK. Miscellaneous greetings. Quartette. 
" Order of the Eastern Star Its Origin, Progress, and Development," Mrs. 
Mary C. Snedden, Missouri, Most Worthy Grand Matron. Violin duet. 
" Eastern Star Literature," Mrs. Nettie Ransford, Indianapolis, Ind., Most 
Worthy Grand Matron, 1889 to 1892. Miscellaneous. Selection, vocal, 
Lorraine J. Decker, Chicago. ' ' The Value of the Eastern Star as a Factor in 
Giving Women a Knowledge of Legislative Matters," Mrs. Mary A. Flint, 
California, Most Worthy Grand Matron, iS86to 1889. Reading. " Relation 
of the Eastern Star to Masonry, and Its Importance," A. B. Ashley, Illinois, 
Grand Patron, 1886 to 1889. " Masonry and Its Eastern Star," Mrs. Theresa 
Jacobs, Pennsylvania. "Iowa and the Eastern Star," Mrs. Jennie E. 
Matthews, Iowa, Most Worthy Grand Matron, 1883 to 1886. " Eastern Star 
and the Benefit it Has Been to Women as an Educational Organization," 
Mrs. Harriet A. Ercenbrack, Iowa, Right Worthy Grand Treasurer, 1889 to 
1895. "Indiana and the Eastern Star," Mrs. E. M. Hollinger, Indiana, 
Grand Matron, 1892 to 1895. 


MORNING SESSION, 10 O'CLOCK. Mrs. J. V. Farwell, Jr., chairman Inter- 
national Committee Young Women's Christian Associations, presiding. 
Hymn. Devotional exercises. " The Association Working with the 
Church." "The Strength of the Young Women's Christian Association," 
Miss Nettie Dunn, Michigan. Music. "The Highest Education," Mrs. 
Charles Kendall Adams, Wisconsin. 

EVENING SESSION, 7.45 O'CLOCK. Mrs. J. V. Farwell, Jr., chairman 
International Committee Young Women's Christian Associations, presiding. 
Hymn. Scripture. Prayer. " The Young Women's Christian Association 
Its Methods and Aims," Mrs. William Boyd, Missouri. Music. "The 
Responsibility of the College Woman to Christian Work," Mrs. Jane 
Bancroft Robinson, Michigan. "What the Association Does for Young 
Women," Mrs. John Harvie, Canada. 


MORNING SESSION, 10 O'CLOCK. Honorary foreign president, Catalina 
de Alcala, Spain; honorary American president, Isabella Charles Davis. 


" The Solidarity of Human Interests," Isabelle Bogelot, France; Callirrhoe 
Parren, Greece; Tauthe Vignier, Switzerland. "Woman in Spain for the 
Last Four Hundred Years," Catalina de Alcala, Spain. "Woman's 
Position in the South American States," Mme. Quesada, Peru; Baroness 
Wilson, Spain. " The Evolution of the Russian Woman," Marie Stromberg, 

EVENING SESSION, 7.45 O'CLOCK. Honorary foreign president, Ernesta 
Urban, France; honorary American president, May Wright Sewall. 
"Woman's Place in the Legitimate Drama," Mme. Janauschek. "The 
Endowed Theater," Helena Modjeska. " The Stage and Its Women," 
Georgia Cayvan. " Woman in the Emotional Drama," Clara Morris. "The 
Stage and Its Women," Mile. Rhea, Julia -Marlowe. 


MORNING SESSION, 10 O'CLOCK. Honorary foreign president, Kirstine 
Frederiksen, Denmark; honorary American president, Mary C. Snedden. 
"The Progress of Women in England" (paper), Helen Blackburn. " Our 
Debt to Zurich," Dr. Emilie Kempin, Switzerland. Discussion: Prof. Helen 
Webster. " The Position of Women in Bohemia," Sleona Karla Machova, 
Bohemia. ' ' The Struggle of Woman in Belgium to Enter Public Employ- 
ments and the Professions" (paper), Dr. Marie Popelin, Belgium. "A 
Century of Progress for Women in Canada," Mary McDonell, A.M. Blakely, 
representatives of the Dominion W. C. T. U.; Dr. Augusta Stowe Gullen, 
representative of the Woman's Enfranchisement Association of Canada; 
Mrs. John Harvie, representative of the Young Women's Christian Associa- 
tions of Canada; Nellie Spence, B. A. , Canada; Emily Cummings, Canada; 
Alice Fenton Freeman (Faith Fenton), Canada. 

EVENING SESSION, 7.45 O'CLOCK. Honorary foreign president, Josefa 
Humpal Zeman, Bohemia; honorary American president, Mrs. W. D. 
Cabell. "The Effect of Modern Changes in Industrial and Social Life on 
Woman's Marriage Prospects," Kaethe Schirmacher, Germany. Discussion: 
Mary F. Eastman, Massachusetts; Alice Timmons Toomy, California; Rev. 
Anna Howard Shaw, Pennsylvania; Emily Marshall Wadsworth. "The 
Moral Responsibility of Woman in Heredity," Helen H. Gardener, New 


MORNING SESSION, 10 O'CLOCK. Presiding officer, Lillie Devereux Blake. 
The Dublin Woman Suffrage Committee. Womanhood Suffrage League of 
New South Wales, Margaret Windeyer, Australia. The Society for Promot- 
ing the Return of Women to all Local Governing Bodies, Countess of Aber- 
deen, Scotland. Gift Qvinnas Eganderoett, Baroness Thorborg Rappe, 
Sweden. The Women's Liberal Federation, Jane Cobden Unwin, Eng- 
land. The Women's Liberal Federation of Scotland, Countess of Aber- 
deen, Scotland. 


EVENING SESSION, 7.45 O'CLOCK. Central National Society for Women's 
Suffrage, Laura Ormiston Chant, England. Women's Enfranchisement 
Association of Canada, Sarah A. Curzon, Canada. Kvindestemmeretsfor- 
eningen of Norway (report to be read). Women's Republican Association 
of the United States, J. Ellen Foster, Washington, D. C.; Adelle Hazlett, 


MORNING SESSION, 10 O'CLOCK. Presiding officer, Ida M. Weaver. CEuvre 
des Liberees de St. Lazare, Isabelle Bogelot, France. Supreme Temple of 
Pythian Sisters of the World, Ida M. Weaver, Iowa. Patronage Laique 
des Jeunes Filles Apprenties et Ouvrieres du VI. Arrondissement, Isabelle 
Bogelot, France. Alice- Frauenvere in fur die Krankenpflege, CEuvre des 
Jeunes Apprenties-Servantes (Le Foyer Chretien), Marie Marshall, France. 
Royal British Nurses' Association, Mrs. Bedford Fenwick, Josephine De 

EVENING SESSION, 7.45 O'CLOCK. Presiding officer, Mrs. John Harvie. 
London Young Women's Christian Association, Hon. Mrs. Waller, Eng- 
land. Young Women's Christian Association of Canada, Mrs. John Harvie, 
Canada. Young Women's Christian Association of Sweden, Sigrid Storck- 
enfeldt, Sweden. Canadian Branch of the International Order of King's 
Daughters and Sons, Elizabeth M. Tilley, Canada. Onward and Upward 
Association, Invalid Children's Aid Association, Countess of Aberdeen, 


SESSIONS AT 10 A. M. AND 7.45 p. M. Delegates from the Christian League 
to the Women's Congress: Mrs. E. B. Grannis, president; Mrs. M. Louise 
Thomas, corresponding secretary; Dr. Nancy M. Miller, treasurer; Mrs. 
Arthur Smith, Mrs. C. M. Sawyer, Dr. J. M. Lozier. 

MORNING SESSION, 10 O'CLOCK. Elizabeth B. Grannis, "Object and Aims 
of the Society." Mrs. M. Louise Thomas, " Social Purity." Dr. Jennie 
de la M. Lozier, " Educational Training." Rev. Conrad Haney. Mrs. 
Caroline B. Buell. Mrs. Arthur Smith, "High Living One Cause of 
Impurity." Helen H. Gardener, " Heredity." 

EVENING SESSION, 7.45 O'CLOCK. Rev. John P. Hale. Mrs. Virginia T. 
Smith, " Child Culture." Genevieve Stebbins (paper), " The Sacredness of 
the Marriage Relation." 


MORNING SESSION, 10 O'CLOCK. Reading of Scripture. Prayer. Music. 
Address, Mary T. Lathrap, Michigan. Address, Mary McDowell, Illinois. 


Music. Address, Josephine R. Nichols, Indiana. Woman's Lecture Bu- 
reau, Lucy E. Anthony, manager. Prayer. 

EVENING SESSION, 7.45 O'CLOCK. Music, " America." Reading of Script- 
ure. Prayer. Music. Address, Mary H. Hunt, Massachusetts. Address, 
Ida Clothier, Colorado. Music. Address, Frances W. Leiter, Ohio. 
Address, Clara C. Hoffman, Missouri. Music. Benediction. 


OFFICERS. President, Mrs. Sarah B. Cooper, San Francisco; first vice- 
president, Miss Sarah A. Stewart, Philadelphia; second vice-president, 
Miss Laliah B. Pingree, Boston; treasurer, Miss Eva B. Whitmore, Chicago; 
recording secretary, Miss Mary C. McCulloch, St. Louis; corresponding 
secretary, Miss Caroline T. Haven, New York. 

MORNING SESSION, 10 O'CLOCK. President's address, Mrs. Sarah B. 
Cooper, San Francisco; subject, " Obstacles to Kindergarten Progress in 
Large Cities." Discussion (limited to five minutes): Miss Laliah B. 
Pingree, Boston; Miss Caroline T. Haven, New York; Miss Mary C. 
McCulloch, St. Louis; Mrs. Mary B. Page, Chicago; Mrs. Eliza A. Blaker, 
Indianapolis. Subject, "The International Kindergarten Union," Miss 
Sarah A. Stewart. Discussion: Mrs. Emily L. Ward, England; Mrs. Ada 
Mareau Hughes, Canada; Miss Annette H. Schepel, Germany; Miss Elise 
Von Calear, Holland; Miss Annie Laws, Ohio. Subject, " The Dangers 
of Public Exhibits of Young Children," Mrs. Alice H. Putnam. Discussion: 
Mrs. Eudora L. Hailman, Miss Emma Marwedel, Miss Eleanor Heer- 

AFTERNOON SESSION, 2 O'CLOCK. Round-table conferences. Social re- 
union. A committee will be in attendance to introduce members and visit- 
ors. Reports will be presented at each session, so far as time will permit. 

EVENING SESSION, 7.45 O'CLOCK. Subject, "Kindergarten Literature," 
Mrs. Louis H. Allen, Mrs. Lucretia W. Treat, Miss Virginia E. Graeff, 
Miss Angeline Brooks, Miss Laura Fisher, Miss Harriet Henderson. 
Subject, " The Kindergarten an Organic Part of the Public-School System." 
General discussion. Subject, "The Shoemaker's Barefooted Children," 
Miss Emily Poulsson. Reading, Mrs. Kate Douglas Wiggin. 


EVENING SESSION, 8 O'CLOCK. Presiding officer, Mrs. Amelia S. Quinton. 
Singing by Indian school of Albuquerque, N. M. Opening services by 
Rev. Dr. C. R. Henderson, University of Chicago; Rev. Dr. Noble. Sing- 
ing by the Indians. Opening remarks, Hon. C. C. Bonney. Singing. 
"A Sketch of the Legislative Work of the Association," Mrs. William L. 
Burke, secretary Brooklyn Auxiliary. A sketch, " The Home-Building 


Work of Seven Years," Mrs. Sara T. Kinney, vice-president of the associa- 
tion. Paper, "An Educational Field Illustration," Miss Mary E. Dewey. 
Address, "The Association's Missionary Work," Mrs. Amelia S. Quinton, 
president of the association. Music. Address, "The Indian Yester- 
day and To-day," Miss Alice C. Fletcher, Fellow of Harvard University. 
Address, "The Indian's Outlook," Gen. Thomas J. Morgan, late U. S. 
Commissioner of Indian Affairs. Address, " From the Indian Standpoint," 
Capt. Chauncey Yellow Robe, a Sioux. Singing by the Indians. Bene- 


MORNING SESSION, 10 O'CLOCK. Scripture reading. Prayer. Opening 
address, Elizabeth McGregor Burt, national president, Waltham, Mass. 
Address, Rev. I. W. Martin, Troy, N. Y. Address, Abbie A. C. Peaslee, 
Auburn, Maine, member Board of Managers of L. W. A. L. ; subject, 
" The Relation of Woman to our Present Political Problem." Address, 
J. D. Fulton, D. D., Chicago, 111. 

EVENING SESSION, 7.45 O'CLOCK. Scripture reading. Prayer. Address, 
Rev. Dr. Gray, rector of Reformed Episcopal Church, Boston, Mass. 
Address, Mrs. E. C. Martin, president of the Troy Branch. Address, Rev. 
James King, D. D., New York City; subject, " A Movement for the Protec- 
tion of American Institutions." 


MORNING SESSION, 10 O'CLOCK. Honorary foreign president, Isabelle 
Bogelot; honorary American president, Ellen J. Phinney. " Woman as a 
Religious Teacher," Ursula N. Gestefeld, New York. Discussion: Cor- 
delia A. Quinby, president of the Woman's Centenary Association; Alice 
May Scudder, representative of the United Society of Christian Endeavor; 
Sarah B. Cooper, president of the International Kindergarten Union; Miss 
Lois A. White, representative of the Christian Woman's Board of Missions; 
Zina D. H. Young, president of the National Woman's Relief Society; 
Mrs. J. Macallum; Elizabeth B. Grannis, president of the National Christian 
League for the Promotion of Social Purity; Fanny M. Harley, Illinois; May 
L. Gibbs, representative of the Dominion Branch of the International 
Order of King's Daughters and Sons; Hattie A. Robinson, Supreme Chief 
of Pythian Sisters. "The Modern Deaconess Movement," Jane Bancroft 
Robinson, Michigan. 

EVENING SESSION, 7.45 O'CLOCK. "Woman in the Pulpit," Rev. Flor- 
ence E. Kollock, California. Discussion: Rev. Eugenia St. John, Kansas; 
Rev. Caroline J. Bartlett, Michigan; Rev. Augusta J. Chapin, Illinois; Rev. 
Mary L. Moreland, Illinois. "The Intellectual Progress of the Colored 
Women of the United States Since the Emancipation Proclamation," Fannie 


Barrier Williams. Discussion: Mrs. A. J. Cooper, Fannie Jackson Coppin, 
Florence Lewis. 


MORNING SESSION, 10 O'CLOCK. Honorary American president, Sarah A. 
Stewart. " Woman's Place in Hebrew Thought," Minnie D. Louis. 
Discussion: Emily Marshall Wadsworth, Mrs. John F. Unger, representa- 
tive of the Woman's Foreign Missionary Society of the Reformed Church 
of the United States. "The Light in the East," Eliva Anne Thayer. 
Discussion: Ella Dietz Ciymer, New York. 

EVENING SESSION, 7.45 O'CLOCK. Honorary American president, Clara 
C. Hoffman. " W T oman as a Minister of Religion," Rev. Mary A. Saffiord, 
Iowa. Discussion: Rev. Mary L. Moreland, Amelia S. Quinton, president 
of the Woman's National Indian Association. " Laws Affecting the Inter- 
ests of Wives and Mothers," Florence Fenwick Miller, England. 


MORNING SESSION, 10 O'CLOCK. Presiding officer, Harriet Taylor 
Upton. " Pestalozzi-Froebel House," Annette Hamminck Schepel, Ger- 
many. Swedish Ladies' Committee, Hulda Lundin, Sweden. " Wimo- 
daughsis," Rev. Anna Howard Shaw, Pennsylvania. " American Library 
Association," Annie Godfrey Dewey, New York; Marie Stromberg, Russia. 
" Lette Verein," Elisabet Kaselow r sky, Germany. New Somerville Club 
(London), Florence Fenwick Miller, England. General German Associa- 
tion of Women, Society for Education of the Working Classes, Federation 
of German Associations of Lady Teachers, Augusta Foerster, Germany. 

EVENING SESSION, 7.45 O'CLOCK. Presiding officer, Meri Toppelius. 
" Ladies' Physiological Institute," Sarah A. Bryant, Massachusetts. 
"Woman's First Dental Association of the United States," Dr. Mary H. 
Stilwell, Pennsylvania. " Dansk Kvindesamfund," Laura Kieler, Den- 
mark. " Finsk Qvinnoforening," Meri Toppelius, Finland. " Qvinno- 
foreninges Unionen i Finland," Ebba Nordqvist, Finland. " Frederika- 
Bremer-Forbundet," Baroness Thorborg Rappe, Sweden. Woman's Mis- 
sionary Society of the Methodist Church, Mrs E. S. Strachan, Canada. 


MORNING SESSION, 10 O'CLOCK. Opening address by the president, Susan 
B. Anthony. " Woman as an Annex," Helen H. Gardener. " The Progress 
of Woman," Lucy Stone. "The Evolution of Woman Suffrage," Carrie 
Lane Chapman. 

EVENING SESSION, 7.45 O'CLOCK. Opening address, Elizabeth Cady 
Stanton. " Woman and the Municipality," Laura M. Johns. "Wyoming," 
Clara Bewick Colby. " Wives and Mothers their Civil Duties," Florence 
Fenwick Miller of England. 




Members of Committee on Organization World's Congress 

of Representative Women. 

ri<i-:r. \KATK >.\s. 77 


MORNING SESSION, 10 O'CLOCK. Opening service, conducted by Mrs. J. N. 
Crouse, president. Music. 10.30. Topic, " The Women's Baptist Home 
Mission Society": a, " Its Inception," Mrs. J. S. Dickerson, first chairman 
of the Executive Board; b, " Its Development," Mrs. W. M. Lawrence, 
present chairman of the Executive Board; c, " Its Pioneer Missionary," 
Sister Joanna P. Moore; d, "Its Finances," Mrs. R. R. Donnelley, first 
treasurer, Mrs. A. H. Barber, present treasurer. Music. " Its Training 
School," Mrs. C. D. Morris, preceptress. " Representative Students," Miss 
M. Virginia Ashton, seniors; Miss Frances J. Ketman, juniors. "A Grad- 
uate," Miss Ella F. Brainard, class of '81. 12. Music. "Christ on the 
Avenues," Mrs. William E. Isaacs, president of the New York City Branch. 
" The Church in the Slums," Mrs. C. Swift, first corresponding secretary 
W. B. H. M. S. 12.30. Adjournment. 

EVENING SESSION, 7.45 O'CLOCK. Devotional service, conducted by the 
president. 8.15. "Our Home Heathen," Miss Mary G. Burdette, cor- 
responding secretary. 8.45. "God's Call to Women the Plea and the 
Promise," Mrs. M. A. Ehlers, principal of Missionary Training Depart- 
ment, Shaw University, Raleigh, N. C. Mrs. S. A. Northrup of Fort 
Wayne, Ind. , will conduct the singing. There will be on exhibition a unique 
piece of work executed by pupils in Miss Lydia Lawrence's Industrial 
School for Colored Girls, in Tampa, Fla., and perhaps some other spec- 
imens of work done in similar schools at other stations. 


MORNING SESSION, 10 O'CLOCK. Federation Council, only members of 
federated clubs invited. Brief reports from Board of Directors. Discus- 
sion of, a, " State Federation"; b, "The Philadelphia Biennial"; c, "The 
Federation Organ." 

EVENING SESSION, 7.45 O'CLOCK. Symposium, " Results of Club Life 
Among Women": a, "Upon the Home," Mrs. J. T. Lamed, St. Louis, Mo. ; 
b, " Upon Society," Maud Howe Elliott, Boston, Mass. \c, "In Public Life," 
Mary A. Livermore, Melrose, Mass.; d, " As a Means of Intellectual 
Growth," Celia Parker Woolley, Chicago; e, " Dangerous Tendencies in 
Club Life," Kate Tupper Galpin, Los Angeles, Cal.;/, "In Relation to 
the Sense of Individual Responsibility," Mary F. Lewis Gannett, Roches- 
ter, N. Y. Mrs. Frances Lester of Grand Rapids, Mich., and Miss Ada 
Sweet of Chicago. 


MORNING SESSION, 10 O'CLOCK. Invocation, Clara Barton. Address, Mrs. 
M. D. Lincoln (Bessie Beech), Washington, D. C. " Commercial Value of 


Literary Work a Statement of Facts," Mrs. Sara J. Lippincott (Grace 
Greenwood). Paper, " Reasons Why Authors Should be Protected," Mrs. 
Katharine Hodges, Brooklyn, N. Y. Paper, " Values of Interest in Liter- 
ature," Mrs. C. M. Spofford, Tennessee. Paper, " How Shall Authors 
Secure Protection?" Mrs. Lelia P. Roby, Chicago. 

EVENING SESSION, 7.45 O'CLOCK. Paper, "Between Two Fires Pub- 
lisher and Plagiarist, "Mrs. E. D. E.N. Southworth. Address, "Inadequate 
Protection of the International Copyright Law," Emily Thornton Charles 
(Emily Hawthorn). Paper, Mrs. James B. Tanner, Washington, D. C. 
Paper, " Insurance Against Piracy of Brains," Mrs. Kate Brownlee Sher- 
wood. Paper, " Imperfections in Copyright Law," Mrs. Virginia S. Pat- 
terson, Kokomo, Ind. " Experiences in Publishing," Mrs. Henry Ward 
Beecher. " The Inalienable Rights of Authors," Mrs. Lucy Page Stelle, 
St. Louis, Mo., and others. 


MORNING SESSION, n O'CLOCK. i. Opening address by the president, 
Mrs. C. A. Quinby. 2. Reading of the Scriptures, Rev. A. J. Chapin. 

3. Prayer, Rev. Ada C. Bowles. 4. Hymn, Rev. Florence E. Kollock. 
" Come, Thou Almighty King." 5. Address, Mrs. M. Louise Thomas, past 
president; topic, "A History of the Woman's Centenary Association." 
6. Address, Mrs. J. L. Patterson, president W. U. M. Society of Massa- 
chusetts; topic, " Our Missions in Massachusetts." 7. Hymn, " Hail to the 
Lord's Anointed." 8. Address, Rev. Florence E. Kollock; topic, "How All 
Our Women Can Help." 9. Address, Mrs. M. R. M. Wallace, president 
Illinois U. W. A.; topic, "Illinois Universalist Woman's Association." 
10. Address, Rev. Lorenza Haynes; topic, " The Relation of the Young 
Women to this Work." n. Address, Rev. Henrietta G. Moore; topic, 
" Woman's Mission as Minister and Missionary in the Church." Benedic- 
tion, Rev. Florence E. Kollock. 

EVENING SESSION, 8 O'CLOCK. Mrs. C. A. Quinby, presiding. Singing, 
"All Hail the Power of Jesus' Name." i. Address, Rev. Augusta J. 
Chapin, chairman of Woman's General Committee on Religious Congresses; 
topic, " AVhat These Things Mean." 2. Address, Rev. Abbie E. Danforth, 
president W. M. Alliance of Ohio; topic, "Home Missions." 3. Address, 
Mrs. M. A. Adams, first vice-president of W. C. A.; topic, "What Mis- 
sions Have Done for Women and What Women Have Done for Missions." 

4. Address, Mrs. H. B. Manford, vice-president of W. C. A. for California; 
topic, "The Need of Missions in California." 5. Hymn, "From Green- 
land's Icy Mountains." 6. Address, Mrs. Mary A. Livermore; topic, 
"What Missions Have Done for the World." 7. Address, Mrs. M. R. 
Libbey; topic, "The Field is the World." 8. Address, Rev. Phebe A. 
Hanaford; topic, " A Woman's Reason Why." 9. Address, Rev. Ada C. 
Bowles; topic, " In Union there is Strength." 10. Address, Rev. Olympia 


Brown Willis; topic, "The Mothers of the Church." u. Address, Rev. 
Myra Kingbury; topic, "What is the Message Universalism has for Mis- 
sions?" Benediction, Mary A. Livermore. 



MORNING SESSION, 10 O'CLOCK. Presiding officer, Alice Timmons Toomy. 
Introductory Address, Alice Timmons Toomy. " Elevation of Woman- 
hood Through the Veneration of the Blessed Virgin," Emma Gary. 
"Women to Whom Churches were Dedicated," Ellen A. Ford. Harp 
solo, Miss Sullivan. Poem, Eleanor C. Donnelly. "The Intellectual 
Woman of the Early Church," Frances Costigan. Vocal solo, Miss 
Reilly. " Catholic Woman the Inspirer of Noble Deeds," Lily Alice 

EVENING SESSION, 7.45 O'CLOCK. Harp and piano, Misses Cudahy and 
Dennison. "The Catholic Woman in Philanthropy," Mary Josephine 
Onahan. " The Catholic Woman in Temperance," Sarah Moore. Poem, 
Margaret M. Halvey. Vocal solo, Miss Wilson. "The Catholic Woman 
as Educator," M. A. B. Maher. "Two Types of Progressive Catholic 
Women," Janet E. Richards. 


MORNING SESSION, 10 O'CLOCK. Music. Address of Welcome, Miss 
Emma R. Wallace, Department President of Illinois. Response, Mrs. M. 
R. Wickins, National President Woman's Relief Corps. Solo, Mrs. Belle 

C. Harris, Past Department 'President, Emporia, Kan. "What Women 
Have Done," Mrs. Flo Miller, National Inspector, Monticello, 111. Address, 
Mrs. Sara L. Rothrock, Past Department President of Iowa. "The 
Women of the War," Mrs. Ida W. Moore, National Instituting and Install- 
ing Officer, Abilene, Kan. Remarks, Mrs. John A. Logan, Washington, 

D. C. 

EVENING SESSION, 7.45 O'CLOCK. Address, Commander-in-Chief A. G. 
Weissert. Paper, Mrs. Emma B. Lowd, Past Department President of 
Massachusetts. Solo, Mrs. Robb, Emporia, Kan. Recitation, " We Keep 
Memorial Day," Elizabeth Mansfield Irving, Toledo, Ohio. Remarks, Mrs. 
Lucy Jones, Past Department President, Norton, Kan. Music, Major T. J. 
Anderson, Topeka, Kan. Remarks, Adjutant-General Grey, G. A. R. 
Remarks, Mrs. Kate B. Sherwood, Past National President, Canton, Ohio. 
Recitation, Mrs. Maude Gerow, Atchison, Kan. 


MORNING SESSION, 10 O'CLOCK. Honorary American president, M. Louise 
Thomas. ' ' Woman's Contribution to the Applied Arts," Florence Elizabeth 


Corey, New York. Discussion: Emily Sartain, Philadelphia. " The Trades 
and Professions Underlying the Home," Mrs. Ernest Hart, England; Helena 
T. Goessmann, Massachusetts; Laura S. Wilkinson, president of the 
National Columbian Household Economic Association; Mary H. Hull, 
Illinois. " Pottery in the Household " (paper), M. Louise McLaughlin, Ohio. 
"Art in Ceramics," Luetta E. Braumuller, New York. " The Influence of 
Women in Ceramic Art," Miss M. B. Ailing, Rochester. 

EVENING SESSION, 7.45 O'CLOCK. Honorary American president, Fannie 
Barrier Williams. " The Kindergarten System and the Public Schools," 
Sarah B. Cooper, California. Discussion: Rev. Mila Frances Tupper, 
Michigan; Caroline M. Severance, California. "The Popular Inculcation 
of Economy," Sara Louise Vickers Oberholtzer, Pennsylvania. "The 
Organized Efforts of Colored Women in the South to Improve their Condi- 
tion," Sarah J. Early, Tennessee. Discussion, Hallie Q. Brown, Alabama. 


MORNING SESSION, 10 O'CLOCK. Honorary American president, Minnie 
D. Louis. " Woman's Work in Greece," Callirrhoe Parren. " Woman's 
War for Peace," NicoBeck Meyer, Denmark; Rev. Amanda Deyo, Pennsyl- 
vania. Discussion, Lizzie Kirkpatrick, Canada. " Woman as an Explorer," 
Mrs. M. French-Sheldon. " The Organized Work of Catholic Women," 
Lily Alice Toomy, California. 

EVENING SESSION, 7.45 O'CLOCK. Honorary American president, Mary 
Lowe Dickinson. " Woman as a Social Leader," Josefa Humpal Zeman, 
Bohemia. " Organized Development of Polish Women," Helena Modjeska. 
"Woman as a Political Leader," J. Ellen Foster, Washington, D. C. Dis- 
cussion: Eugenia B. St. John, Kansas; Mary Frost Ormsby, New York. 
" Woman's Participation in Municipal Government," Laura M. Johns, Kan- 
sas. Discussion: Sarah C. Hall, Kansas. 


MORNING SESSION, 10 O'CLOCK. Presiding officer, Alice May Scudder. 
Woman's Foreign Missionary Society of the Reformed Church of the United 
States, Mrs. John F. Unger, Pennsylvania. Union Maternal Association, 
Louise A. Chapman, Massachusetts. Christian Woman's Board of Missions, 
Mrs. O. A. Burgess, Indiana. Order of Melchisedek, E. A. Thayer, 
New York. Woman's Ministerial Conference, Julia Ward Howe, Massachu- 
setts. United Society of Christian Endeavor, Alice May Scudder, New 

EVENING SESSION, 7.45 O'CLOCK. Presiding officer, Frances Stewart 
Mosher. Woman's Foreign Missionary Society of the M. E. Church, Mrs. F. 
P. Crandon, Illinois. National Free Baptist Woman's Missionary Society, 
Frances Stewart Mosher, Michigan. Woman's Missionary Society of the 
Evangelical Association, Mrs. E. Krecker, Pennsylvania. International 
Order of King's Daughters and Sons, Mary Lowe Dickinson, New York. 


Needlework Guild of America, Mrs. John Wood Stewart, New jersey. 
" National Association of Women Physicians," Dr. Mary Weeks Burnett. 


COMMITTEE. Mrs. Thomas F. Gane, Mrs. B. Ward Dix, Mrs. S. K. 
Lothrop, Mrs. Kate Gannett Wells, Rev. Ida C. Hultin, Mrs. Emily A. 
Fifield, Mrs. Marion H. Perkins, Mrs. Horace Davis. 

MORNING SESSION, 10 O'CLOCK. Rev. Ida C. Hultin, presiding officer, 
president Women's Western Unitarian Conference. Address of welcome, 
Rev. Ida C. Hultin, Moline. Response, Mrs. B. Ward Dix, Brooklyn. 
Report of National Alliance of Unitarian and Other Liberal Christian 
Women, Mrs. Emily A. Fifield, Boston. Report of Women's Western 
Unitarian. Conference, Mrs. Marion H. Perkins, Chicago. Report of 
Women's Unitarian Conference of the Pacific Coast, Mrs. Elizabeth B. 
Eastman, San Francisco; read by Mrs. Horace Davis. Essay, "Post 
Office Mission Work " Mrs. Jenkyn Lloyd Jones, Chicago. Address, Mrs. 
Kate Tupper Galpin. 

EVENING SESSION, 7.45 O'CLOCK. Presiding officer, Mrs. B. Ward Dix, 
president of the National Alliance of Unitarian Women. "A Woman's 
Religion," Mrs. R. H. Davis, New York City. Address, Mrs. Julia Ward 
Howe, Boston. " Religion of the Twentieth Century," Mrs. John C. 
Learned, St. Louis. Addresses, Mrs. Celia Parker Woolley, Chicago; Rev. 
Mary A. Safford, Sioux City. 


MORNING SESSION, 10 O'CLOCK. " Power of Womanliness in Wrestling 
with Stern Problems," Mrs. Florence C. Porter, Winthrop, Maine. Address, 
Mrs. J. Ellen Foster, Washington, D. C. 

EVENING SESSION, 7.45 O'CLOCK. " Scientific Study for Temperance 
Work," Mrs. A. D. Davidson, Oberlin, Ohio, president National Woman's 
Science Club. " Woman as a Law-Giver," Mrs. Mary J. Aldrich, Cedar 
Rapids, Iowa. 


MORNING SESSION, 10 O'CLOCK. Music, voluntary, Miss Kate Romney. 
Congregational hymn, " O My Father, Thou that Dwellest." Prayer, 
Mrs. Sarah M. Kimball. Opening address, Mrs. Zina D. H. Young. 
Relief Society, Mrs. Jane S. Richards. "Women in Medicine," Mrs. 
Ellis R. Shipp, M. D. "Pioneer Women of Utah, 1847-48," Mrs. M. 


Isabella Home. " The Children," Mrs. Zina Y. Card. Song, Mrs. 
Cornelia H. Clayton. "Amusements of the Early Days" (paper), Mrs. 
Nellie Little. " Western Women, Authors and Journalists" (Grain Saving 
by Women), Mrs. Emmeline B. Wells. "Types of Women," M. Hughes 
Cannon, M. D. Impromptu, Emily Shurtliffe. " Industrial Women," Electa 
Bullock. Doxology and benediction. 

OFFICERS. Zina D. H. Young, president; Jane S. Richards, first vice- 
president; Bathsheba W. Smith, second vice-president; Sarah M. Kimball, 
third vice-president ; Emmeline B. Wells, secretary; Mary Isabella Home, 


EVENING SESSION, 7.45 O'CLOCK. Music, voluntary, Miss Kate Romney. 
Congregational hymn, " My Country, 'Tis of Thee." Invocation, Mrs. 
Ardella Eardley. Quartette (ladies' voices), Mrs. May Talmage, Miss Mary 
Romney, Mrs. Minnie J. Snow, Miss May Preston. Introductory remarks, 
President Elmina S. Taylor. Address, " Literature and Art," Mrs. May 
Talmage. Recitation, " The Ultimatum of Human Life," Miss Laura Hyde. 
Address, " Legal and Political Status of Utah Women," Mrs. Emily S. Rich- 
ards. Address, " Motherhood," Mrs. Martha H. Tingey. Soprano solo, Miss 
Mary Romney. Y. L. M. I. A. report, Mrs. Maria Y. Dougall. Address, 
"Our Girls," Mrs. Minnie J. Snow. Address, " Education of Women," Miss 
Julia Farnsworth. Benediction. Voluntary, Miss Kate Romney. 

OFFICERS. Elmina S. Taylor, president; Maria Y. Dougall, first vice- 
president; Martha H. Tingey, second vice-president; Ann M. Cannon, 
secretary and treasurer; Mae Taylor, corresponding secretary. 


MORNING SESSION, 10 O'CLOCK. Presiding officer, Mrs. Letitia Green 
Stevenson, president general. Prayer, the chaplain general. Address of 
welcome, Mrs. Shepard, Chicago. Response, Mrs. William D. Cabell, 
president general, presiding. Paper. The Continental Hall. Paper. 

AFTERNOON SESSION, 2.30 O'CLOCK. The University of the United States. 
The National Hymn. The Liberty Bell. 


MORNING SESSION, 10 O'CLOCK. Session for the transaction of business. 
Election of officers. 

EVENING SESSION, 7.45 O'CLOCK. Addresses on the "Value of the Inter- 
national Idea," by Kirstine Frederiksen, Denmark; Margaret V. Parker, 
Scotland; Isabelle Bogelot, France; Hanna Bieber-Boehm, Germany; Cal- 
lirrhoe Parren, Greece; and May Wright Sewall, America. 




EVENING SESSION, 7.45 O'CLOCK. "Women's Trades Unions in the Amer- 
ican Federation of Labor," Mary E. Kenny, organizer American Federa- 
tion of Labor. " Trades Unions the Old Ideal and the New," Florence 
Kelley, Chicago, expert W. S. Department of Labor. "Women's Trades 
Unions Their Limitations," Susan B. Anthony, New York. Discussion: 
Mrs. A. P. Stevens, Corinne S. Brown. 


COMMITTEE. Mrs. Laura S. Wilkinson, Mrs. Sarah F. Gane, Mrs. Isadore 
P. Taylor, Mrs. Frances E. Owens, Mrs. Ellen M. Henrotin, Mrs. Lavinia 
Hargis, Mrs. Phoebe Butler, Mrs. Ella Hill, Mrs. Elizabeth B. Harbert, 
Mrs. Mary Hinman Abel, Mrs. Susan Look Avery, Mrs. L. M. Mendenhall, 
Mrs. Kate Watson, Mrs. Mary W. McKittrick, Miss Mary F. Eastman, Mrs. 
E. D. Jordan. 

MORNING SESSION, 10 O'CLOCK. Address of welcome, Helen Ekin Starrett. 
Report of the work accomplished by the Columbian Association of House- 
keepers, and plans for the work in the new organization, Laura S. Wilkinson. 
Discussion, Elizabeth Boynton Harbert. " Domestic Service and the 
Family Claim," Miss Jane Addams. Discussion, Mary Hinman Abel. 

AFTERNOON SESSION, 2 O'CLOCK. " Bread-making as an Art Practically 
Illustrated," Mrs. Emma P. Ewing. Discussion, Mary J. Lincoln. "Co- 
operative Housekeeping," Mrs. Mary Coleman Stuckart. Discussion of 
Mrs. Stuckart's plan. 


EVENING SESSION, 7.45 O'CLOCK. Address of greeting. "The History, 
Aims, and Methods of the Association," Miss Marion Talbot. " Fellow- 
ships Account of the Work of the Committee on Fellowships, with 
Letters from the Association Fellows," Mrs. Bessie Bradwell Helmer. 
" The Bureau of Occupations," Miss Eva M. Tappan. " On the Endow- 
ment of Colleges," report of the committee, Miss Alia W. Foster. "The 
Wage Question," partial report of the committee on the study of this 
subject, prepared by Miss Eleanor Lord. " On the Study of the Develop- 
ment of Children," report of the committee, prepared by Mrs. Annie 
Howes Barus and read by Mrs. Whitney Chapin. " On Education 
Progress," report of the committee, Mrs. Martha Foote Crow. Other 

OFFICERS OF THE ASSOCIATION. President, Mrs. Annie Howes Barus, 
Vassar College. Vice-presidents: Mrs. Martha Foote Crow, Syracuse 
University; Mrs. Julia Latimer Munger, Boston University; Mrs. Helen 


Hiscock Backus, Vassar College; Miss Anna R. Haire, Smith College; Mrs. 
Josephine Sarles Simpson, Wisconsin University; Miss Clara Brewster 
Potwin, Wellesley College. Secretary, Miss Marion Talbot, Boston 
University, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Treasurer, Mrs. Mary 
Roberts Smith, Cornell University. 


MORNING SESSION, 10 O'CLOCK. Honorary American president, Mrs. B. 
Ward Dix. " The Ethics of Dress," Alice Timmons Toomy, California. 
Discussion: Margaret Windeyer, representative Womanhood Suffrage 
League of New South Wales; Antoinette Brown Blackwell, New Jersey; 
Julia Ward Howe, president of the Women's Ministerial Conference 
and of the Association for the Advancement of Women; Laura Ormiston 
Chant, representative of the Central National Society for Woman's 
Suffrage, the British Section of the World's W. C. T. U., and of 
the Woman's Anti-Opium Urgency Committee; Octavia Williams Bates, 
Michigan; Laura A. De Merritte, representative of the National Free 
Baptist Woman's Missionary Society; Elizabeth Krecker. " Woman's 
Place in the Republic of Letters," Annie Nathan Meyer, New York; 
Alice Wellington Rollins, New York. Discussion: Cecile Renooz, France; 
Louise E. Francis, California. 

EVENING SESSION, 7.45 O'CLOCK. Honorary American president, Mrs. 
Wm. Thayer Brown. Organization Among Women as an Instrument in 
Promoting the Interests of (a) Industry, Harrietta A. Keyser; (b} Philan- 
thropy, Mary E. Richmond; (c) Moral Reform, Kate Bond, New York; 
(d} Education, Alice Freeman Palmer, Massachusetts; (e) Religion, Mary 
Lowe Dickinson, New York; (f) Literary Culture, Charlotte Emerson 
Brown, New Jersey; (g} Political Liberty, Susan B. Anthony, Rochester, 
N. Y. " The Economy of Woman's Forces through Organization," Rachel 
Foster A very, Pennsylvania. 


MORNING SESSION, 10 O'CLOCK. Honorary American president, Emmeline 
B. Wells. "Woman's Dress from the Standpoint of Sociology," Prof. 
Ellen D. Hayes, Massachusetts. Discussion: Dr. Lelia A. Davis, Canada; 
Prof. Helen L. Webster, Massachusetts. " Dress Reform and Its Neces- 
sity" (paper), Viscountess Harberton, England. "Woman's Political 
Future" (paper), Marie Deraismes, France; Frances E. W. Harper, Penn- 
sylvania. Discussion, Margaret W T indeyer, Australia. "The Amazon 
Land," Martha Sesselberg. 

EVENING SESSION, 7.45 O'CLOCK. Honorary American president, Dr. 
Sarah Hackett Stevenson. Organization Among Women as an Instru- 
ment in Promoting the Interests of (a) Industry, Jane Addams, Illinois;' 
Kate Bond, New York, (d} Philanthropy, Clara C. Hoffman, Missouri. 
(c) Moral Reform, Maud Ballington Booth. (^Education, (e) Religion, 


Rev. Ida C. Hultin, Illinois. (/) Literary Culture, Mrs. Lindon W. Bates, 
Illinois. () Political Liberty, Lillie Devereux Blake, New York. "The 
Economy of Woman's Forces through Organization," May Wright Sewall. 


MORNING SESSION, 10.45 O'CLOCK. Religious services conducted entirely 
by women ordained as ministers, every denomination which has admitted 
women to the ministry being represented. Presiding minister, Rev. Caro- 
line J. Bartlett. Voluntary, Clara Schumann. Organist, Miss Gertrude 
Smith. Invocation, Rev. Jeannette Olmstead. Hymn "Rise Up! Rise 
Up! O Woman," written for the Congress by Rev. Ada C. Bowles, read by 
Rev. Emily Gordon. 

Tune Missionary Hymn. 

Rise up ! rise up ! O Woman, Rise up! the bridegroom cometh 

No longer sit at ease, In grace and majesty; 

The banner of thy freedom Go joyfully to meet him 

Is lifting to the breeze. His name is Liberty. 

Be ready for the morning His face is as the daybreak, 

That breaks thy long, dark night His heart is true and strong, 

Of Ignorance and Bondage, His hand is brave and mighty 

And hail the coming light. Against the sceptred wrong. 

The keys of thy reft kingdom 

He bringeth as a gift; 
O, Woman! wronged and fettered, 

Thy face to greet him lift. 
'Tis God, o'er all and in all, 

'Tis Christ who bids thee rise. 
Thy night is quickly passing, 

Thy morning gilds the skies. 


Prayer, Rev. Florence E. Kollock. Scripture Lesson, Rev. Anna H. Shaw. 
Trio " Blessed are the Pure in Heart," (Faustina Hasse Hodges), The 
Misses Root, St. John, and Hawley. Sermon, Rev. Anna Howard Shaw. 
Hymn, read by Rev. Mary L. Moreland. 

Music Berlin . 

I can not find thee. Even when most adoring, 

Before thy shrine I bend in lowliest prayer; 
Beyond these bounds of thought, my thought upsoaring, 

From furtherest quest comes back: thou art not there. 

Yet high above the limits of my seeing, 

And folded far within the inmost heart, 
And deep below the deeps of conscious being, 

Thy splendor shineth: there, O God! thou art. 


I can not lose thee. Still in thee abiding, 

The end is clear, how wide soe'er I roam; 
The law that holds the worlds my steps is guiding, 
And I must rest at last in thee, my home. 

Benediction, Rev. Mary Safford. 


EVENING SESSION, 8 O'CLOCK. Organ Polonaise Heroique (Julia Rive- 
King; arranged by Harrison M. Wild), Miss Esther S. Deal. Chorus 
Magnificat (Mrs. J. T. Draper). Piano solos Gavotte in E minor; The 
Ripple (Nellie Bangs Skelton), Mrs. Skelton. Songs a, Lov'st Thou for 
Beauty? (Clara Schumann); b, What the Chimney Sang (Gertrude Griswold), 
Mrs. Katharine L. Fisk. Violin and piano Sonata (Helen Hopekirk), 
Miss Currie Duke, Mrs. Fannie Bloomfield Zeisler. Double trios a, 
Hail, Evening Bright (Marie Antoinette); b, Evening Prayer in Brittany 
(Mme. Chaminade). Intermission. Harps Marche Triomphaie (arranged 
by Mme. Josephine Chatterton), Harp Orchestra, led by Mme. Chatterton. 
Harp Orchestra* Mme. Josephine Chatterton, director, Chicago; Mrs. 
McDermott; Mrs. George W. Clark, Syracuse, N. Y.; Miss Bertha Becker, 
Syracuse, N. Y. ; Miss Cecile Le Gierse, New York City; Miss Marie 
Therese Dillon, Chenoa, 111.; Miss Josephine Albert, Fort Wayne, Ind.; 
Miss Helen Rose Mackay, Duluth, Minn.; Miss Cecilia Cudahy, Chicago; 
Miss Emmeline Farrar, Chicago; Miss Charlotte Tarrant, Chicago; Miss 
Minnie Campbell, Chicago. Chorus. Miss Helen W. Root, Miss Grace 
W. Root, Miss Esther St. John, Mrs. Kittie Wallace Davis, Mrs. Annie 
Rommeiss Thacker, Mrs. Pauline Rommeiss Bremner, Mrs. Mina Rom- 
meiss Summy, Miss Jessie F. Root, Miss Jessie Hawley, Mr. Frank K. 
Root, Mr. Walter R. Root, Mr. George F. Root, 2d, Mr. Charles Crank- 
shaw, Mr. W. A. Derrick, Doctor Williams, Mr. W. Stanley Peck, Mr. 
Harry C. Waters. Quartettes (selected), Mrs. Davis and the Rommeiss 
Sisters. Piano solos (selected), Mrs. Zeisler. Violin solo (selected), Miss 
Duke. Solo and chorus Wedding Music (words by Kate Starr Kellogg; 
music by Eleanor Smith), Miss Helen Root and chorus. 


Hark to the song that softly steals 'Tis a tide that pours from glad realms 

From tender green of waking fields. above 

List to the bird-notes in the air, To the earth below, and its song is love. 

And murmurs, murmurs everywhere. O joy, when its glad music rolls 

What hides the vale in pearly mist ? Through human hearts, through mated 

What breathes in buds the spring hath souls. 

kissed? O joy, when to its happy beat 

What trembles through the dreamy air And music swift of coming feet, 
And showers its blessings everywhere? We welcome sing in joyous tone, 

For Love, dear Love hath claimed his own. 

* No large harp orchestra has before been assembled in America. 


Home of childhood, dreams of girlhood, 
\r j f*. * * 

Maiden longings, all are done. 

Through the portals widely swinging 

Herald her coming ! Love hath entered, life begun ! 

Hearts throb to meet her, Now the flow'ret softly sheltered 

Flowers spring to bloom 'neath her feet. In the home-heart blooms apace, 

Soft airs of springtime To her lover perfume breathing, 

Breathe soft upon her; Gives her sweetness, gives her grace. 

Comes she in mystery Heart of mother, strength of brother, 

Love's face to meet. Yield the maiden of your pride. 

Herald his coming, Joy hath found her, 

Hearts throb to meet him, Love hath crowned her, 

Strong in the strength of his love, Mark where she cometh in beauty, a bride. 

Arm to defend her, Joy hath found her, 

Soul true and tender. For Love hath crowned her, 

Crown them with blessings And now she cometh a beauteous bride. 

Ye Powers from above. Hail ! Hail ! Hail ! Hail ! 

Herald their coming, 

Hearts throb to meet them, 

Glad in their love and their youth, 

Hearts one forever, 

Life, love together, 

Vows solemn pledge they in faith and in truth. 

Herald their coming ! 

Peal forth sweet music ! 

Let the deep harmonies roll ! 

Hearts one forever, 

Life, love together, 

Naught, naught can sever 

When soul blends with soul. 

Bless them, ah ! bless them, 

Ye Powers from above. 

Peace soft enfolding, 

Love's rapture holding. 

Bend low, dear Father, love 

And bless from above. 

The programme, from Monday to Saturday inclusive, was 
issued in pamphlet form, and was supplemented by fifteen 
closely printed pages giving general information, specific 
information, diagrams of the halls, information concern- 
ing conferences, conference committees, and general 
reports, and a full list of the members of the Foreign and 
the Home Advisory Councils. This supplementary matter 
will be found in the appendix. The Sunday programmes 
were issued separately. The fine musical programme for 
the Sunday evening service was arranged by Mrs. John C. 



IN the following chapter on the general subject of educa- 
tion is presented a discussion of particular phases of 
what are popularly known as "The New Education" 
and "The Higher Education" by women most of whom 
are specialists of widely recognized attainment and power 
in the particular field which their respective discussions 
cover. Other papers and discussions on the same general 
theme, from numerous and varied points of view, will be 
presented in subsequent chapters, which record the work 
of department, report, and conference congresses; but 
it has seemed best to include in this chapter extracts from 
some of the papers presented in department congresses, 
since thus only could be shown the scope of the utterances 
of the congress as a whole upon this most important sub- 
ject. As already stated in the introduction, the limits of 
this work make it impossible to publish any paper or dis- 
cussion in its entirety. Justice to the participants in the 
congress, as well as to the reader, demands that the manner 
and degree of the abbreviation of the papers be indicated. 



The papers are abridged to from one-fourth to two-thirds 
of their original compass. The following notes indicate 
the character of the matter omitted from each of the 
papers in this chapter in all cases where the omission 
has altered the character and scope of the paper : From 
Mrs. Cooper's paper is omitted a portion of her plea 
for industrial training in our schools. The introduction 
to Mrs. Severance's discussion is omitted; this applied 
the myths of Medusa, Perseus, and Andromeda to the 
present age, and showed how they illustrate the doctrine 
that woman represents the soul or intuitional principle, 
and man the mind or intellectual principle. From Mrs. 
Cabell's address is omitted the introduction, which depre- 
cated an undervaluation of woman's service in the past 
and a too sudden change in her position. From Mrs. 
Mosher's paper that portion has been omitted w r hich 
discussed the beneficial influence of women teachers 
upon the spirit and discipline of the school. From Mrs. 
Oberholtzer's paper, the closing pages, which treat of the 
subject of economy in its more general bearings, have been 
omitted. From Doctor Lozier's paper have been dropped 
those pages which contained a consideration of social 
impurity as it is affected by the pecuniary independence of 
man and the pecuniary dependence of woman. Mrs. 
Adams' address contained illustrations drawn from the 
life of Mary Brigham, and from literature, not reproduced 
here. The introductory portion of Mrs. Maher's address 
was general in its scope; this, with her exhaustive enumera- 
tion and description of the Catholic benevolent orders, has 
been omitted. [THE EDITOR.] 



" We learn through doing ;" that is the foundation prin- 
ciple on which the kindergarten rests. The highest type 
of humanity which education can produce is reached by 
the equal and simultaneous growth of every faculty; 
hence the kindergarten provides for the nourishment of 
every faculty in its earliest stage, on the ground that all 
are essential to a perfect growth. The epochs of educa- 
tional growth follow the divinely ordained epochs of vege- 
table growth ; there is the root-life, the stem-life, and the 
blossom-life. That the blossom will depend very largely 
upon the care and nurture given to the root no one will 
deny. So, then, the germs of every faculty must have their 
appropriate nourishment at the earliest possible point of 
time, and there must be also simultaneous growth. True 
growth is the equal and constantly increasing development 
of every faculty. That is not genuine growth which is 
developed only on one side that is only a bulging and 
misshapen condition. In order to proper growth there 
must be freedom, coupled with obedience to the innate laws 
of life and being, exactly as it is in the vegetable kingdom. 
The child must learn to use his mental powers, as he has 
learned to use his bodily powers, by patient, persistent train- 
ing and effort. He must use his faculties as he does his 
limbs ; he must learn to climb the stairs of mental and 
moral difficulty as he learns to climb the household stairs. 
The art of training precedes the art of teaching. The press- 
ing curriculum of daily school life leaves scanty time for this 
gradual development of all the faculties of a little child. 

The kindergarten concerns itself more with the develop- 
ment of faculty than with the mere imparting of knowledge. 


It recognizes the fact that all education is learning 
transformed to faculty. It does not ask so much, " What 
does the child know ? " as, " Has the child learned how to 
learn ? " It looks less to mere acquirements than to the 
capacity to acquire. It is teaching the little child to teach 
himself. It is controlling the little child that he may learn 
the art of self-control. It is the aim of the kindergarten to 
make men and women who will be self-governing, and thus 
be a law unto themselves the sovereign of their own fac- 
ulties, the pope of their own senses ; men and women who 
will succeed by their own skill and industry. 

" What shall we do with our boys and girls? " is a cry 
that is constantly heard from the laboring classes. In fact 
the cry comes up from every quarter. There is to-day a 
fair, white star rising above the horizon of the educational 
world that is destined to do much toward the illumination 
of this knotty problem, " What shall we do with our boys 
and girls ? " I refer to the pronounced and increasing 
tendency toward technical education for the young, which 
has its foundation in the kindergarten. The feeling is 
abroad, it is in the common air, that the education of the 
future must develop the industrial capacity of the masses, 
thus leading to virtue, prosperity, and peace. What shall 
be done with our boys and girls ? Educate them for work, 
for action, for industry ; cultivate their powers for creating 
and organizing ; and then the desire for doing and accom- 
plishing will take the place of the desire for having and get- 
ting. How is this education to be accomplished ? Let the 
president of a late national teachers' association make 
reply. He says : " Our public-school system can not be 
regarded as complete until the department of manual 
labor is added. State education must teach the children of 
the people to work, without which they can never become 
good citizens. The many must live by labor, and the 
school must help them so to live ; there must be schools 
where they can learn to be workers." 

Wendell Phillips goes straight to the heart of the matter 


where he says : " Seven out of ten who come out of our 
public schools will be obliged to make their living by the 
work of their hands. Hundreds leave school at fifteen 
years of age wholly unable to do anything for which any 
one would be willing or could afford to give them a dollar. 
The boy who is going to the university has two or three 
more years of education given him to fit him for his future. 
Why should not the city extend to the children who prefer 
some mechanical trade equal favors, parallel advantages, 
the same amount of training for their future that the uni- 
versity boy has for his ? The discrimination against those 
who prefer to work with their hands is very unjust. Edu- 
cation should fit a boy for the life of labor which is to be his 
life. The vast bulk of mankind must depend upon labor. 
There is no degradation in labor. If performed with moral 
qualities, it exalts the character. Labor is honorable." 

We contend that the kindergarten is the only true foun- 
dation for industrial education. In the first place, the kin- 
dergarten looks vigilantly after the physical life ; this is the 
substratum, the soil, out of which all other life must spring. 
Physical integrity is the very first condition of success and 
happiness. " On the broad and firm foundation of health 
alone can the loftiest and most enduring structure of life 
be reared." One definition of a man is, " An intelligence 
served by organs "; and to serve him well, these organs must 
be in good repair. A sound body is the best handmaid to a 
sound intellect. In the consentaneous cultivation of the 
physical, the mental, and the moral the highest perfection 
is to be found. There must be a balanced progress in 
which no part profits or is fostered to the injury of the rest. 
Herbert Spencer insists that to develop the physical, play 
is better than gymnastics. The kindergarten, in its work 
with little children, has been called "organized play." 
Frederick Froebel saw that this universal instinct for play 
in little children had a deep meaning, and he set himself to 
discover and utilize this mighty enginery of power and 



The kindergarten is the best agency for setting in motion 
the physical, mental, and moral machinery of the little child, 
that it may do its own work in its own way. It is the rain, 
and dew, and sun that evoke the sleeping germ and bring it 
into self-activity and growth. It is teaching the little child 
to teach himself. The kindergarten devotes itself more to- 
ideas than to words ; more to things than to books. Chil- 
dren are taught words too much, while they fail to catch 
ideas. Give a child ideas. The world does not need fine 
rhetoric, valuable as that is, half so much as it needs prac- 
tical, useful ideas. A famous inventor's counsel to a young 
man was : " Study to have ideas, my boy ; study to have 
ideas. I have always found that if I had an idea I could 
express it on a shingle with a piece of chalk and let a 
draughtsman work it out handsomely and according to rule. 
I generally had ideas enough to keep three or four draughts- 
men busy. You can always hire draughtsmen, but you can 
not hire ideas. Study to have ideas, my boy." The man 
should be the master, not the slave, of his learning, and 
whether he is the one or the other depends very largely on the 
way his knowledge has been gained. It is better to be the 
master of a little knowledge, with the capacity to use it 
creatively, than to be the unproductive carrier of all the 
learning in the libraries. Study to have ideas; life will 
give no end of opportunities for using them. That is 
exactly the aim of the kindergarten to make the mind 
creative, to stimulate thought, to beget ideas. Habits of 
observation are cultivated. Observing is more than seeing. 
The child in the kindergarten is taught to observe that is, 
to notice with attention, to see truly. What he learns in the 
school-room is calculated to make him keep his eyes wide 
open to the world about him. He is taught to think, and 
that is the primary thing. The kindergarten makes the 
knowledge of ideas wait upon the knowledge of facts, just 
as it subordinates the cultivation of the memory to the 
development of faculty. 

The senses are sharpened, the hands are trained, and the 


body is made lithe and active. The gifts and occupations 
represent every kind of technical activity. The children 
must work for what they get. They learn through doing. 
They thus develop patience, perseverance, skill, and will- 
power. They are encouraged by every fresh achieve- 
ment. What they know they must know thoroughly and 
accurately. Every element of knowledge is transformed 
into an element of creation. The mind assimilates what it 
receives, just as a healthy organism assimilates its food and 
is nourished thereby. In his occupations in the kinder- 
garten the child is required to handle, reconstruct, combine, 
and create. " Let the very playthings of your children have 
a bearing upon the life and work of the coming man," said 
Aristotle ; " it is early training that makes the master." This 
universal instinct of play in the child means something. It 
should be turned to good account. It should be made con- 
structive in its outcome, instead of destructive. This rest- 
less activity of the child is the foundation of the indefati- 
gable enterprise of the man. This habit of work must be 
formed early in life, if we would have it a pleasure. Activ- 
ity is the law of healthful childhood. Turn it to good 
account. The perceptive faculties in a well-endowed child 
are far in excess of the reflective faculties. He sees every- 
thing ; he wants to know about everything. He will find 
out if he can. Sensible mothers understand this fact, and 
keep their household gods well out of the way of the young 
" heir apparent." Just as old Dolly Winthrop said, in " Silas 
Marner": "If you can't bring your mind to frighten the 
child off touching things, you must do what you can to keep 
'em out of the way. That's what I do wi' the pups as the 
lads are allays a-rearing. They will worry and gnaw, worry 
and gnaw they will, if it was one's Sunday cap as hung any- 
where so as they could drag it. They know no difference, 
God help 'em ; it's the pushing o' the teeth as sets 'em on, 
that's what it is." That's exactly what it is with the rest- 
less child. It's the pushing of the teeth, the intellectual 


molars and bicuspids, so to speak. They are getting ready 
to masticate their mental food. 

Bodily vigor, mental activity, and moral activity are indis- 
pensable to a perfected life. All these are cherished and 
developed in the true kindergarten; all these make the 
man, and prepare him for efficient work in every depart- 
ment of life. Every child should have the privilege of 
making the most of himself by unfolding all that is in him. 
As one of the most noted among the disciples of the great 
Froebel, Miss Emily Sherriff, of London, says : " The poor 
man suffers wrong when his education is so defective that 
he can not use his faculties aright, when his senses are 
blunted, his observation and judgment insecure. This 
wrong to the poor may be avoided by early methodical 
training in the kindergarten, thus fitting them for industrial 
pursuits. As it is now," she goes on, "when boys and 
girls leave school to go to some trade, they go with hands 
and eyes absolutely uncultivated ; they begin with clumsy 
fingers, with that untrue habit of vision which belongs to 
those who have never learned the difference between accu- 
rate and inaccurate impressions." Suppose these children 
had been first trained in the kindergarten taught there to 
observe resemblances and differences of forms and colors, 
to reproduce accurately what they have observed accurately, 
to have acquired a certain sureness and delicacy of hand- 
ling, which would be further cultivated by drawing at school 
then these boys and girls would enter an industrial 
apprenticeship, or any technical school, in a very different 
condition ; they would be able to grapple at once with 
ordinary difficulties, instead of beginning the education of 
their hands and senses, and would in consequence reach 
much sooner the degree of proficiency that insures payment 
for work. When we withhold this cultivation of the senses 
and of manual dexterity, we actually maim children in the 
use of some of the most important faculties ; we rob them 
of what nature designed for them. It is a fact that too little 


thought is given to boys and girls who upon leaving school 
will enter industrial ranks. Too large a share of training is 
paid to mere intellectual development ; too little to practical 
morality and manual training. It is charged by some that 
our public schools tend to unfit our boys and girls for good, 
honest work. Is the charge true? I do not believe it is. 
It ought not to be so. But a thoughtful observer and edu- 
cator wisely says that four years of study without labor, 
wholly removed from sympathy with the laboring world, 
during the period of life when tastes and habits are rapidly 
formed, will almost inevitably produce disinclination, if not 
inability, to perform the work and duties of the shop or farm. 
There must be something wrong where such a feeling 
exists. That notable nation from which we have derived 
more good sense and more examples worthy of imitation 
than from all others, the Jewish nation, stands preeminent 
in this, that it has always honored labor. Every child was 
taught some manual craft, so that if his resources failed 
there should be no Jewish child who should not be able to do 
something, or make something. It is not necessary to be a 
drudge in order to be a workman. The kindergarten ennobles 
toil. It teaches the little child to work with his hand, but 
to control his work with his head. Let this purpose and 
spirit pervade industrial education until the child reaches 
manhood's estate, and his labor will be full, not only of 
manly quality, but of moral quality as well. The coordina- 
tion of the work-shop and the school-house would be the 
emancipation of labor from present prejudices. 

There is another point full of suggestive sadness in 
regard to the lack of industrial training. What has been 
found in regard to several thousand prison convicts in two 
of the largest penitentiaries of the East ? The great, salient, 
flaming fact is not that they can not read and write, not 
that they had not been to Sunday school, not that they were 
intemperate ; but the most common, the most generic fact 
is that these convicts know no trade, most of them being 
entirely ignorant of all trade knowledge. Few, if any, of 


our large cities have ever expended a dollar to teach a boy 
a trade. How much does it cost for criminals ? 

Then, again, it has been carefully estimated that seven- 
tenths of the convicted criminals of the United States are 
persons who have never learned a trade, or followed any 
industrial pursuit. And a very large proportion of these 
criminals are under twenty-five years of age. What a sug- 
gestive fact ! Does not public economy demand that some- 
thing be done to provide facilities for teaching young men 
industrial pursuits? They can not become mechanics 
without the opportunities of learning a trade. Idleness is 
the devil's workshop. Demolish this workshop with the 
batteries of industry. The prevention of crime is the duty 
of society. Society has no right to punish crime at one 
end if it does nothing to prevent it at the other end. 
Society's chief concern should be to remove the causes from 
which crime springs. We may be very eloquent in plead- 
ing that punishments shall be quick, sharp, and decisive, 
that the gallows shall have every victim that it claims by 
law, and that eternal vigilance shall be kept on evil-doers. 
But all this will not avail. Ruskin says truly : " Crime can 
not be hindered by punishment. It will always find some 
shape and outlet unpunishable and unclosed." Crime can 
only be truly hindered by letting no boy grow up to be a 
criminal, by taking away the will to commit sin, not by the 
mere punishment of its commission. Formation, not refor- 
mation, should be the watchword. Crime, small and great, 
can only be stayed by formation, education ; not the educa- 
tion of the intellect merely, but the education of the head, 
heart, and hand, which is the education of the whole man. 

Better, far better, to plant kindergartens, and organize 
industrial schools, and educate the young for work, than 
to let them grow up in such a manner as to be good for 
nothing else than to form Jacobin clubs and revolutionary 
brigades which will be the beginning of the end of our 
greatness and prosperity, and of the republic itself. We 
may make laws and constitutions on paper, but character is 


a growth, and to all growth belongs the element of time. 
We must call the little children from the very earliest years, 
and prepare them for useful and honorable citizenship. I 
have tried to outline the plan. Let me briefly summarize. 
Take the very little child into the kindergarten and there 
begin the work of physical, mental, and moral training. Put 
the child in possession of his powers ; develop his faculties ; 
unfold his moral nature ; cultivate mechanical skill in the use 
of the hands ; give him a sense of symmetry and harmony, a 
quick judgment of number, measure, and size ; stimulate 
his inventive faculties ; make him familiar with the customs 
and usages of well-ordered lives ; teach him to be kind, 
courteous, helpful, and unselfish ; inspire him to love what- 
soever things are true, and pure, and right, and kind, and 
noble ; and thus equipped, physically, mentally, and morally, 
send him forth to the wider range of study, which should 
include within its scope some sort of industrial training. 
This training should put the boy or girl into the possession 
of the tools for technical employment, or for the cultivation 
of the arts of drawing and kindred employments ; still 
further on the boy and girl should have a completed trade. 
Thus will they be prepared to solve the rugged problem of 
existence by earning their own living through honest, 
faithful work. Throw open the kindergarten and the 
schools for industrial and art training to every child, and, 
with the heart pure, the head clear, the hand skillful and 
ready, we shall hear no more of the mutterings of mob vio- 
lence and internecine strife. Our fair land shall take its 
place in the very front ranks of nations distinguished for their 
industrial achievements. There must be more of genuine 
human sympathy between the top and the bottom of society. 
The prosperous and the happy must join hand and heart 
with the toilers and strugglers. The living, loving self is 
wanted. The heart must be the missionary. The life must 
be the sermon. All mankind must be brethren. The chil- 
dren must be taught these great principles, and aided in 
putting them into practice. 



I have but a few words to say, but they are very prac- 
tical. Having accepted the value of the kindergarten, as 
you do to-night by being present, the next questions are : 
" Why should we try to make the kindergarten a part of 
the public-school system, and how shall we do it?" The 
public-school system now is arranged only for the very poor 
or for the very rich, for those who can pay high prices or 
for those who will send their children to the free kinder- 
garten ; but our hope is to get the kindergartens into the 
public schools, in order that all classes and who need 
them more than the poorer classes? can be sent there, and 
that the children may be kept entirely free from dogmatic 
theology and know only the Heavenly Father, and rejoice 
in his sunshine and air, and in his blessings, and later there 
will be time enough to learn of the miserable theology that 
we have. 


About the time that America was arousing to its sense 
of new responsibility toward its individual people, evinced 
by the battle of Bunker Hill and the following battles, a 
man of unique personality in Germany was trying a series 
of strangely unsuccessful experiments in dealing with little 
children. The era of Pestalozzi and that of our American 
Revolution cover about the same period. I have always 
been glad that this was true ; it seems to me that unless 
this developing human race learns how to develop itself 
by the very best means in the world, that experiment 
.inaugurated a century ago would necessarily be a failure. 
You know the reason humanity is so very much better 
than other forms of evolving life is that it has reached 
the stage where it can look back over its progress 


and find the means whereby it has developed ; it uses the 
laws that are found in that development; it takes the 
younger, weaker portions of the race in its arms and lifts 
them according to the same laws whereby men find that 
they themselves have been elevated. In other words, 
humanity's evolution now is deliberate consciousness, and 
that is all that the science and philosophy of education 
means finding out its laws, making the most of them, and 
lielping those who have not so far had the best help. We 
liear people ask: " Do we believe in the kindergarten?" 
I wonder sometimes whether we might not just as well 
ask : " Do we believe in trying to develop the little human 
beings that come into the world, and do we believe in edu- 
cation or cultivation at all ?" The kindergarten system is 
not anything that is hide-bound, nothing that is settled 
into stereotyped forms, at all. It is simply the name now 
given to the best means that have been discovered so far 
for the systematic development of the little members of the 
human race, those who are beginning life. One hun- 
dred years from now the system may have developed 
vastly different methods ; its spirit may have become more 
enlightened ; its vision cleared so that we may scarcely 
recognize the method ; but it will be the same system, 
because, starting with the careful observation of indi- 
viduals, it found the laws of development among children. 
Well-nigh every town and every school board will claim 
economy as the motive for keeping kindergartens out of 
the public school. I would urge that they be placed in the 
public schools because of their economy. We waste in this 
broad land of ours the most valuable years of the children's 
lives. Two or three years prior to the time when a child 
usually enters the public schools could be used to vastly 
greater advantage than any of the later years. In the boat 
races at colleges, months before they begin to drill on the 
lake they begin to drill in the gymnasium, getting the 
muscles in trim and getting the general system in order ; 
and so the kindergarten would get the whole system and 


nature of the child into good condition, so that when the 
alphabet and the number lessons came the children would 
be ready for them, developed in eye and ear and other 

We now scarcely realize what an obstruction these studies 
are to the children. The teacher is burdened by undisci- 
plined children, so that things that ought to be learned in a 
few months take years, so that the science has to be left for 
the high school, and things that might easily come with 
the readiness of a child's memory have to be put away off 
where the period of generalization comes. We could have 
years more, as far as actual results are concerned, if we 
would begin at an earlier time. And this does not mean 
that the child is to be overtrained that is, its mind 
developed too rapidly. It is done in a natural fashion, so 
that the child is always better for it. 

Now, in regard to the industrial problem, I was glad of 
what was said in the original paper in regard to the need of 
equalizing the advantages. Oh, it is pitiful in this world 
of ours that so many people never know what it is to enjoy 
the beauties of life, the finer, softer, and more finished 
things the things that really give the reasons for life and 
if we, could in this way take these little hobblers off the 
street and put into their souls a love of the beautiful, it 
would never depart from them. Do you think of any 
insanity greater than to leave on our city streets children 
of the ages from three to six utterly without training, when 
the same amount of time, from thirteen to sixteen, has to be 
put into the shop ? Most children have to leave school at 
the early age of twelve, thirteen, and fourteen. If we 
could only utilize these years that they have lost in this 
earlier part of their life, how much more just would it be ! 

There is another phase that always attracts me more than 
the kindergarten itself, and that is the training school that 
must inevitably go with the kindergarten. I believe the 
time will come when it will be considered a great lack in 
the education of every girl not to have had a training in 


the principles of child-development and child-culture. 
The time will come when it will be equally necessary 
that every man should have the same training, that 
every human being that has any kind of relationship 
with little children in the world should have systematic 
and careful training for that relationship. If in every 
school in the city there was a kindergarten there would 
necessarily be in the high school a training school for 
kindergartners. This training school would send out into 
the world every year young women who were trained 
young women who for many months had had their atten- 
tion directed to the fundamental laws of psychology, and 
all the various things that have to do with the development 
of tender, tiny child-life. If any one of you has given any 
thought to this matter, or been associated with many 
mothers, have you not seen them violate at almost every 
turn some fundamental law, not only of psychology, but of 
morals ? 

In a thousand instances we lose the higher and more deli- 
cate distinctions of morality in dealing with children, and 
such violations could scarcely be if for even three months 
in the high school a girl's thought had been directed in 
these channels. 

The kindergarten must be eventually in our public 
schools, because every year of our life must be used to the 
best advantage ; we can not let grow up to weeds those 
precious years, most precious of all in the home. It is 
needed in the public school because it will inevitably bring 
about that cycle of training whereby the mothers will be 
trained as well as the children. It will help to prepare us for 
that day, which I hope another generation at least will see, 
when every one will have leisure enough in some way to live 
really as a human being. So it will help on the reign that is 
to come when our industrial system is in a little better 
shape, and so we shall have developed human beings as 
well as grinding labor-machines. It will, more than all, 
tend to give throughout all humanity that sense of rever- 


ence for human life, that reverence for the little blossom- 
ing buds of the world, which if once in our souls will make 
us reverence every human being ; and it will fit us for the 
coming of that day " wherein reigneth righteousness." 


A system of education is inspired by the philosophical 
and moral ideas of the time. More than one man must give 
consent to its general fundamental notions before doctrines 
can grow into systems of practice. A system of education 
is the consequence of all that we believe. It forms the 
present, and is formed by our ideals of what man should be. 

The doctrines taught by Froebel have universal applica- 
tion. The primary school and all education of our time, 
kindergarten and university, should be based upon Froebel's 
theory of the education of man, because it is a comprehen- 
sive philosophy of human life. It does not differ from the 
thought of other great philosophers. Rosmini, Froebel's 
great contemporary in Italy, applies to education the same 
doctrines. We receive them now because we are coming to 
realize unity. The individual does not stand unrelated to 
the whole ; nor is he to be broken and unrelated to him- 
self, but whole and efficient. 

It is impossible in a short discussion to trace the devel- 
opment of educational thought. We may only repeat a few 
of the great names w r hich have made the kindergarten and 
the primary school of our time possible : Plato, Plutarch, 
Luther. To the Greek thought of harmonious development 
we must return. Greece has given us typical forms in art, 
in deeds, in thought ideals which must produce different 
results, under new conditions, it is true. With the name 
of Luther the primary school begins. 

Rousseau, in 1778, was the protestant against the mean- 


ingless forms imposed upon children in the name of educa- 
tion, who preached the return to nature, but did not know 
how rightly to relate nature to human nature, and, crying 
in the wilderness, prepared the way for Pestalozzi. 

Pestalozzi first definitely applied the idea of organic 
growth to education, which was more clearly and consist- 
ently applied by Froebel. Froebel created a world for the 
child which, by its conditions, made right action and spon- 
taneous action one. The right impulse now results in right 

Froebel saw that man's need was unity of development, 
or perfect evolution in accordance with the laws of his 
being such evolution as science discovers in the other 
organisms of nature. Throughout life he was always seek- 
ing for the underlying unity in all things. Man and nature 
proceed from the same source, and must be governed by the 
same laws. Nature he saw as one expression of the mind 
of God. 

Froebel's effort was to give men to themselves. " Man's 
destiny is harmonious growth through self-activity. It is 
treason to human nature to consider man essentially bad. 
Man thereby denies God in humanity, and hence the ways 
and means of truly knowing God." 

The psychology of infancy is beginning to be fairly well 
understood. We are at least awakened to its importance. 
The primary school has been reformed by the kindergarten 
idea, and some kindergartens need to be reformed by the 
Froebelian idea. Heroic, self-sacrificing work has been 
done, yet so far are we from successful education that we can 
scarcely pause a moment for self-congratulation. 

Froebel's work, like that of Rosmini, was only a frag- 
ment. In the man at every stage of life there is something 
of the child ; there is a new development going on within 
him, which requires to be guided until he is able to educate 
himself. In notes left by Rosmini he proposed to treat of 
the period of development from the seventh to the four- 
teenth year, especially with reference to the conscious 


knowledge of moral obligation and law. It is thought that 
he would have given a clear demonstration of what he more 
than once said, that upon this period principally depends 
the character of the man for good or evil. It is to this 
period of development that the whole educational world 
needs now to direct its attention. 

A new civilization is upon us for which no adequate pro- 
vision has been made. A century ago the child was on the 
old farm, in contact with real things, the real delights of 
nature, the real joys and responsibilities of the family, for 
whose comfort and success he was, in part, responsible. 
Adam Bede goes to work with his father when he. is only a 
little lad. Our child lives in a crowded city, in a flat. He 
has no direct contact with nature nothing to do after 
school hours but to wander in the streets. He sees his 
father once or twice a week. 

Intelligence on a low plane offers greater temptations to 
the bad than have ever been devised before. The schools 
are not adequate to the needs of our time. We must have 
help the help of intelligent criticism on the part of the 
public. There must be some comprehension of the immense 
work we have to do with half an army of teachers on half 
pay. We have neither teachers nor a curriculum to meet 
the demands which the present generation is making by its 
increasing mind activity, which is negative and for bad 
unless directed. 

The word development is most familiar in modern 
thought and modern education. It means a change from 
simplicity to complexity of structure, greater power, and 
skill in all directions, yet in perfect harmony with the nature 
of the individual. Development does not mean merely an 
increase in knowledge or muscle, though it may include 
these. Only such exercise as is proportioned to the strength 
of the being, produces development. Is this process in the 
human being easy to understand and direct ? 

Instinct is good as far as it goes; it does not go far. 
We have learned something by experience when it is too 


late to save the life. Only the thoughtful, the clear, pure 
mind sees the future in the present germ. Is it possible 
that we in this republic, in this nineteenth century, are 
trusting fifty little children to the care of one young 
woman, expecting her to return them to us harmoniously 
growing in body, mind, and spirit ? Women are wonderful 
they can perform miracles but this is asking too much. 

It has been well said recently that the ''new education" 
lies in the spirit of the teacher, rather than in the subject 
taught. A child ten years old can master the subjects 
taught in a primary school, or the sequence of exercises 
given in a kindergarten. But a child, or a childish man or 
woman, can not use these exercises in such a way as to 
develop a human being to successful living. It is only the 
mature, highly organized, spiritual mind that can direct 
mind. The mature person may have lived many years or 
few ; it matters not. 

There must be an inner connection between the mind of 
the teacher and the mind of the child, between the mind 
of the child and the subject upon which the mind is exer- 
cised. The quality of mind which classifies by externals, 
by appearance, can not see this inner movement of spirit. 
Reform must come - 

First. By requiring a higher quality of mind to direct 
and form the soul of the child. A high order of mind can 
influence fifty children, and help them to educate each other. 
A lower order of mind can not influence one child. " The 
young, whom they should be guiding upward, stay idling 
at the foot of the hill, or the nobler spirits, pressing forward 
unguided, fall exhausted and shattered on the cliffs." 

Second. By a better course of study, in which we must 
include art education and industrial training, not for the 
sake of the product, but for the sake of the human being, 
moral and physical. 

Third. The number of children intrusted to one person 
must be reduced. 

We of this generation have only one duty to perform 


that is to prepare the next generation to live on a higher 
plane than that on which we are living ; to prepare them to 
take possession of themselves and of the world. There 
is one question which each generation asks, and which 
each must answer the same old question what must 
we do to be saved? There is only one answer for us 
the new education of the home, the school, and the church. 

Will the people themselves support this new education ? 
Whatever the plans brought before this congress for the 
improvement of humanity, whether in art, industries, 
charities, temperance, or religion, each speaker, at the 
last, has laid the responsibility of reform upon the educa- 
tion of the children. This is both hopeful and discouraging ; 
hopeful in that we have all come to agree upon this funda- 
mental necessity; discouraging in that the way has not been 
provided. There are not ten superintendents of schools in 
the United States of America who would dare appoint good 
teachers, even if sufficient money were provided to induce 
capable people to undertake the work. The public school 
ought to be the sacred institution of the republic. 

We need the influence of women as directors of education, 
on school boards, and as superintendents, who, acting with 
men of moral courage, shall use the school for the child, 
and not for selfish personal and political ends. 


The " school ma'am " is a distinctive feature of American 
civilization. No other woman wage-earner in the world 
receives as great compensation for her work ; no woman- 
worker is more highly respected. In many communities 
she is the leader of the social and intellectual life, and is so 
quoted, regarded, and bowed down before that many a lady 
of the manor might envy the influence accorded to her. 
" Teacher said so " is the argument that admits of no reply 


in the disputes of most well-regulated families, and one 
that the small boy and the big girl alike have learned to 
use effectively. 

Not only when engaged in the active work of the school- 
room are teachers a power in the community. Many marry, 
many enter other occupations, but whatever they do, where- 
ever they go, they are still leaders of thought, directors of 
the great ethical movements of the day, organizers of clubs, 
classes, societies, and church activities. The self-reliance, 
self-control, and ability to control others developed in the 
school-room make the teacher a power in whatever she 
undertakes, whether with her children, in the home, or in 
community enterprises. Drop from the list of names of 
prominent women in our country all who have taught, and 
the remaining list will be small indeed, and teaching offers 
so fine a preparation for motherhood that it is a short- 
sighted view of life that regrets the brief term of the 
teacher's work. 

But not because of the teacher's enviable individual posi- 
tion as legislator, judge, and executive while in the school- 
room, nor because of the power she possesses in the commun- 
ity after leaving the school-room, is she so distinctive and so 
vital a part of our national life. The reason is deeper. Public 
schools are not charitable institutions; they are institutions on 
which the safety and perpetuity of our national life depend. 
Our Government has established public schools not to give 
every poor boy an opportunity for an education, as is so 
often thoughtlessly stated, but to provide for itself worthy 
citizens ; for an educated people, and for such only, is the 
republican form of government the best in the world. " We 
must educate," is the cry of an imperiled republic. Few 
children pass beyond the elementary schools. Through 
their superior fitness for the work the past fifty years has 
seen the elementary schools pass into the hands of women ; 
therefore all the training for citizenship that most natives 
of the United States receive at school they receive at the 
hands of women. A strange anomaly, that women should 

'.. <* 



have proven themselves the fittest trainers for citizens and 
yet be found unworthy of citizenship! This anomaly 
defies logic. 

Not facts, but power to generalize and apply facts to 
specific life, is now the great thing needful. The distinct- 
ive office of the school is to train the mind and to furnish 
it with knowledge on which to exercise its power, but the 
highest demand made upon the school is the upbuilding of 
character. If it fails in this it fails in all. The charge is 
continually made that it is failing ; still worse, the absolute 
immorality of the public school is urged by religious big- 
ots, and they are echoed by many of whom we have a right 
to expect clear thinking. This ignorance of the influence at 
work in the modern school is culpable. The church is itself 
second to the public school as an ethical agent in our coun- 
try, and I doubt if now the home is surpassed by it. In the 
first place, the intellectual can not be separated from the 
moral. Every student of ethics agrees with Socrates that 
knowledge is virtue. The dull brain is the one to be feared 
as well as to be deplored in all the relations of life. 
In the words of a teacher: "It is where obtuseness is, 
where ignorance is, where the thick head is, that there 
is doggedness, and narrowness, and opinionativeness, and 
bigotry, and self-conceit, and sulkiness, and soil for what- 
ever is unhealthy, unsocial, immoral and a hindrance 
among men." Wherever the teacher arouses the stupid 
mind, or gives an edge to dull thought, she is doing work hav- 
ing eminent moral value. She is doing, perhaps, the most 
that can be done in the real elevation of character. Truth is 
one and universal. What is good for the mind is good for 
the morals. The opposite holds also what is bad for the 
mind is bad for the morals. Slovenly habits of thought are 
absolutely immoral in their effects. But it is not alone in 
the development of true thought that the school is a moral 
power the revolution in discipline has been complete in 
the years that have seen women make the rules in the school- 
room. The idea of the moral necessity for flagellation had 


been so instilled in the minds of the rulers of children, and 
was so supported by most sound authority and custom, that 
the first objection, and the most persistent, to be urged 
against a woman teacher was that " she couldn't thrash 
the boys." 

The most advanced never dreamed that a school could be 
controlled without blows, and that through woman's very 
inability to give them effectively would come a more 
excellent way. Women brought to the school the two 
greatest characteristics needed in child-care patience, the 
out-growth of years of limitations, and sympathy with 
childhood, the out-growth of the natural instinct. 

They brought, too, the great housekeeping characteris- 
tics love of neatness and order, attention to detail, and 
thoroughness in the doing of little things. As a result we 
have had an entire change in school management, which 
makes it the great ethical agent it is to-day. 

There is that in the mere mechanism of a well-regulated 
modern school which trains the secondary virtues as no 
other influence can. Punctuality, regularity, cleanliness, 
order, courtesy of manner, all so essential to success in 
business life, are inculcated in all schools worthy the name. 

We hear much said of the importance of manual train- 
ing being introduced into our schools, and its importance 
can not be overestimated, but, grave as is the need for 
trained workmen, the employer urges the graver need for 
men who are faithful to duty, who are dependable, who are 
true to the small fidelities. The schools best subserve the 
good of the country in this respect by cultivating the sense 
of responsibility in the child. I believe it is important that 
a child be taught to drive nails, but it is of infinitely greater 
importance that he be taught to drive every nail that it 
is his duty to drive after he has learned to drive nails. 
Attention, industry, promptitude, and dispatch are much 
more difficult things to teach than Sloyd, and Sloyd of itself 
will never teach them. It matters not so much what is 
taught as how it is taught. The characteristics enumerated 


are developed by thorough work in any line, manual or 
intellectual, and when once developed manifest themselves 
in whatever work comes to hand. The school where the 
child knows that the lesson must be learned in the time 
allotted, and learned perfectly; the school where tardiness 
and irregularity are not tolerated, and to which the child is 
sent in spite of headache, or base-ball, or visits, or circus, 
thus making it the business of his life, will give at last 
these fundamentals of steadfast strength and sturdiness of 
purpose that will make him a power in any work. 

Respect for authority and for the character of others, 
thoughtfulness of the rights of others, and faithfulness to 
obligations, all so essential in community life, are of neces- 
sity developed by the school relations. 

The higher morals truthfulness, honesty, justice, honor 
are taught either through incidents of school life or 
through discussions of lessons ; or through private admoni- 
tions which violations of good conduct call forth. Doctor 
Harris places kindness at the head of all the school-room 
virtues, and it is certain that all the virtues spring to life at 
its bidding. There is scarcely a virtue that the public 
school does not possess, and there is no virtue that it may 
not possess, if the teacher is true to her calling, and is 
animated by the proper spirit ; for, underlying all, perme- 
ating all, paramount to all other influence of the school, is 
the character of the teacher. Each in her own little realm 
may truthfully say, and solemnly, "I am the school." All 
moral excellence is contagious, and all the laws governing 
physical contagion obtain. The germs of a virtue can not 
be planted at will in the character of another. No process 
of spiritual inoculation of special virtues has as yet been 
discovered. If the teacher would teach honesty she must 
be honest; if she would teach love of truth she must be 
true, through and through. All methodizing fails here, but 
a teacher who stands before her school the embodiment of 
conscientious duty-doing, and of scrupulous truth and hon- 
esty, can no more fail to teach duty-doing, truth, and hon- 


esty than the sun can fail to warm when its rays fall. She 
who is doing her best without stint, and with every uncon- 
scious suggestion of solicitude and self-sacrifice, is giving off 
virtue from her very garment's hem, and is teaching morals 
whether she is hearing a class in arithmetic or marshaling 
her children in line in the school-yard. (If we are right in 
believing that the foundation of the state is the public 
school, and that the influence of each individual school, for 
weal or woe, is entirely dependent upon the character of the 
woman at its head, then by cultivating the character of the 
teaching force of our country we give our nation's future a 
sure and mighty uplift, and no duty is more imperative on 
the nation than the thorough training of its teaching force. 
The young woman who is to become a teacher should be 
surrounded with all the ennobling and broadening influences 
possible. The narrow financial policy of most States in the 
treatment of their normal schools necessarily equips them 
with teachers inferior in talent and acquirements to those 
of the richly endowed universities, and limits opportunity 
for culture in all directions. No expense is spared to edu- 
cate young men for the nation's defense in the naval and 
military academies. After carefully selecting them, because 
of superior intellectual, physical, and moral fitness, we make 
them the charges of the nation until thoroughly fitted for 
their work. And yet that will be to guard the nation against 
dangers from without alone. The young women whose 
work it will be to guard the nation from the graver, more 
imminent dangers from within, the dangers of unworthy 
citizenship, have poor opportunities for preparation, and 
they must avail themselves of these opportunities as best 
they can, often weighted with poverty and natural unfitness 
for the work. 

The hours of a teacher's work cover those of the day that 
other women use for interchange of thought, and the even- 
ing finds her so exhausted of nerve-force that she is tempted 
to rest and solitude, unless uncompleted tasks claim her and 
exhaust her further. 


To breathe over and over again the same atmosphere is 
as harmful to the mind and spirit as to the body. A teacher 
needs to inhale fresh spiritual breaths with each day's 
advent. To be truly the angel of the school she must often- 
times use her wings and rise above the school into aerial 
heights, whose draughts shall refresh and vivify, and from 
which new, and broad, and inspiring views may be obtained. 

Our nation's future suffers much because of the limited 
outlook of the teachers. The four walls of the school-room 
mark the horizon of the majority of the so-called earnest 
workers, and the pity of it is that this narrowness is lauded 
as virtue, is praised as devotion to the work, is proclaimed 
as the ideal of duty-doing. When to be more of a teacher 
demands to be less of a woman, it is time to cry halt and 
prepare for defense, for an enemy of childhood advances. 
What childhood needs for its full development is contact 
with fully developed womanhood. This is God's law. 

We have known mothers whose time and strength were 
so given to the cares of the household that all thought of 
self was lost, and mind, heart, and body were weakened, 
shriveled, and dwarfed until nothing but a caricature or a 
pitiable distortion of womanhood remained. The self-sur- 
render was complete and the sacrifice heroic, but it was a 
suicidal self-surrender and a mistaken sacrifice. The true 
teacher's measure is the true mother's measure not the 
painful pursuing to senseless nicety of the petty details of 
child-care, but a steady nerve and measureless sympathy, a 
strong, wise thought, uninfluenced by weak feeling, but able 
to distinguish essentials from non-essentials. 

A wise conservation of energy must precede a liberal 
expenditure of energy. She who saves herself that she may 
wisely give herself is most generous, for it is she who can 
give full measure, pressed down and running over, when 
the true time for giving comes. Again I emphasize the 
grave need for the most careful training, the broadest cult- 
ure, the development of the complete womanhood of those 
into whose hands the state intrusts its children. A stream 


can rise no higher than its source, and the source of the 
mightiest influences flowing through the school-room is the 


Without change in her relations to man and to society, 
woman's work partakes of the general extension and evolu- 
tion in which she has taken part. She needs, in my opinion, 
no additional powers or privileges simply the opportunity, 
daily widening, to exert her manifold endowments. How- 
ever great her intellectual gifts, however broad her cult- 
ure, her supreme function, now as ever, is to bring forth 
children; her overwhelming responsibility is to bring them 
up. Maternity is her mission, education her work, the home 
at once her kingdom and her sphere. 

Society is based upon the assumption that men and 
women come together in congeniality and love ; that they 
work together for the progeny they are responsible for 
bringing into the world, and that their highest duty, their 
best service, is to make these children happier and better 
than themselves. 

It is with the woman's share of this labor that we are 
dealing to-day. Upon the vantage ground of her mother- 
hood she stands, clasping to her bosom the tiny creature to 
which she has given life, and upon whose soft and complex 
soul she must stamp an image for good or evil to endure 
throughout eternity. Who dares say, in contemplating a 
marvel like this, that woman occupies or has ever occupied 
a subordinate position to man ; that her powers are withered 
for want of use ; that her scope is small, and that she needs 
for her full development to share more of the prerogatives 
of man ? If it be true that education is the mighty interest 
of mankind, the Archimedean lever by which the world 


must be moved ; if preachers and public-school teachers are 
right in proclaiming that, before a child can read, the essen- 
tial qualities of its character are formed, then is woman the 
arbiter of the world; her physical soundness, her mental 
strength, her moral perfection are more important elements 
in the salvation of the race than any of the boasted attri- 
butes of man. And these great claims the poets and phi- 
losophers concede. " Earth's noblest thing," they write, " is 
woman perfected." 

Even in the darkest hour of moral degradation in France, 
the greatest mocking skeptics could proclaim : " All the 
reasonings of men are not worth one sentiment of women." 

If she is true to her responsibilities, and equal to her 
opportunities, woman in the holy empire of the home begins 
the great work of education, and anticipates the ethics of 
the schools. No easy task is hers to rear the brood which 
nestle under her protecting love ; to provide for physical 
wants and secure the full development of limbs and muscles, 
of nerves and brain, to make her little animals sound and 
strong and pure, that they may become the founders and 
directors of a yet better generation. Nor is the further 
work of training the young minds and guiding the strong 
wills an easier one, for these beings bring with them 
potent and inherited individuality, with which she must 
grapple, while it is yet unrevealed and unconscious, if it is 
to receive any permanent impressions whatever. 

Woman's ethical influence in the great scheme of educa- 
tion is based, therefore, upon the grand central truth of 
love. Her work is preeminently great in that it is con- 
cerned with the beginnings of things, in that she lays the 
foundation upon which the whole superstructure rests. 
When the boy or girl enters the mimic world of the school- 
room the character should be essentially formed. The 
experience, often painful, of teachers testifies that it is 
formed. We are prone to underestimate the intelligence, 
or at least the apprehension, of a child. Wise people are 
misled by the unformed manners, the babyish voice, the 


delicate beauty of a little boy or girl whose bright intelli- 
gence grasps a situation at once and appreciates perfectly 
the difference between right and wrong, the proper and the 
unseemly, truth and falsehood. These perceptive and dis- 
criminating faculties of the child must be early trained to 
grasp the good and reject the evil, if the fruits of subsequent 
instruction are to be other than ashes and bitterness, apples 
of Sodom and Gomorrah. 

While woman has this early training of the child, and 
does it with her might, she is a queen. She has scope in it 
for the employment of every conceivable faculty of the 
mind and soul. Education can not set her above this work. 
Talents of the loftiest order can not exempt her from it if 
she has assumed the duties of maternity. Anything else she 
attempts or performs must be subsidiary to it. Awful would 
be any changes in her social status compelling or permit- 
ting her to delegate her high office to any other hands. No 
conceivable advantage to woman can compensate her for 
the loss of the inner life of that holiest of holies her 
home. It would profit her little, although she gained the 
whole world of fortune and fame, if she could not reply 
worthily, with the approval of her soul, to the searching 

" Where is the flock that I have given thee, the beautiful flock? " 


Starting from the standpoint that evolution proceeds at 
the same time along three lines, the physical, mental, and 
spiritual, and that education is the attempt to aid develop- 
ment along these lines, it is evident that the spiritual is the 
most important, from the fact that it embraces the moral 
and higher nature, and that it is the only one of the three 
carrying over from life to life, or beyond this life. 


It is self-evident, then, that the unfolding of the spiritual 
nature, the inner man, is the most necessary factor in evolu- 
tion. That woman by her very constitution is best fitted 
to aid in this education is certain. Born with a moral bias, 
the ability to discern the infinite in the finite, and that 
subtle intuition which enables spirit to come in contact with 
spirit, she has the power to discern the truth or interior 
nature of things, and thus to receive divine illumination. 

It is this divine illumination which will enable her to lead 
and guide the coming race of humanity upward in its 
evolution toward God and a perfected humanity. That she 
possesses the innate force to accomplish this work is evident 
from the moral qualities which have characterized her for 
many generations. 

Faithfulness, devotion, long-suffering, and altruism have 
been gradually preparing her for the work which the hour 
demands. That she is ready, this large congress of women, 
assembled from all parts of the world, amply testifies ; that 
she will insist upon the rights of her convictions none will 
deny who are familiar with her faithfulness to her duty and 
her ability to suffer. 

Hoping everything and fearing nothing, she sends out 
the searching ray into the darkest recesses of the night of 
human ignorance and superstition, exposing the fallacies 
of the age, and by her moral force and her regenerate 
thought uplifts the masses of humanity and restores to them 
their divine birthright. 


It would be interesting to find a country of highly cult- 
ured educators who were all men, and compare its ethical 
status with another of equal literary merit whose instruct- 
ors were both men and women. That we can not do ; for, 


as the fabled Eastern bird, endowed with only one wing, 
remains earth-bound until, joined to its mate, on double 
pinions they soar aloft, so men and women rise together in 
culture and refinement. 

What are the essential elements that women especially 
contribute to the formation of character and the education 
of inquiring minds ? Most truly those which they possess- 

We should like to ascribe to womanhood the virtues with 
which the chivalrous middle ages endowed her and the 
practical abilities which the present concedes to her. Will 
the circumstances justify such ascription ? Are the schools 
better and is the moral condition of a community higher 
when many of its instructors are women ? In the United 
States there is an average of over 70 per cent of women 
teachers, while twelve large cities report the employment 
of women only in all grades. There is not a department 
of letters or the sciences which women have not entered as 

The influence on the women themselves has been invalu- 
able. To teach is to learn twice. The lessons of self-con- 
trol, patience, tact, keenness of perception, and discrimina- 
tion in judging of human nature have fitted them for 
other duties of life. 

I have sometimes wondered how many of those who com- 
pose the bodies forming the National Council have been 
teachers, either in seminaries, in public or private schools, 
or in evening or Sunday schools. I wonder how many of 
our public speakers have learned to move and control audi- 
ences through study of their pupils. The list of such is 
certainly long and honorable, and well sustains a point in 
favor of the moral influence of woman in education. 

Tracing her influence more objectively, we seek the 
results of her work as a teacher. Mount Holyoke, Smith, 
Vassar, and a host of other institutions, where both men 
and women are members of the faculty, come before us as 
illustrations, and silence controversy. 


Hundreds in this and foreign lands attest to the profound 
ethical influence, direct and indirect, exerted by Emma Wil- 
lard, Catherine Beecher, and Mary Lyon. 

Nor is this praise given to woman as a teacher of her own 
sex alone. The state has recognized her adaptability to 
the primary and grammar school, not merely because she 
will work for small wages, but also because in her very 
nature lies the motherly instinct that comprehends the 
child-thought ; the patient waiting and watching as the 
mind gropes amid world mysteries ; the faith that holds the 
little pilgrim moored to the eternal, though lured and 
baffled by the perplexing unknown, and exults as the child- 
mind matures with training and experience. Napoleon said 
that the one who educates the children will control the 

The boy as he leaves the school-room remembers still his 
teacher. Her influence, her principles, are still the ruling 
powers of his life, and many an idea that develops later, 
surprising even to himself, will be the result of her teach- 
ing. She has directed the shaft, though it falls far from its 
aim. In this influence lies a potent power, whose results 
years hence will reap. 


An easy, acceptable, and effectual way to inculcate econ- 
omy and develop individual thrift is through the school 
savings-bank. This teaching fits the need, and has already 
proven that its general establishment in the schools of the 
United States will decrease vastly our criminals and pau- 

Public and private waste are closely allied ; the whole is 
but an aggregate of units, the public but the chorus of the 
privates. While the children come up to manhood and 


womanhood without any practical and economic knowledge 
of the capabilities of money, we can not reasonably expect 
them to be thoughtful financiers, or to know the distinction 
between generosity and extravagance, between justly earned 
dollars and the catch-up and scatter-about moneys which 
ruin more especially our young men of to-day. Give them 
the school savings-banks training, which teaches every 
depositor how pennies accumulate to dollars and the benefits 
of the interest system, and they will be able to meet more 
fully and understandingly the common requirements of life 
and of the nation. 

This method of inculcating thrift is not wholly new. It 
was in use in a single school in France in 1834. In 1866 it 
had sectional establishment in Belgium. Professor Laurent 
of the University of Ghent took up the idea, and introduced 
it into several institutions. The teaching met much favor 
and has been quietly working its way over Europe since. 
The school children of France have now over 12,000,000 
francs to their credit in the banks of the republic. Ger- 
many, Switzerland, Denmark, Russia, Holland, and England 
have this teaching in some schools, sometimes adminis- 
tered by private associations or individuals, often through 
the postal savings bank, which is less satisfactory as an 

Several different methods for collecting pennies and 
inspiring children to industry are employed. 

It is of the work in this country that I would more par- 
ticularly speak. Owing to our rapid growth and a financial 
success that often exceeds our wisdom, we are perhaps 
in the greatest need. Abundance begets extravagance ; 
extravagance breeds vice and discontent. As an uplifting 
and leveling measure, as well as an educational safeguard, 
we need this teaching in the public schools. 

The application of the savings system as in use in North 
Dakota is so simple, so effective and entertaining that it 
requires but acquaintance to insure its popularity. We 
have it operating now in 325 public schools and some pri- 


vate institutions. Our school children have $175,000 to 
their credit in banks. This money stands in the names of 
the individual depositors, who number about 33,000. 

When the system is to be instituted the teacher explains 
to the scholars the end and aim of the school savings-bank 
that it is to teach them the practical value of money, how it 
grows by attention, the benefits of industry, the delight of 
giving and spending wisely, and the advantages of thrift. 

The roll is called every Monday morning for the collec- 
tion of the children's savings. This occupies a very short 
time, even on the morning when the work is instituted. 
Each child who is a depositor has the little copyright savings- 
bank card, on the face of which is his name, with that of the 
school and that of the teacher. On the back are the regu- 
lations. The card is folded, and on the inside is the date for 
each Monday in the school-year, with space opposite for 
amount of deposit. When the names are called by the 
teacher each pupil who desires to deposit steps up with his 
card and money, handing them quickly to the teacher, say- 
ing, " Yes, 5 cents," or whatever sum it may be. She, 
with a figure, credits the amount on the child's card and on 
her roll-book, passing the card back to the child, who keeps 
it always in hand as a memorandum and receipt. The first 
collection in the school is deposited in the bank as a gen- 
eral school fund. When a scholar has deposited 50 cents 
or $i, as the bank authorities may agree, he is given a bank- 
book, and the money is placed to his personal credit by the 
bank ; when he has $3, an interest of 3 per cent is allowed 
him by the bank, and he has the privileges of an adult depos- 
itor acting through school facilities. A special teacher's 
roll-book is arranged with spaces to record most conven- 
iently weekly deposits. The other forms used in connec- 
tion with the system are simple and calculated to mini- 
mize the work. The money collected by each teacher is 
placed in an envelope, which is so printed as to require at 
her hand but the number of the school or class and amount 
of contents. A deposit slip is used in forwarding all collec- 


tions by the teacher to the principal, and by the principal 
to the bank. The envelopes in which teachers send the 
collection to the principal are sealed, and the total amount 
is recorded on the deposit slip, previously mentioned, which 
accompanies the envelope. The envelopes are sent together, 
thus labeled, to the bank, where the bank authorities open, 
count, verify, and credit at leisure. With the last collec- 
tion of each month a monthly record of the scholar's indi- 
vidual deposits is sent by each teacher to the principal of 
the school, and by him to the bank with the children's 
bank-books, that credits may be properly made. These lists 
are returned by the bank to the principal with the scholars' 
bank-books during the week. The bank-books are given to 
the children to take to their homes the last Friday of each 
month, to be returned with the following Monday morning 
deposits. The principal keeps a record of the weekly col- 
lections of the teachers. A check with which pupils with- 
draw their money requires the signature of parent, or 
guardian, and principal. The principal uses the general- 
fund bank-book, received when the first school deposit is 
made. It is always sent with the weekly deposits and 
returned to him by messenger, with full amount of credit. 
This frees him from responsibility, and the arrangement is 
such that any error can be at once traced to its source. 

The bank-books taken into the homes once a month 
arouse family interest, and parents have often been induced 
to curtail needless expenses by the practical lesson in the 
accumulation of small savings thus given them. The 
teachers become much interested in the growing amounts 
of their pupils' deposits. In some instances those who have 
not before had bank deposits have themselves opened 
accounts and felt the reflex benefit of their own teaching. 
The practical acquaintance this exercise gives both pupils 
and teachers with the initial forms of business law famil- 
iarity with the check, deposit-slip, and bank-book is in 
itself of value. 

It is not the intention of the promoters of the school 


savings-bank system that it should be in any sense a Jay 
Gould hoarding scheme. The idea is to teach the true and 
best uses of money as a comfort factor to give the child 
individuality and a sense of responsibility, knowledge of 
his every-day needs, and a training that will fit him in a 
measure to cope understandingly with them. The children 
of the rich, who are often given money to waste, need this 
training quite as much as the children of the poor ; and to 
the great middle class, the bone and sinew of our common- 
wealth, it is a fine supplement to what they have been 
taught at home. The boy and the girl using these school 
facilities wisely have each in their individual right, when 
they leave school, a snug little sum, from one to two hun- 
dred dollars in bank ; and more, they have approved knowl- 
edge that they can by caring properly for the pennies be 
ever above physical need. They see they have equal right 
to possess and earn ; that above all outward law there is an 
innate independence which entitles each one to personal 
possession, responsibility, and citizenship. They are a liv- 
ing argument against socialism, anarchy, drunkenness, and 

I do not say all the youth thus taught economy in the 
schools will be valuable, law-abiding people, but I do 
assert that, other things being equal, three-fourths of them 
will ; and that if this system, fostered by educators, was in 
force in all the schools of the United States, this Govern- 
ment would find the annual recruits to its half-million army 
of paupers vastly decreased. Is it not better to train our 
people to thrift and to the elements of self-support than to 
allow them to grow up like Mrs. Stowe's Topsy, or roadside 
weeds, and then line the way with poor-houses and prisons 
in which to settle them ? Hon. W. T. Harris, commissioner 
of education, recognizes and willingly forwards this new 
feature in the school curriculum. He has given us encour- 
agement in the work accomplished ; he has on display, in 
the educational exhibit at the Columbian Exposition, our 
forms as used in the administration of school savings- 


banks, the statistical table representing our progress, and 
some literature on the subject. The presidents and profess- 
ors of many of the colleges and universities have written 
me unsolicited, during the past two years, inquiring into the 
every-day working of the system, and expressing their 
approbation and interest. President Fetterolf of Girard 
College, Philadelphia, asked for particulars of the school 
savings-banks, last autumn, and writes that he has estab- 
lished from it a savings system which is used with success 
in Girard College. We Pennsylvanians think it particularly 
appropriate that the college which owes its existence to the 
eminently thrifty and economic Stephen Girard should thus 
effectively commemorate him by teaching his every-day 
principles practically to the orphan boys for whom his 
munificence provided. Some of the mission schools use our 
system acceptably. Among the very poor, the little out- 
casts of society, this teaching of economy is recognized as a 
great force against the flagrant socialism born of poverty, 
envy, and discontent. After all it is perhaps down in the 
missions that we need most to put in circulation pure air, 
pure money, and practical thoughts ; and we are most 
heartily glad to reach even a few of them with a tide of 

In some of the Indian industrial schools this practical 
method of training is used. Of the thirty-six public schools 
into which it has been my privilege to be personally instru- 
mental in placing the school savings-bank teaching during 
the past year 1 should like to speak separately, but time will 
not allow. I refer you to the printed statistical tables here 
for distribution, to which, with other literature on the sub- 
ject, I would direct your attention. 

A public school in Beloit, Wis., was the first in the 
United States to use this teaching, and used it from 1 876 to 
1 88 1 with much local approval, but had little or no follow- 
ing. In 1885 Mr. J. H. Thiry, with a simple system adapted 
from the French, had the work taken up in Long Island 
City, N. Y. It continues to operate acceptably there. Of 



the 6,500 scholars on the public-school register, 2,166 are 
depositors, having over $14,000 to their credit. 

My acquaintance with it dates from a convention of Econ- 
omists in 1888. Passing mention was there made of the 
school savings-bank, and I immediately made myself famil- 
iar with the best methods in use, and gave the scheme news- 
paper vent. We took it up in my own borough, Norristown, 
and the adjacent one of Pottstown, Montgomery County, 
Pennsylvania, simultaneously in the winter of 1 889. To-day 
school savings-banks are in acceptable use in 1 14 schools of 
Pennsylvania, fifty of them in my own county. 

We may be a little old-fogy ish in William Penn's staid set- 
tlement, from a Western point of view, but we are imbued 
with the thrift of our Quaker and German ancestry, and are 
anxious to hand it down the line of coming generations. 

About 200 schools in thirteen other States have adopted 
this teaching, fifty of them in New York. So long as the 
work is one of private philanthropy it is rather difficult to 
get records and data of them all. 

The deposits of the scholars are entirely voluntary, and 
on an average about 40 per cent of the pupils in a school 
are depositors. At Norristown the school children have to 
their credit $8,033.17, after having withdrawn over $10,000. 
Their entire collections, with interest accrued in the three 
and a half years the system has been in use, have been 

These withdrawals of school deposits do not necessarily 
indicate an expenditure of the money. As the pupils gradu- 
ate or leave school they have their dealings directly with 
the banks, while the amounts are no longer listed as school 
deposits. I could also relate scores of instances where 
withdrawals have been made for family needs or crying 

These school savings-banks are often established by the 
aid of bankers, they furnishing the printed forms and 
encouraging deposits, knowing that, even though it does 

not always pay from a business point of view to handle the 


small savings of hundreds of school children, they are train- 
ing customers ; that children who have bank accounts will 
make men and women who are bank depositors. Intelligent 
school directors in most localities are easily interested in 
this teaching, and the propagation of it is both pleasant and 

The Woman's Christian Temperance Union has taken up 
school savings-banks as a department of its work, giving 
me the superintendency of it in the World's and also in the 
National W. C. T. U. 

The American Academy of Political and Social Science 
lias extended us a helpful hand, publishing in a pamphlet 
form and giving broad circulation to an address it was my 
privilege to make before it in Philadelphia last May. Mrs. 
H. C. Ruth, well known as the Dakota farmer, is awakening 
interest in North Dakota. The Grangers, the American 
bankers, and several educational associations have adopted 
resolutions approving of this practical teaching of economy, 
and expressing their desire to spread it. The press of the 
country opens its columns to records of the work, giving it 
generous editorial mention. In most localities where we 
have school savings-banks the amount of the Monday 
deposits of the children are published weekly as items of 

We are finding response this year in the West. The sys- 
tem was taken up in the public schools of Pueblo, Colo., 
January gfh ; and up to April 3Oth 743 of the i ,900 pupils 
in the schools were depositors, and had to their credit as 
savings $2,099.69. The first school collection was taken in 
Trinidad, Colo., March 6th ; the first in the schools of 
Wamego, Kan., March 26th. Casselton and Wahpeton, 
N. Dak., the points most recently taking up the system, 
made their first collections April 24th. 

In order to disseminate this teaching fully it is desirable 
that as large a proportion of the pupils in a school become 
depositors as possible. Deposits of small amounts will 
teach this lesson quite as effectually as larger ones, and it is 


the question how many depositors there are in a school, 
rather than how much have they deposited, that is of vital 


It has been said that honor and fame from no condition 
rise, and equally true is it that sin and shame are found in 
every class of society and condition of life. Immorality, or 
violation of the law of purity, can be found as rampant and 
as gross under silk and velvet as under rags, in the palace 
and in the hovel, in the African kraal and in the American 
mansion. It is widespread because it is inherent in igno- 
rance and weakness. It is due to the domination of man's 
animal nature over his intellectual and moral being. It is 
no new thing in the world's history, and it is neither more 
dreadful in quality nor more overwhelming in quantity 
than it has ever been. But our increasing cognizance of 
the factors of mental, moral, and physical disorders, due 
to the spread of scientific information and the use of the 
scientific method of investigation, enables us to diagnose 
the malady and to suggest the possible cure. 

In moral disease, as in physical disease, we analyze the 
predisposing and the exciting causes; we differentiate it 
into sin, or willful wrong, and weakness, or irresponsible 
wrong. A mistaken diagnosis leads us into the pitfall of 
quackery, which endeavors by nostrums and patches to con- 
ceal the ravages of evil, instead of the true, radical treat- 
ment of the conscientious surgeon, who will amputate and 
ablate from the germ if possible, and thus save the whole 
organism from corruption and decay. 

We have had many doctors in the realms of metaphysics 
and of physics. What we need to-day, imperatively and 
universally, is an enlightened motherhood which will have 


the intellect to grasp the causes of immorality, and the 
mother-love and mother-courage to apply and inculcate the 
principles of individual and social purity with fearless 

Morality means the restraint and right direction of man's 
sensual and emotional nature. It is not an instinctive 
faculty. On the contrary, instinct is against it. It is the 
struggle between the soul and the body, and such a struggle 
can no more be expected to develop spontaneously into 
moral purity than an ear for music or a taste for poetry 
would be expected to lead to the production of a Paganini 
or a Tennyson. 

It must be distinctly understood that this struggle is 
more terrible, more vital, more difficult than any mere 
struggle for physical existence upon the earth ; that it is a 
fight between Saint George and the dragon, between Chris- 
tian and Apollyon, between the angels of light and those 
of darkness, for the possession of the human soul. Poor 
little human soul ! It is embarked upon life's troubled sea, 
like the flame in the lamps of paper floated out upon the 
Ganges by the Indian girls ; it may be drowned by over- 
whelming waters, or may flare up in one wild spurt and 
destroy its frail vehicle. 

The general heredity which the child shares with all the 
sons of men is the first handicap in the race, and the special 
heredity in the individual is the second, and may be the 
heavier weight. The education which does not recognize 
heredity whether you call it original sin or tendencies 
makes a mistake at the outset ; the educational training of 
the young in morals and in purity must proceed largely 
upon the principle of derivation. In therapeutics this 
means to call off the too-abundant blood from one part of 
the body, where it is producing congestion and pain, and to 
carry it to some other spot, where its warmth is needed. 
To call attention to purity, to dwell upon impurity, will 
often direct the thought to the very evil we desire to avert, 
and this, I am sure, has been a common mistake when an 


overzealous teacher or guardian has meddled too roughly 
with the delicate essence of modesty. But here again we 
are assisted by science, which lifts the subject out of the 
emotional realm, and puts it upon the calm basis of health- 
ful normality ; which clothes the facts of nature in clear-cut 
terms of purity. Again, from religion we derive the most 
efficacious prescription known yet upon the earth, and one 
which will stand the test of all time. It is "the expulsive 
power of a new affection "; it is the overcoming of evil with 
good. The angel comes, in answer to prayer, to strengthen 
even the little ones against evil thoughts and degrading 
desires, and helps to build up moral strength and renew 
spiritual vitality. 

What should be the practical work of any society that 
hopes to bring us up to a higher ethical plane? Clearly 
there should be a recognition of and hearty cooperation 
with everything that tends to cleanliness, thrift, and cheer- 
fulness in the homes of the poor and wretched, and with 
everything that will provide constant and agreeable occupa- 
tion to childhood everywhere. We must also cooperate with 
every agency that will increase self-respect and honorable 
pride in the individual, and with every form of religious 
belief which will keep man in a right relation with his 
Creator and his fellow-man. And lastly,we must secure such 
legislation as will place men and women upon equal footing, 
and will maintain the reasonable independence of women 
in the business world. 

Finally, every community is a composite of moral, social, 
civic, and economic forces. It is precisely what these forces 
make it. 

The state must be educated to recognize its responsibility, 
from which it can never escape. We must be educated up 
to a recognition of the fact that the vicious and depraved 
in our midst have become such, in the main, through a 
false and pernicious order of things, too often founded and 
fostered in bad laws or due to the absence of good. In that 
sense and to that degree prostitution and crime are the ere- 


ation and offspring- of the state. Wise legislation, practical r 
large-hearted philanthropy, should everywhere provide asy- 
lums and retreats where the morally sick may become 
restored may be quarantined, so to speak, for a time, and 
through loving sympathy, watchful care, and suitable occu- 
pation be gradually brought to a sense of self-respect and a 
desire to lead a new life. 

The numerous moral reform and female guardian soci- 
eties, midnight missions, and homes for the friendless, of 
our large cities, have done a noble work in rescuing myriads 
of women from the very mouth of the flaming pit. They 
have snatched them literally as brands from the burning, 
and enabled them to lead decent, respectable, and repent- 
ant lives. In the horrible dens from which many of these 
poor creatures have escaped, they have been kept, often for 
years, helpless, hopeless prisoners, robbed of their clothing 
and money, and obliged to drink with every loathsome 
patron of the place, thus sinking from vile depths to lower 
depths of infamy and shame, with no eye to pity, no hand 
to save. It takes time and useful occupation to recover from 
these lazar-house scenes and experiences, to restore the 
shattered nerves and moral tone. 

Industrial farm-homes, where small-fruit and bee culture, 
or the raising of poultry or flowers, can be profitably followed 
by the beneficiaries, offer by far the best solution to this 
problem. Several States have already established such 
homes for fallen women, and blazed the way of reform for 
other communities to follow. 

This great social ulcer this cancer, eating into the vitals 
of every great city, and contaminating small towns and vil- 
lages alike with its gangrenous touch may thus be brought 
under the surgeon's knife and healthy sanitation. 

The state cares for the destitute and the indigent sick ; 
why should it not also care for its morally sick the victims 
of a false social, civic, and industrial system who, unless 
rescued and cared for by the state, will continue to drag" 
down multitudes into a common ruin with themselves ? 


Philanthropy, religion, social science, and the state should 
unite in a supreme effort to rescue the perishing-, provide 
for the weak, abolish vice, and elevate the moral tone of the 
entire community. To this task has the Society for the 
Promotion of Social Purity set its hands. Toward this goal 
- the elevation of the state and of humanity, through the 
rescue and elevation of woman and the purification of the 
home are all the moral forces of the age pressing rapidly 


During the past twenty years perhaps no one thing has 
more assuredly marked the onward progress of our time 
than the interest, assumed and real, in the higher educa- 
tion of women. All over our country schools and colleges 
have multiplied, w r here careful training and much wise 
teaching are accomplished. Universities have opened their 
doors many of them only half way, it is true, but a few 
certainly swing the gates wide and in all directions the 
path, once very thorny, has been made smooth and 

More than at any other period in the world's history 
woman stands side by side with brother, father, friend 
quite man's" peer in power to acquire, and if her acquire- 
ments be of the right sort, his peer in power to use them. 
Askance he looks at her, perhaps, oftentimes strangely mis- 
understanding her. However he may regard her, let us 
not forget that whenever she proves herself a power, he, let 
him be stranger or friend, is ever first to admit it, ever first 
to welcome and approve. Let us not cease to remember 
that much of the advance has been made with his aid, and 
in many cases on his shoulders. 

The onward march of women in what we term the 
higher education is a fact of very deep and absorbing 


interest, marking, we must believe, an epoch in the world's 
history, assuring for all of us the step onward, creating a gift 
for the future not to be measured in its worth, measureless 
in its possibilities. We can not regard it with too much 
gratitude, too high reverence, too deep an appreciation ; 
we can not aid it, even in a small way, without securing 
blessing to ourselves, and the surer consciousness of ines- 
timable blessing not only to those about us, but to the gen- 
erations to follow us. 

But it is not of this higher education, profitable as is the 
theme, that I desire to speak at this time and on this occa- 
sion. There is given to each of us, and especially is it 
given to women, to attain not only a higher, but the highest 
education. And here let me call attention to a possibility 
already made too evident, that in attempting to attain the 
former there is danger of losing sight of the latter. It is, 
in a word, too often made plain that in educating the 
head we have made too little account of the heart. This 
need not be the case, yet it happens too often, and it 
is needless to say that where this is the case it were better 
the woman had never entered the school-room. Add to the 
higher education the highest, and you do well ; but get the 
highest at any cost. That, and that alone, is the only edu- 
cation that can be of real and permanent worth to women. 

Dear friends, you and I know from whom alone this 
highest education can proceed ; we know there is but one 
Teacher, one school-room, one text-book ; and you will say 
just here, perhaps: ''Why repeat this? It is but platitude. 
We hear it constantly. What can it serve here and now ? " 
Let us follow a step farther and find the something that it 
does serve ; and that is worthy our consideration in a very 
peculiar sense at the present time, a time when the educa- 
tion of woman has a deeper import than ever before. 

And, first, let us ask ourselves the real value of any edu- 
cation to its possessor. Is it not in the development that it 
brings to its owners and to those about them ? But is it not 
also in truer sense the fitness it gives for the work they are 
to do? 


As the athlete trains for the victory he hopes to win, as 
the professional student spends his energy in daily toil for 
the place he aims to fill, so is there in the training of a 
woman a profounder reason, a more eloquent plea, for that 
which will give to her the implement that is to make her of 
worth in the place where God's own voice calls her, for so 
long as the world lasts and time endures the large majority 
of women must find their place in the home. It is here as 
daughter, wife, mother that she must confront the widest 
horizon of usefulness and endeavor. In the varied phases 
here awaiting her with their perplexities and anxieties, 
their satisfactions and joys, she is called to meet daily expe- 
riences that must test her ability to the utmost, and which 
only the highest education can at all satisfy. You will 
surely admit that here certainly her value to herself, to 
those nearest her, and through them to society at large 
depends far more upon the qualities of heart she brings to 
her work than upon any mere intellectual acquirement. 
She must inspire, charm, elevate in proportion as she is 
suffused with Christian grace and Christian spirit, far more 
than by " the knowledge which puffeth up and edifieth not." 

Recall the long list of women who have blest the world 
and left to it a deathless legacy, who knew nothing of a 
college training. The greatest minds among women, intel- 
lectually considered, in this great century, knew nothing of 
it. Names might be multiplied, they will come to you by 
the score, that were never recorded on college registers. 
And while, if these women were living to-day, they would 
be the very ones who would at any sacrifice attain such 
training, yet women like these know very well that at its 
best it can not give to any woman all that life needs. And 
in this phase is danger to the young woman entering upon 
it; if she believes that it will give her all of life, she is 
shutting out the greatest light, without which any college 
training is idle. 

I would not seem, even by the smallest hint, to dispar- 
age the education of the college on the contrary, I would 


make it possible for every woman to secure it but I must 
also repeat, with emphatic utterance, that so long as human 
nature is what it is, so long as human society exists, in the 
right development of the woman the education of the heart 
must ever be of superlative consequence, of far greater con- 
sequence than the education of the head. Let a woman's 
intellect be inspired and controlled by her heart, and not 
only is her own soul fed, but she becomes the fountain of 
nourishment to the souls of others yes, even to souls 
unborn. Let her intellect be stimulated at the expense of 
the heart, and she is like a tree bearing unfruitful bloom at 
the top and dead at its center. 


The illustrious Bishop Spaulding says : " The great edu- 
cational problem has been and now is how to give to the 
soul purity of intention, to the conscience steadfastness,, 
to the mind force, pliability, and openness to light." In other 
w^ords, how to bring philosophy and religion to the aid of 
the will, so that the better self shall prevail, and each 
generation introduce its successor to a higher plane of life. 
The value of culture is great, and the ideal it presents 
points in the right direction in bidding us build up the 
being which we are. 

No finer, truer, better equipped agent could be found to- 
send upon this mission than woman. Her inherent tender 
conscience makes religion a necessity, her philosophy of 
love her strongest argument, while her warm, large sym- 
pathy, her marvelous ingenuity, her ready tact make her 
quick to learn, speedy to devise, prompt to execute new 
plans or utilize the old in newer fields for the accomplish- 
ment of the greatest good. Her resources are hydra-headed ; 
her courage dauntless. In whatever walk of life it be 
religion, poetry, sculpture, painting, literature, science, or 


the ruder treadmill of commercial ways woman holds a 
front rank as inspirer, helper, instructor. History writes 
the names of no great men who have not had some female 
educator urging them. 

" So long as there is any seriousness left," says Spaulding, 
"religion is man's first and deepest concern." What a 
potent argument to all men's creeds the pure living of the 
woman lends, while in material things as well how many 
mothers and how many sisters have labored to set the jewels 
in the tabernacle's door ! God's priesthood, were they not 
educators and refiners ? Would John Chrysostom have been 
"the golden mouthed " without his mother-educator? Left 
a widow in her twentieth year, she gave her life and labor 
for the ciilture of her boy. Augustine, too, was not indebted 
wholly to the " Hortensius " of Cicero for his searching after 
truth, nor to the pleadings of Saint Ambrose to renounce 
his sinful life. His sainted mother Monica's entreaties, 
supplementing his prayers, aroused his sluggish will at last, 
and through her brave, uplifting love her son was raised to 
the church's calendar of saints. 

We owe the splendid 44 Genius of Christianity " to the 
mother of Chateaubriand. From her death-bed she sent a 
message begging him to return to the church he had aban- 
doned. On receiving it " he wept and he believed," and 
proved his sincere atonement by consecrating to religion's 
defense all the talents he possessed. 

Nano Nagle, the apostle of education in Ireland during 
the last decade of the eighteenth century, herself by stealth 
at first, and later by introducing the Ursulines, achieved won- 
ders for education by the almost herculean feats she per- 
formed in the face of the law that made it felony for an 
Irish Catholic to teach, or even to learn. 

The organized Sodalities of the church, with the societies 
of Saint Vincent de Paul, each in its peculiar mission, cast 
lessons of charity, patience, resignation, and purity of life 
broadcast upon the world. We have the reformatories and 
hospitals ministered to by the world-famed sisters of charity 


and mercy, who, while deftly binding up the wounds of sin 
or accident, naively drop a seed of virtue and of faith by 
the wayside in the hearts of their charges. Who shall say 
woman is not an educator ? 

Having demonstrated that the Catholic woman is an edu- 
cator by influence and inspiration, I come now to prove that 
she educates also by direct instruction. It is estimated 
there are nearly a million women teachers, properly called, 
in the world. There are the schools of church and state, 
schools for general learning and for technical branches, 
and schools for intellectual and physical culture. All have 
their complement of women educators. 

The church asks a fullness of education that the state 
alone does not give, therefore we have sectarian schools, 
or " Nun's Schools." The Holy Church, as the spiritual 
mother, reaches out for the hearts of her children, main- 
taining that the moral is above the intellectual and that the 
heart must be trained by religious influence while the mind 
is being educated in the arts and sciences. Thus we have 
the parochial and the academic schools, for the elementary 
and the higher education, presided over by women who 
have consecrated their lives to the uplifting of the masses 
in mind and soul, filling the requirements of the church in 
the curriculum of their planning. Following in the foot- 
steps of man's first educator, his mother, they are keen with 
the instinct of spiritualized maternal love, and imbued with 
a zeal for souls. Like their Divine Master they brighten 
and bless the world whose children they educate by 
example, by precept, and by conscientious training. Pov- 
erty of location, straitened means, and temporarily crippled 
powers they rise above grandly ; and although, in places 
where the odds are strong against them, the cry is raised 
that they are " behind in intellectual culture," their schools 
were never known to lack in moral force and power. 
Without order there is chaos, without some standard there 
can be no weights and measures, without a knowledge of 
what is good there can be no accurate deductions of what 


is bad ; without naming virtue there can be no saving talis- 
man against destroying vice, and so the negative or pas- 
sive morality has no place in their curriculum ; positive, 
active purity and integrity they teach and they exem- 
plify. It would be well for those who cry so loudly at 
the backwardness of parochial schools to go themselves a 
little backward in their thoughts, and recall the poverty of 
resource, the lack of method characterizing all beginnings 
of state and statute ; their fair-mindedness must then admit 
that it took the combined efforts of years, and generous 
funds and wide cooperation, to build up the system of pub- 
lic-school education of which they boast, and which they 
contrast with "Sisters' Schools "and "Nun's Schools" to 
the disadvantage of the latter. 



IN that portion of the following chapter which is devoted 
to literature the object has been to present the selec- 
tions in such order that the philosophical consideration 
of woman's probable contribution to the literary product of 
the world shall be sustained by a brief historical summary 
of her actual contribution. 

Up to within a very recent period woman's influence upon 
literature has been that of the consumer rather than that 
of the producer. Perhaps even yet this is true. Any com- 
prehensive treatment of woman as a factor in literature 
would show how the subject-matter and the literary method 
of men have been modified, since women were allowed to 
learn the alphabet, by the natural consequences of that 

The literary influence of woman as a reader has been 
augmented immeasurably by the multiplication of clubs. In 
these organizations a greater part of the work done assumes 
the form of criticism and analysis, and tends directly to the 



development of a critical, analytical literature. Hence the 
-discussion of organization in its relation to literary culture 
finds its proper place in this chapter rather than in that 
which treats of organization. 

In the full report of this congress to be published by the 
United States Government, the chapters devoted to litera- 
ture will contain a report of woman's literary work in every 
country where she has yet borne any share in such labor. 
It has seemed wise to present in this chapter the report 
furnished by Poland, inasmuch as the literature of Poland 
is less widely known than that of most countries, and con- 
ditions in Poland for the last two centuries have been quite 
the reverse of those that are generally considered favorable 
to literary activity, if not, indeed, indispensable to it. This 
report has, therefore, a more than national value ; revealing 
fertility where, in the absence of knowledge, barrenness has 
been presupposed, it will suggest the probability of a corre- 
sponding literary activity among the women of other coun- 
tries with whose language and literature we are unfamiliar. 

For similar reasons portions of the paper read in the con- 
ference congress, presenting the literary and artistic work 
of the women of Utah, are given here. The delegate of 
the Young Women's Mutual Improvement Association 
understates the potency of that society as an agent of refine- 
ment and culture. With its headquarters in Salt Lake 
City, it has a membership exceeding twenty thousand young 
women, scattered over eleven of the Western States and 
Territories. Each of the local circles included in its mem- 
bership has been a distributing center for books and maga- 
zines in communities having few literary supplies. These 
local circles have served the compound purpose of circulat- 
ing libraries, magazine clubs, literary clubs, and mutual 
benefit societies. Perhaps unintentionally, and to many of 
its members unconsciously but not the less effectively, the 
.association has been an ally of the Government, a support to 
virtue and an inculcator of faith in the ideal. No other 
.agency has wrought to better purpose in ameliorating the 


peculiarly hard conditions of pioneer life in Utah and adja- 
cent Territories. 

Most of the papers relating to literature are presented 
in relative entirety. From the address of Mrs. Bates are 
omitted the introductory pages, which treat of the organi- 
zation of the universe of matter ; from that entitled " Polish 
Women in Literature " the catalogue of authors, with some 
biographical details, has been excised. [THE EDITOR.] 


Women are writing a great deal to-day, and are doing 
some very good work. They are doing so much that it 
would be absurd to attempt to treat this subject fully. I 
shall merely, therefore, look at certain phases of the subject. 
I am interested particularly in the question : Has woman 
something specific, something sui generis, to contribute to 
literature ? One of our women writers tells us : " Once let 
woman wield the pen, and thoughts will be put into books 
that have never been put there before, or at least some of 
the old things will be told from a side never before dreamed 
of." If on looking over the work that is being done by 
women to-day this were found to be true, I should have the 
material at hand for a very suggestive and original paper. 

Much as I should be interested in believing that woman, 
with the pen in her hand, has turned a new page of life 
before us, candor compels me to admit that if there is such 
a thing as sex in literature I have not succeeded in discov- 
ering it. I look about me and observe that the very sub- 
jects upon which one would naturally expect women to 
throw a new light have really inspired the masterpieces of 
the men. No woman burning with sense of wrong could 
have painted the injustice of the social code of morals more 
forcibly, more tragically than Thomas Hardy did in his 




" Tess of the D'Urbervilles " ; no woman eager to recon- 
struct and ennoble our ideal of marital obligation could have 
held up its pitiable sham and conventionality with more 
inspired pen than was wielded by Henrik Ibsen in his 
' Ghosts " and " Doll-house." 

I have heard of various recipes for discovering the sex of 
an author, but have seen them all go down ingloriously 
before the simple strategy of the nom de plume. 

It was generally conceded that no one but a man could 
have painted the rugged solemnity of the Tennessee mount- 
ains and the primitive poetry of the lives of the mountain- 
eers as Charles Egbert Craddock did. At least it was con- 
ceded before Mary Murfree modestly appeared before the 
startled eyes of the editor of the Atlantic Monthly. 

When we turn to those that would theorize about woman's 
place in the republic of letters, what ideas do we find cur- 
rent ? First, and I think this reasoning is not entirely un- 
familiar to you, we hear them say : " Woman is the heart 
and man the mind woman stands for the emotions and 
man for the intellect ; therefore we should find that women 
may write charming love stories, but that it will be impossi- 
ble for them to attain any intellectual grasp impossible 
for them to probe down into the deeper problems of life." 

Outside the domains of theory we find as an actual fact 
the men critics showering anathemas at the authors of 
" Robert Elsmere " and " John Ward, Preacher," for bring- 
ing into the domain of a novel serious problems and non- 
emotional material, that properly belong rather to the 
domain of philosophy or theology. 

Then, of course, we are told that women lack the broad 
sympathy that is so necessary to the novelist of to-day. As 
Mrs. Browning's Romney tells Aurora : " Women are sym- 
pathetic to the personal pangs, but hard to general suffer- 
ing." And yet think of the exquisitely tender delineation 
of the forbidding New England old maid by Mary E. Wil- 
kins, and those two great stories that immortalized the 
wrongs of two great races, " Uncle Tom's Cabin " and 


" Ramona." Then we are told that it is easy for women to 
write up fashionable society, or the village sewing-circles, 
but that in the very nature of things women are limited in 
their scope ; that it is impossible for them to depict the 
rough, primitive life of the fields and the mines; and yet 
right here in America we have Mary Halleck Foote, Octave 
Thanet, and Miss Elliot, the author of " Jerry," and many 
others, who seem to have gone straight down to the soil for 
inspiration. Then, of course, it is said that women have not 
had what are called " experiences." How can a woman in 
her sheltered innocence know anything of certain phases of 
life ? Or, even if she possesses sufficient imagination, how 
will she treat life ? Surely, she can only give us what some 
one has called "the moral harshness of copy-book 
maxims." And yet think of the passion and fire with 
which Mrs. Humphrey Ward has given us the Parisian 
episode in the life of David Grieve, and Elizabeth Stuart 
Phelps' tender treatment of the same theme in her pitiful 
story " Hedged In." I am sure no one has dealt with the 
character of a guilty woman more exquisitely, more tact- 
fully, more sympathetically, and yet with more powerful 
irony and pathos, than Mrs. W. K. Clifford dealt with her 
Mrs. North in her story "Aunt Ann," while her Mrs. 
Walter Hibbert is a capital hit at the timid attitude of the 
average "good woman." 

I heard the other day that Mr. Brander Matthews so 
keenly misses the sense of humor in women that he has 
resolved the next time he marries to marry a man. Now, 
I am not going to get angry about it it hits Mrs. Matthews 
so much harder than it hits me nor am I going to assist 
Mr. Matthews to prove his cause by taking his thrust too 
seriously, but I can not resist just a reference to the 
delightful quality of the humor of Agnes Repplier, Mary 
E. Wilkins, Sarah Orne Jewett, Mrs. W. K. Clifford, and 
Mrs. Craigie, who is generally known by her pen name of 
John Oliver Hobbes. The humor of the last is so subtle, so 
whimsical, and so utterly pervasive that I have a suspicion 


in my mind that Mr. Matthews, in his ignorance of the 
no in cfc pi nine, was thinking of taking a certain Mr. John 
Oliver Hobbes as that second wife. 

Let me here say something in connection with that terri- 
ble tirade that was launched forth by a certain Molly 
Elliott Seawell, a writer herself of novels of no common 
order. She said : " If all that women have ever done 
in literature were swept out of existence the world would 
not lose a single masterpiece." I was amused the other 
day by a lady's remark that it was our own president, Mrs. 
May Wright Sewall, who was the author of this attack. 
" Do you think," I said, when I had recovered from 
laughter sufficiently to speak, " that the president of the 
National Council of Women could say such things without 
suffering impeachment? " 

I am not discouraged by such remarks, although I think 
it absurd to say that women have produced no master- 
pieces ; yet I am perfectly willing to admit that they have 
produced no genius of the very highest rank the rank of 
Dante, and Shakespeare, and Milton, and Goethe. But do you 
know the same thing precisely has been said of American 
literature ? Is it not interesting that they say both of 
American literature and of woman's literature, if I may 
coin the phrase, that they have produced some clever and 
delightful writers, but no genius of the very highest rank ? 
Mr. James Bryce has a good deal to say of this in his work 
on America, and he puts a good deal of the onus on the 
shoulders of our hurried, interrupted, unrestful life; but 
he thinks that America in time will settle down to create 
the highest kind of literature. That time will come when 
America (and the same thing is true of woman) shall no 
longer feel the necessity of proving her right to be. 

I am cheered by the words of Emerson : 

The scholar of the first age received into him the world around, brooded 
thereon, and uttered it again. * * * It came into him life; it went out 
from him truth and poetry. 


Well, woman is still in her first age. She is slowly 
awakening from a long sleep, and is just beginning to look 
about her and see the world around. She is still brooding 
thereon. I am sure the time is not far distant when she 
shall translate life into forms of perfect truth and poetry. 


The place of woman anywhere has rightly been called a 
sphere. You can not escape from her. The farther you 
walk away from her, the nearer you are to meeting her on 
the other side. Leave her side, she will confront you in 
the first novel you take up to divert your mind from her. 

There can be no intellectual republic where women are 
concerned ; they are always tyrants. Yet those who have 
been most tyrannical over the passions, the emotions, the 
love, the thoughts of men have not been stabbed in litera- 
ture by their victims, but immortalized. Is it not curious 
that while Caesar has a Brutus, Charles I. a Cromwell, and 
George III. a Washington, Laura should have a Petrarch, 
Beatrice a Dante, and Shakespeare's inconnue his magnifi- 
cent sonnets ? 

" Know thyself ;" it is a great and wise command ; but do 
not hope to know yourself by looking into your own heart. 
Some one must look for you ; nay, not for you, because an 
outsider, however clear-sighted, is liable to mistakes, but 
with you, that the point of view may be neither his nor 
yours alone. Columbus did more than discover America to 
Spain ; he discovered her to herself. She would never have 
known what she was, what she was capable of, had she not 
come in contact with the resources of the Old World. 
Equally in literature, woman has never shown that she 
understands herself; she has never attempted to analyze 
her own nature. Some Columbus has always done that for 


her; always revealed her not only to tl?e world but to 

Homer rose in reverence as she passed, humbled by the 
sense of her power even when she used it willfully ; Petrarch 
exalted her, Dante adored her, Shakespeare loved her; 
Henry James studies her, Maupassant thought her wicked 
but interesting, Tennyson tolerated her; Thackeray gra- 
ciously refused to look beneath the surface of her gentle little 
heart when it seemed to be gentle; Scott heroined her, 
Wordsworth commended her, Byron hated her ; Hawthorne 
admired her, Crawford pities her, Howells photographs her ; 
Goethe was sorry for her, Punch caricatures her ; Burns 
smiled at her, Moore succumbed to her, Dickens laughed at 
her, Heine married her at last ; Tolstoi plants her in sun- 
shine and waters her with his tears, only to tear her up by 
the roots in the end ; Victor Hugo idealized her, Bourget 
dissects her ; Balzac understood her ; but in literature as in 
life no man has ever ignored her, and in literature as in 
life I seek in vain for any man whose opinion of her could 
be characterized by saying simply that he " liked her." 
There are no Platonic friendships in books, as there are 
none but dangerous ones in life. 

Oddly enough, woman has never tried to exalt, or excuse, 
or wonder at, or caricature, or hate, or photograph, or study, 
or dissect herself. Even when she tries to paint an ideal 
woman she fails lamentably; her Romolas, and Dinahs, 
and Dorotheas are horribly cold, and fall infinitely below 
the incomparable pictures men have drawn of idealized 
or idolized women. She excels in philanthropic theories, 
when she cares to espouse the cause of an " Uncle Tom ;" 
she writes graceful verses, charming letters, beautiful de- 
scriptions, admirable essays, very clever criticism; but 
when it comes to novel-writing we find a curious psycho- 
logical problem as men have understood women better 
than women understand themselves, so women have under- 
stood men, not better than men understand themselves, but 
better than women understand women. Charlotte Bronte 


is not half so clever in trying to make us admire her poor 
and homely Jane as in winning our interest, without trying 
to, for Rochester ; George Eliot's large, calm, generous por- 
trait of the beautiful Romola pales before her minute draw- 
ing of the degenerate Tito. This is less in quantity than 
the success of men in delineating women, because woman 
has not been permitted until lately to know one-tenth part 
as much of the masculine mind as men know of the femi- 
nine heart. But, that their power of observing and under- 
standing men is constantly increasing, that they will event- 
ually excel in drawing men as men excel in drawing women, 
is shown by the marvelous cleverness of many recent novels, 
notably those of Mrs. Clifford and the lady who calls herself 
John Oliver Hobbes. 

True, the method will probably always differ ; the man 
dissects, the woman evolves. Tolstoi takes Anna Karenina 
at her zenith and traces her degradation ; George Eliot 
takes Tito as a seedling and develops him in baleful atmo- 
sphere, until the crisis is his fall ; Thackeray takes Becky 
Sharp at her best and lets her degenerate ; Charlotte Bronte 
takes Rochester at his worst and permits him to improve. 

And what is the comparative result ? The man's portrait- 
ure of woman is finer than the woman's portraiture of man. 
An artist said recently of the scenery in Alaska and Nor- 
way: " You like Norway best, because there you sail into 
the scenery, while in Alaska you only sail along it." So we 
may say that men have sailed into women's hearts from 
time immemorial, while women have only sailed along 
men's minds, on the very outermost edge. Yet assuredly 
the time will come when, understanding each other better, 
they will not like each other less ; and woman's place in 
literature may yet come to be that of a superlatively correct 
observer of the folly, the chivalry, the weakness, the noble- 
ness of men, as man's place has so long been that of the 
cleverest, most subtle, most keen, most generous observer 
of the woman herself. 



The title that has been assigned me brings two things 
that appear to be widely separated into close and dependent 

We have two questions to answer : " What does literary 
culture involve and signify?" and, "What relation does 
it sustain to organization ? " 

Exact definition, where definition is possible, is always 
valuable ; but there are some things too delicate, too 
intangible, too ethereal to be expressed in formal words. 
Who can define the fragrance of a rose, the sentiment of a 
national flag, the charm and power of music, or of a great 
painting like Millet's Angelus? Such things bring a depth 
of meaning to our souls that we can not define, and that no 
language except that of the heart can express. 

This is true in part of what we call literary culture. 
Here definition does not define, and yet analysis may 
approach definition. What is literary culture ? It involves 
several elements. It implies familiarity with literature, 
or at least with some of its general departments. In our 
day, when books are multiplied as the forest leaves, no one 
person can read all that has literary merit. Selections 
must be made, otherwise a superabundance of reading will 
lead to superficiality of knowledge. One may cultivate litera- 
ture in poetry, another in fiction, another in history, another 
in criticism, another in language, and so on to the end, but 
every person of literary culture must be a student of 
literature. Nor will hurried reading answer the purpose. 
Works of literary merit must have thoughtful, discriminat- 
ing, critical study. Those who read books as swallows skim 
the air are inviting literary dissipation rather than culture ; 
and there are too many readers of this class. 

Mental discipline and the full control of one's own 
powers constitute very largely all true culture. The 


greatest difficulty with uncultured people is that they do 
not know themselves, and can not control and properly use 
the powers that God has given them. 

In addition to all this, literary culture is something that 
one person feels, or does not feel, in another or in one's self. 
It is what we call taste, a sense of the beautiful, and of 
what may be called a feeling of natural fitness and of 
proper adaptation to occasions. We meet these qualities 
in some persons and not in others. The difference between 
them is that one has, in some of its forms, literary and 
artistic culture which the other lacks. 

I concede that all this comes short of strict definition, but 
it fully suggests what is meant by literary culture. Of its 
desirability and value to the possessor I have only space to 
observe in passing that it is worth all it costs, and it costs 
prolonged study. Think of what it did for Mrs. Browning, 
Mrs. Stowe, and for hundreds more whom it has raised 
from the common places in life to positions of eminence 
and great usefulness. 

How is literary culture connected with that kind of intel- 
lectual machinery known as organization ? 

It is not difficult for us to understand the connection that 
exists between the human body and the soul that inhabits 
it, between books and the thought that is in them, between 
musical compositions and instruments and music itself as 
rendered by a musician. 

Organization itself appears to hold a corresponding rela- 
tionship to literary culture ; it has come to be one of the 
potent agencies in Christian civilization. Barbarism may, 
in great measure, dispense with it ; civilization can not, any 
more than it can dispense with the steam engine, the tele- 
phone, the electric motor, or the printing press, all of which 
?.re the allies and promoters of literary culture. This world 
in miniature collected in the " White City," and known as 
the Columbian Exhibition, would not have been possible 
but for the splendid organization that has brought out 
almost superhuman results. Organization has come to be 


the Archimedes screw that moves the world. Books and 
schools, so necessary to literary culture and good scholar- 
ship, are the result of organized endeavor. What would 
our Yale and Harvard be, or England's Oxford and Cam- 
bridge, or Chicago University but for the splendid organ- 
izations, mental and physical, that constitute their broad 
and deep foundations ? 

It can not be affirmed that all organizations, taken indis- 
criminately, promote literary culture. There are organiza- 
tions of evil intent that destroy culture, and cultivate only 
coarseness and crime. Lotteries, race-tracks, and every 
form of organized iniquity are the mortal foes of every kind 
of culture except culture in vice, public and private. 

Other forms of organization that are useful and necessary 
are not directly, even if remotely, connected with literary 
culture as causative forces. An army, as the world now is, 
appears to be necessary, but it can hardly be regarded as a 
school of ethical or of literary culture. The same may be 
said of some business organizations that minister to human 
selfishness rather than to good culture and the general weal. 
Nations are a great necessity, but their influence in behalf 
of culture is sometimes marred by schemes of gigantic 

On the other hand, many of our existing institutions are 
organized for high and noble purposes. They must, there- 
fore, favor literary culture, at least indirectly, since all real 
interests are so connected and interdependent that what 
helps one tends to improve all. I have learned to look upon 
all of our humanitarian and reformatory organizations as 
schools of intellectual and literary culture, and it is quite 
possible that some of them may be doing more for the 
world in these indirect ways than they are on behalf of 
the objects for which they were founded. It would be 
delightful, if time allowed, to take up a large number of 
organizations that are working directly toward woman's 
literary improvement just as naturally as great harbors, 
broad rivers, and the wide ocean lead to the building of cities 


along their shores, and observe how they all promote cult- 
ure in one form or another. Among these should be enu- 
merated schools and colleges for girls, university extension, 
Chautauqua study circles, the Association for the Advance- 
ment of Women, and other kindred agencies, all doing much 
for woman's education and literary culture. Each would 
serve well to illustrate my theme. But there is one organi- 
zation, with which I happen to be closely connected, and of 
which I have personal knowledge, that I beg leave to em- 
phasize as bearing directly on our subject. The Woman's 
Literary Club movement is comparatively new, and needs 
to be better understood by the general public. I regard 
it as at least one of the greatest marvels of the last half of 
the nineteenth century, and as one of the grandest agencies 
for the social, ethical, and literary culture of women in 
middle life that has ever been organized. 

The General Federation of Women's Clubs was formed 
three years ago, with fifty-one corporate members. It has 
now in its membership 280 clubs, in thirty-three States and 
two foreign lands, having a combined membership of 40,000 
women. Its object is social, ethical, and literary culture. 
Each club pursues its own chosen line of study and work. 
Some give prominence to culture in one direction, and 
some in another ; all are in eager pursuit of knowledge, 
improvement, and larger usefulness. As one member stim- 
ulates all others in the local club, so each club helps to raise 
the tide of interest in the general body. It is surprising 
how women of natural talent, who before were unknown 
alike to themselves and their friends, are coming to the 
front. The Federation includes in its membership a very 
large proportion of the distinguished women of the land, 
and has come to be the source from which to seek earnest, 
cultured workers for the carrying forward of great under- 
takings. When the Columbian Exposition needs a presi- 
dent for its Woman's Department, and a vice-president for 
its Woman's Branch of the Congress Auxiliary, it finds 
them in women's literary clubs. Every member of the 


committee for arranging and conducting the Congress of 
Representative Women belongs to some federated club. 
This is true of most of the American speakers who are 
appearing on the platform, and of most of the committees 
arranging for woman's part in the mixed congresses of 
men and women yet to be held. 

Every great organization must be dominated by some 
leading idea, while yet it may be thoughtful of collateral 
interests. While culture is the watchword of the federated 
clubs, yet culture is sought only as a means of greater use- 
fulness in all the widening activities of woman's life, in 
her own home and beyond. 

This great organization of women, acting in conjunction 
with many others, is utilizing literary scholarship and pre- 
paring a great host of workers along many lines for the 
hastening of the glad day 

" When the war drums throb no longer, 

And the battle-flags are furled 
In the parliament of men, 
The federation of the world." 


The world in her advance owes much to her conquerors ; 
but her poets, her writers have marched ever before the race 
bearing aloft the ark that was the Eternal's covenant ; for 
to them has been given the guardianship of the ideal, that 
faith in all things high which bears the people upward on 
its wings. Alone in the darkness must they wrestle with 
that Angel of the Promise whose face they might not see, 
but those who thereafter heard their burning speech knew 
that at the dawn they conquered, and the hand was laid in 
blessing on their heads. 

The words that Moses spake from sacred Sinai have 
echoed down all the listening centuries. The song of Solo- 
mon is still love's sublimest lyric ; Sappho's odes yet clasp 
the immortal soul of hope. Shakespeare is forever the 


voice of tragedy, and Christ the growing ransom of a world. 

Literature is the champion of principles, those spiritual 
forces that are to work out the perfecting of the race ; and 
alas for the land whose din of strife drowns the still, small 
voice of the dreamer ! In a nation's songs sleep potencies 
its laws shall never waken ; in epic verse lives history to 
quicken the heart of youth ; the nation's hymns shall guard 
its hopes, and its martial strains be as trumpet tones at 
whose call men dare and die. Poetry and art are the 
golden links that span all times and spaces. In science, in 
religion, in philosophy we are sundered forever by the arch 
of two thousand years, but the tears of Andromache fall hot 
on our hearts to-day, as the marble of Phidias holds us 
raptured, still and mute. The poet and the artist survive 
the ruins of empires, for their work is wrought of the im- 
perishable, the spirit of beauty and of truth. 

Through the long medieval darkness inspiration still 
lived and lofty minds still organized to guard the sacred 
heritage of the ages. In library and in cell, Alexandrian, 
Arabian, and Moor threw their soul's illumination round 
the texts their patient hands had rescued from the night. 

In ancient times men organized in war to work out free- 
dom for the few ; to-day men are organized in peace to 
work out freedom for all. Ancient forces had as their goal 
the state ; for the state, conquest ; as their end the individ- 
ual ; for the individual, development. Our age was born in 
Gutenberg ; literature had found at last the instrument 
to its need. With daring hand the printing-press seized the 
treasures of thought that were its legacy, and scattered them 
broadcast ; and the slumbering masses woke, hurled off 
tyrannies, and stood supreme, voicing in "we, the people," 
the mightiest victory of time. 

To-day in free speech, free press, free church, free school 
we signal the triumph of growth. Railroad and telegraph, 
steamer and cable are clasping the globe with their strong 
hands of fellowship, and are organizing all mankind to 
higher ends. 


At the feet of literature has sat through the ages its 
lowly handmaiden, woman. Rarely in the past has her 
untutored thought found hardihood for utterance, but in 
her life she lived the dreams her dumb lips might not 
speak. In every country and in every age man has sym- 
boled his highest in her image ; she has been ever the 
guardian of social honor, the anchor of religious faith, the 
embodiment of conscience and of love. Humbly she has 
walked, a gentle guide beckoning unto purity, to right- 
eousness, to completeness. 

Literature in this great day of its triumph has at last led 
to her throne the living emblem of its principles. The 
silence of the centuries is broken. With the deathless 
voice of the seer woman speaks to-day, calling all to the 
heights on which her gaze is set. She has been the censor 
of society, the bulwark of the church, the genius of the 
home ; now shall she be the lode-star of the nation. Ever 
before it shall she hold this beacon of its ideal ; ever shall 
she lead it to the character development wherein alone it 
shall survive. 

The past is gone forever. No more in a civilized land 
shall the helpless be the outcast of justice. The lowliest 
shall sit in the sacred protection of law, behind which 
towers the adamant wall of public sentiment. From 
greatest to least our ethics are linking men together one 
in their common needs, one in their common rights, and 
one in their common duty. In waves of advance and reces- 
sion still onward has swept the tide, and we of to-day are 
the latest come, through whom shall surge the higher wave 
of to-morrow. 

Flesh shall fail, but the growing soul by the force of the 
universe must toil and mount. By the rugged way of 
struggle through circuits of organized strength shall our 
kind rise to issue larger than our dreams, and goals beyond 
the summit of our hopes. Motion has brought light, light 
has brought love, and love shall set the tone of gladness for 
a paean of brotherhood in the morning. 



Active, intelligent, interested in all public matters, the 
Polish woman has obtained a prominent position in litera- 
ture. As far back as the sixteenth century her first step 
toward literary pursuits can be traced, when Sophia Ole- 
snicka composed a poem or hymn thanking God for the reve- 
lation of faith to the little ones. In the eighteenth century 
Elizabeth Druzbacka gained renown as a poetess of ability. 

When Poland lost her independence, and it became evi- 
dent that only the language remained as a testimonial of 
the existence of the Polish race when every intelligent 
person saw the necessity of writing and publishing Polish 
works irrespective of talent, as long as these writings testi- 
fied to the existence of the nation the Polish woman also 
took up the pen. Among others Princess Isabel Czar- 
toryski distinguished herself on the field of literature 
through writing " The History of Poland." She also wrote 
rural sketches, and a work entitled " Ogrody Nasze ; Our 
Gardens," treating of the cultivation of gardens and the 
beautifying of rural mansions. Her daughter, Princess of 
Wurtemberg, was the author of a famous Polish novel, 
" Malvina ; or the Instinct of the Heart." " Malvina " was 
translated into French. Countess Mostowska, of the house 
of Radziwill., also gained renown as a novel-writer. 

From that time on the Polish woman continued to labor in 
the field of literature and art. Elizabeth Jaraczewska wrote 
a book picturing beautifully and truly the life of the nation, 
and her " Evening in Advent " and " Sophia and Emily " won 
in the third decade of this century a universal approval. 

About the same time Lucya Rautenstrauch, of the 
princely house of Gedroyc, entered the literary field. She 
did not possess the talent of Jaraczewska, but being witty 
and observing her writings were very original, treating 
mostly of travels through Poland and foreign countries, 


with sketches of noted personages. Her works, " Mountains, 
Cities, and Valleys," " In the Alps and Beyond the Alps," 
were published in the fourth and fifth decades of this cen- 
tury. But the strongest influence upon woman's mental 
development was effected through the systematic efforts of 
Clementine Hoffman, of the house of Tanski, who intro- 
duced a new era of healthy ideas and national educational 
work. Many have surpassed Mme. Hoffman in loftiness of 
style, many in the number of their works, but no one has 
exercised a greater influence. Her work for the community 
had a sound and carefully laid foundation, and was pro- 
ductive of many useful reforms. She was the first to teach 
the love of the mother tongue and the abandonment of the 
French, which at that time was in almost universal use. 
She studied carefully the literary works of the golden Sig- 
ismund era, gaining thereby a rich and expressive style, 
and her first efforts were to teach young mothers how to 
educate their children. She gave the initiative to Polish 
juvenile literature, writing excellent juvenile books and 
publishing The Children s Pastime, a periodical treating 
of the history of Poland, of prominent figures in literature, 
and of the old customs and home writers of the country. 

The reforms introduced by Mme. Hoffman in the educa- 
tion of woman, although insufficient at the present day, 
were of great importance seventy years ago, and far out- 
stripped the mental evolution then reached by other 
nations ; and the influence they exercised upon our grand- 
mothers has opened to us the way to progress. She 
placed education upon a national foundation, demanding 
that the children first learn the history and language of 
their country, and that the young women be prepared for 
the family duties. She was the first one to point out to 
woman a life outside of the family or the convent. In her 
best work, " Christine," the heroine is an old maid, plain 
and modest, who, having been disappointed in love, did not 
despair, but made herself useful to all who surrounded her, 
and found peace and finally happiness in performing her 


domestic duties. She clearly defined woman's duties and 
education, and placed woman on a lofty pedestal, from 
which she shone as well during the political existence of 
Poland as after her downfall. Clementine Hoffman closed 
her useful life in exile in Paris, in 1845, i n ner fiftieth year. 

Mme. Hoffman found a worthy successor in Narcyza 
Zmichowska. World-renowned authors like Mickiewicz, 
Slowacki, Krasinski had raised Polish literature to the 
zenith of prominence, and Zmichowska had to keep pace 
with its gigantic progress. After the struggles and mis- 
fortunes of the insurrection of 1831 the country was thrown 
into lethargy. The young generation, raised upon the 
ruins of Poland's hopes, bathed in blood and tears, did not 
inherit the activity of their ancestors. The country gradu- 
ally regained her prosperity, but did not regain her mental 
vigor, which was lost in the mines of Siberia or in exile. 
Every literary effort within her boundaries was suppressed. 

Under these unfavorable circumstances Narcyza Zmi- 
chowska entered the literary field, in both prose and poetry. 
The influence exercised by her writings was productive of 
the greatest good, and the condition of the Polish peasant 
was thereby ameliorated greatly. 


In order that a correct estimate may be formed in regard 
to the facts which are to be presented, let me first remind 
you that although nearly half a century has passed since 
the pioneers first entered the valleys of Utah, during many 
of those years the people were almost entirely excluded 
from the advantages possessed by the great world outside. 
Had not the roots of a strong, pure love for that which 
forms the beautiful in our lives been implanted in hearts 
determined to protect and foster them under all conditions, 
they must certainly have been crushed and blighted beyond 


restoration by the stern hardships endured by our pioneers. 
Is there aught, think you, to delight an artist's eye or 
furnish a theme for the poet's muse in a dreary expanse of 
sage-brush ? Is there aught in the plaintive cry of hungry 
children that would cause the mother's heartstrings to 
vibrate with music's melodies ? Few, indeed, were the hours 
in those days that could in any degree be devoted to the 
cultivation of the mind; but there are souls pure enough to 
soar to higher planes, and great enough to contemplate the 
grand in nature, even while they are performing life's 
homeliest duties, and to this favored class belonged Utah's 
early settlers. Eager to grasp and utilize opportunities 
whenever presented, and no less eager to create when 
there were none to be presented, active brains were busy 
devising means whereby to elevate and encourage others, 
and the consummation of this worthy object was realized 
by establishing the Woman s Exponent. The type of the 
jo.urnal is set by woman's nimble fingers, the contents 
of its pages are the fruit of her fertile brain, and a woman 
occupies its editorial chair. 

Speaking of our sisters who have known no other home 
than Utah, we think there is indeed just cause for pride at 
the deep interest manifested in the development of the 
higher arts. But few of our girls have received any train- 
ing aside from that which is obtainable in our own .Terri- 
tory, yet \ve have many vocalists and pianists who can no 
longer be classed as amateurs, but have gained enviable 
reputations. In painting and designing we have perhaps 
but few who, if compared with those who have made art a 
life study, would be termed artists, but we have many 
who, considering their meager advantages, do excellent 
work in floral and landscape painting, china decorating, 
portrait coloring, and in designing and executing artistic 

The object of these efforts is not so much pecuniary gain 
as a real love for the work, and an inclination to adorn and 
beautify the home. The latter tendency is beautifully 


illustrated among the girls who live in the more remote 
parts of our Territory, where pioneer conditions still con- 
tinue to some extent. This desire to make home attractive, 
if it be only with clusters of varnished pine-cones, a bunch 
of cat-tails from the marshes, and tall grasses from the 
meadows, is apparent in the humblest homes. 

The two pioneer high schools of our Territory, the Uni- 
versity of Utah and the Brigham Young Academy, as also 
many others of later times, have done much, indeed, to 
raise the standard of our literature. Next to the schools in 
importance, so far as a literary education is concerned, and 
even larger in numbers, is our Young Ladies' Mutual 
Improvement Association, which we are here to represent. 

What the Exponent is to the women, the Young Woman s 
Journal is to the girls. Edited by a woman Utah-born, it 
is indeed a representative journal, and in it may be found 
a class of literature which mothers may well place in the 
hands of their daughters. 


More and more are authors finding out that, in order to 
bring about legal recognition of the fact that brain 
materialized in books is property, they must band together 
to secure that recognition. 

When one writes a book, or contributes to a newspaper or 
periodical, his brain-product should be recognized as prop- 
erty, whether it bears the stamp of a government copy- 
right or not. As it is now, he is poached upon by every 
conscienceless purveyor who would get brain-wares without 
compensation to the owner. 

When a farmer goes to market with a load of cabbages 
he has a legal right in his particular product. Whoever 
steals a cabbage is amenable to law. The farmer may call 
to his aid the servants of the law, arrest and punish the 


depredator, and collect the price of his product. When an 
author writes a book, or prepares an article, which has cost 
much labor and research, and takes his product to market, 
he is without any adequate protection from the pilfering 
hordes of publishers and syndicates. 

Our laws, national and international, are so framed as to 
protect the rights of property in material things. Lands, 
houses, manufactured goods, things that you can touch, see, 
and feel, these are the things over which the law keeps 
sacred trust. What cares the law for a story, or a song, or 
the bread that comes down from heaven ? 

The poorest paid, the most defenseless, often the most 
dejected of his race is the man whose name is emblazoned 
on books, or heralded through public prints. He may sow, 
but others reap ; he may think, but others revel in the 
profits thereof. 

Patentees are protected against infringement, but who 
protects the author from infringement upon his thoughts ? 
His works are stolen bodily, or are abstracted in part ; or 
they are condensed, made over, and sold as original products. 

A copyright on books or articles for the public press 
affords little protection to the author. Virtually there is no 
protection, since to defend his rights from encroachment an 
author must employ attorneys and conduct an expensive 

The lack of an international copyright makes the situation 
of the author worse, as the robbers of foreign authors, by 
putting the stolen products of famous pens on the market, 
rob at the same time the unprotected American writers at 

The first American sales of " Robert Elsmere " amounted 
to 200,000 copies, and under proper protective laws the profit 
to the author, through the usual 10 per cent royalty on the 
sales, would have reached $20,000. What the author, Mrs. 
Humphrey Ward, really received was $500. The dealers 
in stolen goods realized $19,500 on filchings alone. 

There is not one American author who would impose 


restrictions to keep out the works of foreign writers. Let 
their books come over, but let the authors have their profits. 
We want our Brownings, our Blackmores, our Mrs. Wards, 
and our Jean Ingelows ; but we want them to receive the 
rewards of their labors. We do not want their unpaid 
labors used to lower the prices and profits of brain-work in 
our home market. No adequate legislation will ever be 
enacted on behalf of our underpaid authors and writers 
until they, themselves, are fully aware of the disadvantages 
under which they suffer, and band themselves together to 
define, establish, and maintain their rights. 

Not only should they unite and organize, but they should 
educate. They should take the reading public into their 
confidence. They should appeal to the sturdy sense of fair 
play, which is the underlying motive-power of our race and 
nation, and ask the cooperation of the reading masses in 
their righteous crusade. They should ask their aid in 
securing such legislative enactments as would, by regular 
process of law, protect an author in his right to the products 
of his brain. In order to give this aid, the reading public 
must first learn of the wrongs under which authors and 
writers now suffer. When this lesson is learned, the pur- 
chasers of books and periodicals will no more think of fill- 
ing up libraries and reading-rooms, public and private, with 
filched literature than they would of stocking up their med- 
icine-shelves with stolen remedies and prescriptions. 

There should be a general law whereby a writer 
should receive a percentage or royalty upon whatever is 
published over his name, and upon whatever is written by 
him, whenever published, copied, or rehashed for public 

As it is now, an author gets a nominal sum for his books 
from his publisher, while his sole future consideration is 
the proud satisfaction of having his work torn up piece- 
meal and devoured by the public in tidbits, without any 
pecuniary returns to himself. 

The magazine and newspaper contributors fare even 


worse, and all they print is the common property or prey of 
the public press. 

Civilization is justice reduced to a system. In our pres- 
ent dealing with authors we are but half civilized. Sad- 
hearted and discouraged, many geniuses are passing 
through life unappreciated, unpaid, and unknown. When 
they are gone epitaphs will be written, and their bones will 
be laid in hallowed places. 

Authorship is not yet a calling ; it is an episode. Its prod- 
ucts have no place among merchantable wares. It has no 
place in the organized activities of our country. 


Probably no other session of the congress was anticipated 
with such vivid and universal interest as that in which a 
galaxy of stars were to discuss woman and the drama. 

When the chairman of the committee suggested the above 
topic to her co-workers, a doubt concerning the willingness 
of great artists to participate in the congress was mingled 
with universal approval of the subject and of the effort to 
secure its presentation by distinguished actresses. 

All of the distinguished women invited, however, ex- 
pressed in response the most cordial interest in the congress 
and its objects ; and while the professional engagements of 
some of those solicited rendered acceptance impossible, the 
reception of the invitations dispelled every fear of indif- 
ference or antagonism, and finally six of the number invited 
consented to take part. The committee had desired, so 
far as possible, to secure the representatives of different 
nationalities and of differing degrees of professional ex- 
perience, as well as of different schools of acting, in the 
proposed programme, as follows : 

Mme. Janauschek, Bohemian ; Mme. Modjeska, Polish ; 
Clara Morris, American ; Mile. Rhea, French ; Georgia Cay- 
van, American ; Julia Marlowe, English. While only four 


appeared, the absence of Mme. Janauschek and Mile. Rhea 
was due to no fault of theirs, but to unfortunate circum- 
stances beyond their control. Public acknowledgment is 
due those who appeared for the sacrifice involved in their 
generous contributions to the congress. Mme. Modjeska 
terminated her season one week earlier than she had planned 
to do, and gave much of that week to the sessions of the 
congress. Clara Morris made the journey across half a 
continent to keep her pledge to the committee, and Georgia 
Cayvan, then playing an engagement in St. Louis, obtained 
a release for the two nights consumed by the journey to 
Chicago and return ; while Julia Marlowe postponed her 
trip to Europe by a week. 

The participation of these women in the congress marked, 
and indeed made, an epoch in the progressive movement 
for the promotion of human interests through the advance- 
ment of women. Formerly artists and reformers had held 
aloof from each other. This was not unnatural, since an 
artist's development is individual and her career is, in a 
certain sense, isolation ; while reformers, working from 
impersonal motives for purposes outside of themselves, 
naturally seek strength for a cause through the organiza- 
tion of its supporters. 

The grave dignity with which each of the speakers set 
forth the claims of dramatic art as a censor of social life, 
an inculcator of ethical principles, a critic of current stand- 
ards, and an inspirer of devotion to the ideal was an 
unintended but noble and sufficient rebuke to that class of 
people who have assumed that the histrionic art destroys 
serious purpose in its votaries. 

The addresses, so unlike each other and characteristic of 
their respective authors, were one in emphasizing the 
degree to which the life of a woman is enlarged and 
uplifted by a serious occupation, and one in the expression 
of loyalty to art as a truly divine mistress. 

The audience assembled at this session was in such 
excess of the seating capacity of the Hall of Washington 


that the overflow filled the Hall of Columbus, and left the 
aisles of both halls, the anterooms, and the corridors still 
crowded. Of this audience of many thousands a large pro- 
portion was composed of people whose eagerness to see 
and hear the great artists on the platform was augmented 
by the fact that their prejudices had prevented their seeing 
and hearing them on the stage. 

The audience in the Hall of Columbus, where simultane- 
ously a large and important meeting had been held, waited 
in the hope that the actresses would repeat their addresses 
there. This was amiably done by Clara Morris, Georgia 
Cayvan, and Julia Marlowe, but Mme. Modjeska was pre- 
vented by a severe cold from gratifying disappointed 

The eager enthusiasm of the audience was such that it 
seems proper to reproduce the introductory stenographic 
notes which suggest the features of this unprecedented 

The addresses of the actresses are reproduced nearly 
entire in this chapter. From Mme. Modjeska's paper is 
omitted a portion of the historical account of the nun of 
Gandersheim, with the analysis of her plays ; and from that 
of Miss Marlowe are omitted some incidents in the careers 
of Rachel, Charlotte Cushman, and Fanny Kemble. [THE 

STENOGRAPHIC NOTES. " The evening session in Wash- 
ington Hall was called to order at 8.10 P. M., May 17, 1893, 
by May Wright Sewall, who said : 

"A note has come to the platform from a gentleman 
in the audience requesting the ladies to remove their hats. 
(A prompt and general compliance with the request was 
greeted with great applause.) 

"It was expected that every one of the famous women 
named on this programme would be present with us 
to-night. I, however, hold in my hand a telegram from 
Madam Janauschek, which reads : 


" ' As I find it impossible to be with you, I can console myself only by 
sending to you the expression of my deepest sympathy with the cause that 
animates your society and with the objects of this congress. Please con- 
vey to the audience a sense of my respect and affection. 


" We had expected Mile. Rhea up to the last moment, 
and have not been informed of the cause which has pre- 
vented her from being here. 

" Dr. Julia Holmes Smith it was hoped would serve as the 
acting- president on this occasion, and have the pleasure of 
introducing the speakers. She is undoubtedly lost in the 
great crowd without the hall. I have, therefore, asked 
to serve as the foreign honorary president this evening 
Mme. Callirrhoe Parren, from Athens, Greece, for it seems 
proper, on the occasion when women who stand for one of 
the greatest of the arts are to speak, that a woman who 
comes from the city where the arts originated, should pre- 
side. This is a proud moment for the World's Congress 
of Representative Women when such illustrious repre- 
sentatives of the great art unite themselves with other 
women and with this congress, a congress that stands for 
the finest of all arts, the art of improvement of life, of 
refining and elevating its conditions. The audience should 
understand that Mme. Modjeska and the other distin- 
guished women who are to speak to us are at liberty to 
discuss any phase of the great subject, ' Woman and Her 
Relations to the Drama.' It is with pleasure I present to 
you Mme. Modjeska." 


There is a general impression that the connection of 
woman with the stage is of recent occurrence and does not 
date farther back than the seventeenth, and in a few 


countries the sixteenth, century. This impression is erro- 
neous, as probably a great many of you are aware. Woman 
is not a new arrival in the history of the drama. Her influ- 
ence on its development, and I may say more truly on its very 
origin, has been traced far back into the remotest period of 
the middle ages, to the second half of the tenth century. 

It would be out of place here, and I do not feel competent, 
to enter into elaborate historical researches and discussions. 
We all know that the ancient theater had a theocratic 
origin; it is, therefore, not strange that the Christian the- 
ater also had its cradle in religion. But nowhere did 
woman appear on the ancient stage, if we except her partic- 
ipation in the Greek mysteries and occasional exhibitions 
of physical display; it is -only due to the higher level upon 
which Christianity has placed woman that she has obtained 
the opportunity to figure as an important and beneficent 
factor in the development of dramatic art. 

There is a theory, almost generally accepted, that there is 
no direct connection between the new Christian theater and 
the old one, and that the former one was born long after 
the death of the latter. This theory is not exact. The 
vitality of the dramatic spirit was never entirely extinct. 
One can trace its continuity through ages, but unquestion- 
ably the most important link of the chain is the so-called 
comedy of the tenth century, the work of a Christian 

The very name of comedy in the tenth century seems an 
anachronism. It was a time of concentration of religious 
thought and of political upheaval and anarchy caused by the 
disintegration of the work of Charles the Great. By far the 
greater part of the Christian community expected the end 
of the world would come with the approaching millennium 
of the Christian era. Certainly it does not appear a favor- 
able epoch for an artistic or literary revival. One would 
think it scarce possible to find then for the drama a poet, a 
stage, or a public. And yet it was then that from the 
recess of a monastery hidden in the dark forests of Ger- 


many, on the banks of the river Ganda, resounded the first 
note of dramatic renaissance. 

This note was uttered by a woman's voice. 

The convent of Gandersheim was founded by Lutolf, 
Duke of Saxony, grandson of a celebrated Saxon chief, 
Wittikind, who was conquered and converted by Charle- 
magne. During the first years of its foundation most of its 
abbesses were members of the ducal family. One of these 
abbesses is supposed by some historians to have been a 
Greek princess, daughter of the Emperor of the Orient, and 
to have brought from Constantinople elements of higher 
culture to this remote corner of Germany. 

Whatever may be the case, it is certain that the convent 
of Gandersheim became an intellectual oasis among the 
deserts of barbarism. It was there that lived and died a 
modest nun, Hrosvitha, known even to-day more generally 
as the 4i Nun of Gandersheim " ; it was there that she wrote 
in Latin her legends, her historical poems, and, what inter- 
ests us most, her six or seven comedies. About her life we 
know almost nothing, except the very few personal allu- 
sions contained in her works. Thus she informs us that it 
is to the Princess Gerberg, an imperial niece and abbess of 
the convent, and to Riccardi that she owes most of her 
classical knowledge and her literary attainments. 

Hrosvitha wrote in Latin. Her legends are in either hex- 
ameters or elegiac verse ; her plays, the so-called comedies,, 
are in prose. Her Latin is correct, far above the so-called 
" Kitchen " Latin of the middle ages. She was evidently 
well versed in the knowledge of the old classic authors, and 
equally well acquainted with the rich lore of Christian 
legends and with the theological philosophy of the fathers 
of the church. Of the dramatic writers of Greece and 
Rome she seems to have known only Terence. It was her 
admiration for Terentius' genius and style, combined with 
abhorrence for his lack of morality, that seems to have 
inspired Hrosvitha to write her dramas. She states her 
object in the following words : "I intend to substitute for 


the picture of the dissipation of pagan women edifying- 
stories of pure virgins. I have endeavored, so far as the 
means of my poor little talent allowed, to celebrate the vic- 
tories of chastity, especially those where woman's weakness 
triumphs over man's brutality." 

The value of Hrosvitha's dramas is mostly in the dialogue, 
in the richness and subtlety of thoughts, in a spirit of gen- 
uine poetry, as well as in an aspect of life and of woman- 
hood to which we have not been treated in the ancient lit- 

It is the most important work of transition between the 
two eras, because, though modeled upon and inspired by the 
classics, it is the first to bring forth new elements and new 
forms, on which developed later the drama of the Chris- 
tian era. 

To-day the name of the modest nun of Gandersheim 
is very little known, though students of the drama and a 
few learned archaeologists and professors in Germany and 
France have done their best to extol the significance and 
merits of that strange figure standing solitary between the 
ancient and the modern world. The publication of her 
manuscripts by Celtes, in 1501, created a sensation among 
the German and Italian humanists of the time, and it 
would not be strange to suppose that they were known, 
though probably in a transfigured shape, to some of the 
dramatists of the sixteenth century, and inspired their 
genius ; and thus the influence of Hrosvitha upon the later 
drama may have been much greater than we can realize 

It seemed to me that in the connection of wx>man with 
the stage, or let me say rather with dramatic art and liter- 
ature, no name deserved a higher rank than the very name 
of Hrosvitha. I think it is one more laurel in the crown of 
womanhood that it was a woman who was the originator of 
the modern drama, and we can claim with pride that the 
first female dramatist ever known in history was inspired 
in her work by the highest and most ideal motives, and 


that her tendency has been to elevate the moral standard 
of the drama. 

Another point almost as important as the authorship of 
the first modern plays is their performance. There have 
been long discussions upon this point, but at present it can 
be accepted as a fact, based on the authority of the German 
and French savants, that all of the plays of Hrosvitha were 
performed in the convent of Gandersheim by young nuns, 
in the presence of the Bishop of Hildesheim and several 
high officials of the empire, probably even before the mem- 
bers of the imperial family. How strange, how hardly 
conceivable is the fact of such an origin for the modern 
theater in the presence of the unreasonable antagonism 
between church and stage which has been fostered by nar- 
row-minded people on both sides. Yet it is only natural 
when we remember the whole history of ancient and mod- 
ern drama, and if we keep in mind that for long centuries 
after Hrosvitha the only manifestations of the dramatic 
spirit were confined to the so-called mysteries, " miracles " 
and "moralities," performances where religion and scenic 
display were combined in a curious fashion, much less 
legitimately than in Hrosvitha's plays. 

I do not intend to dwell upon them except to mention 
that generally women were excluded from such perform- 
ances. There is known only one instance of woman's partici- 
pation in a so-called mystery. In the beginning of the 
sixteenth century, in the city of Metz, three women person- 
ated in public the three Marys in the representation 
of our Lord's passion. In the female convents, however, 
the custom of private theatricals seems to have persisted 
from the time of Hrosvitha during the middle ages. They 
were often forbidden by the bishops, but we know that as 
late as the sixteenth century, in some of the Spanish 
convents, they were customary, as Friar Juan Mariana 

In the first half of the sixteenth century, under the reign 
of Charles V., woman appears on the professional stage in 


Spain. Her appearance, however, does not seem to have 
been generally welcome, because Charles, the son of Philip 
II., prohibits it by a special edict. Soon, however, the pro- 
hibition fell into disuse, and the actress ceased to be an 
exception. A Spanish writer, Augustin de Rojas, says that 
in the times of Lope de Vega there were a great many 
organizations of strolling players through the country. He 
enumerates as many as six different kinds of such organiza- 
tions. In the lower organizations women's parts were 
played by men, in the middle ones by women or boys, but 
in " The Farandula " and " Compania " all the female parts 
were personated by women. Cervantes, in his " Don 
Quixote," speaks of a company of actors that included one 
woman, who was the wife of the author and played the 
part of a queen. 

Another interesting detail in the history of the begin- 
ning of the theater in Spain is an attempt made in 1586 to 
give separate performances for men and for women. The 
time selected for the latter was immediately after noon 
a regular matinee. It seems that the ladies of Madrid 
in those times were very fond of matinees, because 760 
tickets were disposed of at one real apiece to so many 
ladies. For some reason or other, however, the perform- 
ance was forbidden by the authorities, the money was 
refunded, and the custom of almost exclusive matinees for 
ladies was not renewed until the present days in America. 
Italy was the next country after Spain where woman 
appeared on the stage, about the middle of the sixteenth 
century, but, following in the footsteps *of Philip II., the 
pope, Innocent IX., forbade their appearance. But, notwith- 
standing the pope's decree, the substitution of woman for 
man in female parts became a feature of the Italian theater, 
as it did of the Spanish, and the Spanish and Italian com- 
panies appeared even abroad with women actors. 

In September, 1 548, the Cardinal of Ferrara, Archbishop 
of Lyons, was entertaining the king of France, Henry II., 
and his wife, Catherine de' Medici. The entertainment was 


exceedingly sumptuous, and its principal feature was a 
tragic comedy performed by Italian actors and actresses. 
This was the first time woman was seen on the stage in 
France, but it was only fifty years later that a French 
woman appeared before the public. Her name was Marie 
Vernier, and her appearance is a very important event in 
the annals of the French stage, because it was followed 
immediately by the establishment of a regular theater, the 
first one in France, managed by her husband and herself. 

The formal entrance of women on the stage in England 
is usually credited to the epoch of the Restoration. It 
seems, however, that already under Cromwell, when the 
fervor of the Puritafrs against the stage had somewhat 
abated, and Davenant was allowed to give performances at 
the Rutland House, there was produced the " Siege of 
Rhodes," a play with music, wherein the part of Ian the was 
personated by a woman, Mrs. Coleman. 

Under the reign of Charles II. the custom of women's 
performing on the regular stage was regulated by royal 
rescript, and a memorable date is the 8th of December, 1680, 
when the play of "Othello" was given with a special prologue 
written by one S. Jordan, in order, as he says, to introduce 
the first woman that ever acted on the stage. Jordan, 
evidently, could not have been aware of the earlier per- 
formance of the "Siege of Rhodes" with Mrs. Coleman, 
or must have intentionally omitted to refer to it. The 
woman he alludes to in his prologue was Mrs. Ann Mar- 
shall. He curiously insists on the fact that she was a 
married woman. 

In Poland, at the end of the sixteenth century, the Italian 
troupes of actors and actresses appeared on the private royal 
stage or in the public squares. A Polish woman is already 
seen at the beginning of the seventeenth century, when she 
appears occasionally in translated and original drama. 

The country in which woman appears latest on the stage, 
but where she has contributed to its development more 
than anywhere else, is Germany. About 1678 there was 


formed a company of actors from the students of Leipsic 
University, under the leadership of Magister Johann Vel- 
then. This company received permission for a permanent 
organization from the Duke of Saxony, and established the 
first German court theater. 

Mrs. Velthen, the wife of the manager, was the first Ger- 
man actress. After the death of Johann Velthen the man- 
agement of the company passed into the hands of his 
widow, and so the first German actress is also the first 
woman who was a theatrical manager. 

Frederica Caroline Neuber, or, as she has usually been 
called, the Neuberin, was the founder of the Leipsic school 
of acting. She did more than any one else to build up a 
higher dramatic repertoire, as well as to promote a loftier 
standard of dramatic art, in Germany. As a German his- 
torian says, she closed the gap existing between the Ger- 
man stage and poetry. The life of the Neuberin was a 
continual struggle against the low prevailing forms of bur- 
lesque and harlequinades, and she died poor and solitary, 
with a broken heart, in a little hamlet near Dresden. The 
epitaph on her tombstone, erected long afterward, calls her 
the creator of artistic taste on the German stage, a title 
which she certainly deserves. 

The woman who had the most pronounced influence upon 
the German stage was Sophie Schroeder. 

At the beginning of the present century there were two 
tendencies in the dramatic art of Germany opposed to each 
other. The Hamburg school, under the influence of the 
great actor Louis Schroeder, was tending toward realism ; 
the school of Weimar, created by the great poets Goethe 
and Schiller, tended toward idealism. 

The object of the first was to preserve strong characteris- 
tics, and to avoid pathos ; the object of the latter was to 
keep up the standard of the ideal of poetry, which might 
be lowered, they feared, in the narrow limits of e very-day 
surroundings and commonplace treatment. Both were 
right to some extent, and the solution of the struggle lay in 


the union of the two tendencies. This work of unification 
was done by a woman. 

Antoinette Sophie Schroeder was an eminently poetic 
nature. She could not resist the influence of Goethe and 
Schiller, and became a genuine idealist in the conception 
of her parts; but, on the other side, brought up under 
the influence of her cousin in the Hamburg theater, she 
remained a realist in execution. 

The influence of women may not have acted in such 
a direct way upon the development of the theater in other 
countries, but whoever is familiar with the history of the 
theater will acknowledge with me that at every new phase 
of development, at every new step of progress, actresses 
have marked their way as prominently as actors. 

If the influence of our sex upon the theater is beneficent, 
can we say the same of the influence of the theater upon 
the woman herself? In other words, does the life of an 
actress tend to develop her better qualities, or does it do the 
contrary ? I should not like to give a decisive reply to the 
question. I may, however, say that, while the life that we 
lead exposes us to many temptations, stimulates our vanity 
too much, and takes us sometimes too far from our family 
duties, it has some advantages which may compensate for 
the losses. It certainly must develop in us a sense of inde- 
pendence, and therefore of responsibility. On the other 
side, it brings us into contact with the highest creations of 
the master minds, and is bound to open both our hearts and 
our minds to the generous impulses and higher problems 
which they lay before humanity. As for morals, I can 
only state that there are as many good women on the 
dramatic stage as in any other walk of life. 

The good that woman can do on the stage for humanity 
can be summed up in the good that the stage itself can do. 
We can not expect that only the work of great masters 
shall be produced in the numerous theaters. Very often 
the stage is used only for amusement, but even in that 
case it should not be detrimental to the better instincts 





of man. Lessing said : " It is of the utmost importance 
that the amusements of the stage shall not be coarse and 
idiotic." But he adds, and we all, I hope, believe with him : 
"A good theater is more than an amusement, and can pro- 
duce an effect second only to that of the pulpit. It helps to 
build up and to keep the purity of our language ; it 
impresses our morals and customs; it ennobles both the 
performer and the public." 

In the present days there has appeared in a new form the 
old struggle between idealism and realism, similar to the 
one I alluded to in mentioning Sophie Schroeder. Thore, 
the great French critic, says : "Art is the expression of the 
beautiful." Nowadays, art is more often called the expres- 
sion of the true, of nature. But, whether it is the beautiful 
that brings to our hearts the love of truth and justice, or 
whether it is truth that teaches us how to find the 
beautiful in nature and how to love it, in either case art 
does a noble work. It drags out the soul from its every- 
day shell, and brings it under the spell of its own mysteri- 
ous and wonderful power, so that a memory of this experi- 
ence stays with the people, sustains them in their daily 
labors, and refines their minds. 

Dramatic art has a more limited field than some of her 
sisters. While a painter or a sculptor can choose his own 
subjects, and only deal with nature as it appears to his tem- 
perament, the actor has to follow the dramatic author. 
But the interpretation of the author's work depends upon 
the performer. By transfusing his own soul into the char- 
acter performed, the actor can either degrade or elevate 
the impersonation. There is no question that almost any 
part of the higher drama can be interpreted, without 
detriment to the author's object, so as to appeal to the 
lower instincts of the public or to its higher intellect or 

It is in this direction that I think woman's mission on the 
stage can be of great significance to her art, to her public, 
and to herself. 



I have hitherto alluded only to the actress, although the 
connection of the female dramatist with the theater is of 
similar, if not stronger, importance. I referred to the sub- 
ject in speaking of Hrosvitha, but the general treatment of 
the question belongs to the congress devoted to literature. 
There is, however, yet a third way in which stage and 
women react upon each other. It is the woman who goes 
to the theater. All of us have at heart the future of the 
American stage, and by this we mean the progress of dra- 
matic art and dramatic literature. This future may, in 
some way, be made brighter by the combined efforts of the 
playwright and the performer, but in the present condi- 
tion of affairs the improvement of the stage depends first 
of all upon the public. 

In these last years of the nineteenth century, when mate- 
rialism, or at least a practical spirit, rules over everything, 
the theater has become principally a commercial enterprise. 
We may consider this a drawback, we may seek remedies 
for it, but in the meantime we have to look at facts as they 
are. Now we know that in all the economic questions the 
law of supply and demand is the supreme master; there- 
fore the theater will produce what the public requires. 
The manager, the author, and the actor obey the public's 

Who can influence the public? I think only woman. 
She forms the larger half of it, and can to a great extent 
rule the other half. The American woman especially has 
always been an important factor in all the civilizing influ- 
ences. Her position in this country is superior to that 
occupied by her sisters elsewhere, and is due to her intel- 
lectual qualities and to the high general level of her instruc- 

I am happy to say that there has always been a tendency 
on her part to protect and encourage true art. Hrosvitha's 
spirit of refinement and poetry is still living in women's 
hearts, and therefore I look with serenity and hope to the 
future, convinced, as I am, that the almighty power of Amer- 


lean woman will create a new era in the history of the 
American stage. 



First and foremost let me say that, standing here by the 
right of kindly invitation, before this great body of brainy, 
big-hearted women earnest workers, not for themselves 
alone, God help them, but for the welfare of the whole race 
I feel I am receiving the highest honor of my life. Hon- 
ored and proud I am, but I am vexed. I suppose you all 
know what happens when a red flag is waved in the face of 
an angry bull ? You may not have tried the experiment 
personally neither have I but the books say that such 
an act results in frenzy to the bull, who proceeds to mix 
things up and generally to hurt somebody. Now I don't 
want to hurt any one, but when a lady asks me to stand up 
and make some remarks about the emotional drama she 
flaunts in my face the very reddest red flag to be found in 
all this big, beautiful city. Emotional drama, indeed! 
Whenever I hear the term " emotional actress " it always sug- 
gests to me a darkened room, an hysterical woman, and a 
strong odor of ether it has such a weak, whimpering, 
soppy sound. Don't think I am venturing to find fault with 
the drama, particularly the very branch in which I have 
longest served. No, I only quarrel with that dreadful word 
" emotional," as applied to plays and players. All dramas 
deal with the human emotions. To be sure, some of the old- 
time playwrights treated their human emotions in a most 
inhuman way. They swathed them up in bombastic lan- 
guage, then mounted them upon the stilts of pomposity and 
affectation. Thus accoutered it would, of course, become 
difficult to recognize the humanest sort of an emotion. The 
whole body of actors of the natural school came near being 
made ridiculous through having that wretched title tacked 


to them. The idea prevailed for a time that an emotional 
play must be a tearful play. A synopsis might read like 
this : First Act. A tiny, tearful trickle. Second Act 
A widening, weeping woe. Third Act. A flood; tumult- 
uous torrent of tears. Fourth Act. Everything washed 

But after a time it came to be understood that there were 
other human emotions than that of grief such as love, hate, 
hypocrisy, jealousy, and the like and that the deadliest 
grief, the bitterest anguish may be quite dry and tearless ; 
that, in fact, an emotional actress is not of necessity a 
human reservoir. But one thing is certain, this school or 
style of acting, whatever it may be called, we owe to woman, 
just as to woman we owe the existence of those wonderful 
modern plays, those studies of human life, in which one 
almost sees the movement of the living- brain, so closely is 
thought followed ; one almost feels the hot throbbing of 
the human heart, so fiercely are its secrets sought for. 

There came a time in the history of the drama when, 
woman's influence growing ever stronger, the writer of plays 
began to think about her, to study her, to write of her and for 
her. Poor male student of w r omankind ! Many a time he 
must have felt that the regally repellent riddle of the desert 
was easier to guess than any one of the living riddles about 
him. He found women who, seeming scarcely capable of 
the fierceness of an angry dove, yet possessed the endur- 
ance and tenacity of the bull dog ; women with ambition as 
high as men's, but purer ; nay, sometimes even a woman 
with passions strong enough to wreck Othello, but in her 
so curbed, so coerced were they by her will they paced 
primly quiet, to suit conventional demand, her whole life 

Finding this subject interesting himself, he doubtless 
argued that the public might find it interesting too ; and 
so one night in France the young son of a mighty father, 
in the face of all artistic Paris, cast his gauntlet down. 
Many of course there were who rushed to take it up, but 


paused amazed. That night there was a miracle per- 
formed, for before their awed and startled eyes there 
passed a fallen woman's soul. Marguerite Gautier, with 
laughing ' face and anguished heart, seemingly uncon- 
scious of observers, laid bare before them the bitter 
mockery of her mirth, her secret shame, her love, her 
hope, her torture and despair, until at last she bowed her 
weak shoulders beneath her self-made cross and stum- 
bled blindly to her grave. Surely that night was an epoch 
in play making. 

Two lilies, broken both, I often dream of. One tall, 
and fair, and sweet, oh, heavenly sweet, with all its per- 
fume still about it, broken by too strong a wind, lies all 
its fair length upon the grass, green and cool with spark- 
ling dew broken but pure and that the Lily Maid of 
Astolat. The other, which had been a bud of equal 
promise, grown equal tall, and fair, and sweet, oh, honey- 
sweet, is broken too, broken and cast by an evil hand 
upon the city street, where every passer-by may see 
ground into the sweet whiteness of its face the smirch and 
bruise of a man's boot-heel broken and soiled and that 
is Marguerite Gautier, poor Queen of the Camelias. 

I am wandering too far a-field. Oh, dear mistress of 
ceremonies, before I take my seat let me cast aside the 
limitations put upon me to speak only of the emotional 
drama, and say a word of my profession as a whole. 
Already you have been addressed upon this subject by 
those far better fitted for the task than I, but, even so, you 
will allow me to express my gratitude to the profession 
that has given me under God every good thing I ever had 
the dear profession that has always been woman's friend. 
Hundreds of years ago, when every other profession was 
locked against her, and most of them had a man on guard 
outside that she might not learn too much about the size 
and shape of the keyhole, the doors of the theater stood 
wide, and to the woman who would enter there were 
two questions put: " Can you act?" "Will you work?" 


for women must work. They may weep, too, if they want 
to, but they work on a perfect equality with man, and, what 
is more, are as well paid for their work. And, further still, 
has one been without previous education, what a teacher 
is this profession ! It takes you by the hand and leads you 
by paths of romance and dramatic incident from land to 
land, from age to age, and, best of all, from poet to poet, till 
you reach the knees of Shakespeare's self. There our 
greatest and mightiest have stood with the humility of little 
children to learn the A B C of that great art we call acting. 
She acts best who is not held bound to one narrow school. 
Doubtless, who serves Shakespeare serves best. There is 
a lady here this moment who illustrates my meaning, for 
will she not one night declaim her uncrowned, death-sen- 
tenced queen right royally, and the next night, in her laugh- 
ing rush through Arden Forest, seem at times almost to 
catch the master's very mantle in her bonnie, reckless 
hands ? 

To the great student of Shakespeare here present I hum- 
bly bow my head, and to the other sisters present I offer 
greeting and God-speed to the goal of their desires. 

Surely our profession is great and beautiful, a very tem- 
ple of art. A temple with many courts, full crowded ; and 
altars, some to art, some to nature ; but it is within the 
sevenfold sanctuary, before the grand high altar erected to 
art and nature, that one finds the little band of mighty 
ones, who, having hearts to feel with, eyes to see with, 
brains to think with, have with loving, loyal labor won the 
right to enter there. 

Now, my last words I speak to those whose eyes my eyes 
have never met ; whose hands my hands have never grasped 
- to the actresses of the future. Through a veil of to-mor- 
rows I see dim forms struggling forward ; from them I 
would exact a promise that when they enter this profession 
which they have chosen above all other professions, when 
they stand upon the threshold of that great temple, they 
will take a solemn vow that whether they win name and 


fame within, or whether they pass their whole life in some 
outer court, at the end, when all is done, they will leave 
upon its altar the pure white flower of a blameless life. 



I come before you to-night, as one from the rank and file 
of the theatrical profession, not to make a set speech on the 
subject in which I am enrolled, but to talk to you, if I may, 
simply, earnestly, perhaps a little disjointedly, about the 
stage and its women. 

The veil of illusion has long been torn away from the 
stage. Why not direct our efforts toward tearing away the 
cloud of misapprehension that obscures this power in the 
world's progress? The drama has its legitimate province, 
its peculiar function. Primarily the purpose of the stage is 
relaxation, and herein lies its great usefulness. 

The terrible tension of stimulation, the restlessness and 
lack of repose which has come upon the American people 
through our rapid growth and formation as a nation, our 
intensity of interest and concentration of desire for the best 
of life, amounts to a disease which physicians call "Ameri- 
canitis," and which makes essential a form of recreation 
which shall satisfy in the majority the intellectual craving 
at small expense of mental effort. Such recreation the 
stage supplies. 

It is for us to take the tired men and women, to lift them 
out of the rush and struggle for a brief space, to help them 
forget the strife and ambition, the disappointment and sad- 
ness of their lives, in the world of the stage, where the 
glamour and romance bring restfulness, where ideal love 
and worthy deeds and noble sentiments are happily 
shown, and where griefs are only agreeably pathetic 
because they are not real agony, and everything comes 
out all right in the last act. And so we send them back 
to you, preachers and teachers and reformers, rested 


and refreshed, to take up the exactions of life. And on 
these lines the stage becomes a popular educator, in that it 
presents to men and women who are too worn and weary, 
perhaps too indifferent and thoughtless, to read for them- 
selves, literature in a form pleasing and easy of comprehen- 
sion gives them three volumes before u o'clock, tells 
whether he marries her or not in the last chapter, and sends 
them home satisfied. 

It is not an ignoble mission to poetize the prose of simple 
things and lend a touch of romance to the practical for the 
Inspiration of the masses too limited in mind, or too much 
occupied with the world's work, to grasp the splendor 
of great thoughts set in classical language. Remembering 
the drama's honorable service in the past, when it was the 
temple of art, the highest exponent of culture, perpetuat- 
ing and disseminating the thought of the great teachers 
and philosophers before printing had made literature 
an inheritance of the common people, I claim for it also a 
place in the intellectual life of to-day, because it interprets 
for us in the classical drama the life of the past, which 
is the literature of the present, and presents to us with nice 
exactness in the modern play the life of to-day, which will 
be the literature of the future. 

A valuable contribution, then, to mental growth is the 
familiarity which the stage gives us with the great master- 
pieces of literature, and the interpretation of them by men 
and women who devote their lives to studying special 
characters and personages which baffle the scholar and con- 
fuse the critic. One might pore over Hamlet until one was 
as mad as the melancholy Dane himself, and never approx- 
imate the clear conception of the great master's meaning 
which Edwin Booth has given to the world. We search 
the record and study the archives concerning that ever- 
fascinating but ill-fated Queen of Scots until we are weary 
with much reading, and then go some night to the play, 
and in three hours we meet and know this Mary Stuart as 
Modjeska has recreated her from Schiller's story. 


But the modern drama has its field of practical usefulness 
as well. It should be the authority on fine points of 
etiquette, on the truly artistic in dress, on the conventional 
and correct in social forms and ceremony. In short, it 
should be the final court of appeal in all that pertains to the 
accurate and cultured in manners, morals, and speech 
according to the standards of the time. There are a few 
theaters where mothers may bring their young daughters, 
and teachers may send their young pupils, where men may 
come with their wives and sweethearts, because the play is 
sure to present the lesson of life wholesomely, and to set a 
high ideal of manhood and womanhood that is an inspira- 
tion to pure living. 

Moreover, the stage reaches a class of people which the 
pulpit can not influence. Those most in need of ministra- 
tion, the bitter, world-worn, pessimistic men and women, 
the heartbroken and hopeless, the gay and frivolous, as 
well as the immoral, come to us when they will not go to 
you. You seek out some of them with your vigilance and 
zeal ; they come to us of their own accord. We speak to them 
in a language they understand ; we appeal to their better 
natures by presenting pictures of true nobility of character, 
by making our villains more unfortunate and repulsive 
than the genuine article, and by always seeing to it that the 
hero marries a rich heiress, that the wronged wife is recom- 
pensed, and the betrayer of innocence is punished. Seri- 
ously, the influence of the stage upon the morals of the 
community is too valuable to be lightly considered. It 
should be guarded, and protected, and encouraged. 

There is much talk of the elevation of the stage among 
some of those who devote themselves to it. But the real 
elevation of the stage must come from the people, not from 
the profession. It must come from a grander art-view, which 
shall refuse to narrow the art down to the personality of 
the artist. It must come from a purification of public senti- 
ment which shall refuse to accept women whose only quali- 
fication for stars in the dramatic firmament is an appeal to 


morbid curiosity. It must come from a better understand- 
ing of the stage and its prerogatives, which shall demand 
and indorse legitimate drama rather than the sensational, 
the degrading, the sensual ; which shall distinguish between 
talent and notoriety, and shall honor gifted womanliness 
rather than brainless beauty. 

In particular should women recognize the progressive 
spirit and influence of the stage, for the dramatic profession 
has been the pioneer in granting to women the privileges 
which in other intellectual callings they are still striving 
to compass ; the first to rise above the narrowness that 
makes sex a barrier to success, and to recompense woman s 
talent and ability with the same measure of fame and fortune 
commanded by men. The women of the stage, by their con- 
vincing genius and determination, have made the breach 
in the wall of prejudice which women of other professions 
are widening every day. It has not been to us an easy 
victory, but we went about it sooner than you, and thus we 
have the advantage. 

In the rapid growth of this profession, in the increase of 
theatrical centers, in the multiplication of dramatic com- 
panies, and in the demand of the popular drama for women 
of gentle breeding and broad culture, as well as for those 
gifted with great histrionic talent, a new problem in soci- 
ology presents itself to the thoughtful. The women of the 
stage what will you do with them ? What is your duty 
toward them ? You cultivate your flowers for the delight 
they give you you do not step on them because they yield 
no useful fruit ; you do not criticize them except in tender- 
ness to make them more beautiful. I am not speaking to 
people of my own profession to-day, but as a woman to 
women I would make my plea for a better understanding, 
a more sympathetic appreciation of the women of the stage. 
I would present to you something of what the dramatic pro- 
fession demands of women particularly here in America, 
where conditions prevail which are not to be found in any 
other country that, with the wise tolerance that knowledge 


and understanding always establish, you may learn to 
regard us not as curious creatures to be looked down upon 
in Pharisaical pity, or goddesses to be looked up to with 
sentimental heroine-worship, but simply as women of the 
same family, speaking a different language, governed by dif- 
ferent standards, yet in spite of tradition and environment 
maintaining an integrity of principle which has given to the 
profession such womanly women as my colleagues of to-day, 
and many others of humbler gifts but equal worthiness. 

A serious obstacle to the development of the actress, and 
one which is peculiar to America, is this: the personality 
of the artist is ever made paramount to her art. For the 
public is curious, and the press must perforce satisfy their 
curiosity. In this respect the press reflects the demands of 
its readers, as the stage reflects the taste of its audiences. 
Doctor Johnson said truly, 

"The drama's art the drama's patrons give, 
As they, who live to please, must please, to live." 

Perhaps the greatest injustice of the public toward this 
woman, to whom it looks for its happiest recreation, is this 
insatiable curiosity concerning the smallest details of her 
private life, which results in culpable carelessness in circu- 
lating sensational and unfounded rumors, and an equally 
culpable credence in accepting without investigation any 
extravaganza of the penny-a-liner's fancy. The player is 
accused of seeking notoriety, when it is notoriety that seeks 
the player. We receive letters of interrogation intended to 
fill out special newspaper articles " When, where, and 
how do you sew ? " " Are you afraid of mice ? " " What do 
you want for Christmas?" "What kind of dog do you 
prefer ? " etc. as if private preference in such matters had 
any bearing on dramatic art. 

Still another demand, and one which affects all actresses 
more or less seriously, is the desire of the public to enjoy 
luxury and magnificence in dress. The price of perpetual 
daintiness on the stage is eternal vigilance and expense, 
and the cost of modish gowns, which can be worn but a 


season and require the skill of the fashionable dressmaker 
instead of the stage costumer in construction, taxes heavily 
the resources of small-salaried players. The love of money 
may be the root of all evil, but the lack of it is the bitter 
fruit which hangs thick upon the giant tree whose shadow 
falls across many a noble woman's life, wrecked in the 
struggle with poverty before talent is recognized. When I 
learned that it was at first intended to include the women 
of the pulpit and the women of the stage in this day's ses- 
sion, I remembered how, in the school for oratory where I 
studied, the future women ministers and players sat in 
their classes together and received the same instruction. 
Indeed no profession requires dramatic instruction so much 
as that of the clergy, because the magnificent lines of 
Scripture need all the inspired expression that nature and 
art can give, that they may be uttered as grandly as writ- 
ten. And this profession of ours, which the idle and frivo- 
lous plunge into from vanity, which disgraced women seek 
in their degradation to the insult of all sincere artists, into 
which so many tumble without any preparation, and with 
some degree of success, really demands as its foundation 
the broadest, most liberal education, and requires not only 
a knowledge of some of the arts, but an intelligent appre- 
ciation of all of them. It is really a life-long study, in 
which success is never a satisfaction, but always a spur to 
fresh endeavor, a goad to greater effort, while at the last it 
leaves nothing but a memory which dies with the last per- 
son who has witnessed one's success. 

There is among the actors in Japan a beautiful custom 
which gives to dramatic talent the value of inheritance, the 
certainty of perpetuity. Every great actor who has not a son 
of his own adopts a boy, to whom he gives his name ; and 
this boy becomes to him a son and pupil, who will receive 
and hand down in time to a son and pupil the name and 
methods of the master. Thus their stage has an aristoc- 
racy of great family names and an inheritance of cumula- 
tive genius. With us "the unsubstantial pageant fades 


and leaves no trace behind," for our aristocracy of art is 

I should like to make a special plea for the stock actresses, 
for I believe that the regeneration of the drama is in the 
hands of the stock company, and that, when the drama 
reaches its pristine glory and power among the arts, it will 
be the stock companies that will present, with a degree 
of perfection never reached before, the masterpieces of 
dramatic literature. 

By stock company I mean an organization of actors, each 
in himself an able actor, not supporting and assisting 
a name of greater magnitude, but each eminent, and 
capable of doing his part toward giving that harmony and 
symmetry to a performance which makes the good play 
seem a real transcript of life. Such a company is the 
present one of the French theater, every member of which 
has reached the highest individual distinction in his or her 
line of work. Such a company is fitted to perform any play, 
classic or modern, tragedy or comedy. The dramas of 
Shakespeare could be re-illumined with such an organiza- 
tion. If one actor achieved distinction one night in Shylock, 
another of the same company at another time would dis- 
play his power as Hamlet or Romeo. So with the women. 
All the parts would be emphasized by the actor's art 
according to the dramatist's aim. And so it is in the drama 
of to-day, which does not aspire to great efforts, because our 
deeds have ceased to be heroic, because war and the pomp 
and circumstance of war have given place to peace and the 
arts and graces of social and domestic life, to which the 
modern drama devotes itself. In this the actor of the stock 
company, while not, like his brothers and sisters of the past, 
possessing the opportunity of so great personal display, 
is still enabled at times to illumine with his art the simpler 
and less complicated conditions of his play. But the vast- 
ness of the theater-going public of to-day requires so many 
repetitions of a popular play that the stock actress must 
appear over and over in the same role. The person who 


witnesses a performance once can not realize what it means 
to the actress to play the same part two, three, or four 
hundred times with the same degree of feeling, pathos, 
humor, and naturalness of charm and manner at every per- 
formance. Horsemen tell us that a horse never makes his 
record more than once ; and some horses never make a 
record at all, because they are not brought on when all con- 
ditions are most favorable. An actress must make her 
record every night. She must not only act her best, but 
look her best at every performance, and under all circum- 
stances, or be accused of retrograding. 

The inspiration necessary to keep oneself up to this 
plane of excellence must come from the public. Applause 
to the actress is the breath of life to her being ; it is the 
only recognition, the only approval, and the only indorse- 
ment which she can be assured of that makes her feel that 
her efforts are pleasing ; she submits herself with perturba- 
tion to the suffrages of that great and inexorable being, the 
public. Do you wonder, then, that we come before you with 
fear in our hearts, and with hope that you will be satisfied 
with our work, and that you will show it with discrimina- 
tion and wholeheartedness ? It is your applause that stimu- 
lates us, takes away the mechanical feeling caused by con- 
stant repetition of the same part, and wakes up the inspira- 
tional sources of our art. The women of the domestic circle 
know how grateful is the approval of husband, brother, or 
son ; how is it, therefore, with us who appeal nightly to so 
many whose judgment and approval is none the less pleas- 
ing? Art has its triumphs no less renowned than home, 
and it is from you, the people who sit in front, that we hope 
tD win them. And in this country alone, I am sorry to say, 
a woman's art-life on the stage is comparatively short, for 
old age seldom brings honor, because of the public's con- 
stant craving after the new and the pretty at the expense 
of art ; and yet no art can be worthy unless it is matured. 

The question of stage morality that is an incubus which 
has clung to the drama for many years ; but the nine- 


teenth century has luckily dissipated the clouds of mystery 
and doubt that surrounded the player, and the stage has 
never before numbered so many worthy women as to-day. 
The stage itself is purer and nobler, but the publicity of its 
life is its stumbling block. 

It might seem pertinent to explain some of the influences 
that prevent an actress from being exactly like other 
women. Does it seem possible for a woman who has to 
simulate a varied assortment of feelings every night to be 
like the woman whose every emotion is sincere and natural ? 
A woman of the stage must lay bare her heart and soul 
before the public in order to present in perfection some 
type of woman. The artificial is always dangerous to 
character, whether it is the artificial in society or the artifi- 
cial on the stage. It is almost menacing to moral percep- 
tion to bring the most sacred impulses of womanhood down 
to the level of the commonplace by constant draft upon 
them. In every other profession a woman may keep 
inviolate the holy of holies of her individuality. In this 
alone is the veil rent, and the sacrificial flame upon her 
altar is lighted for the entertainment of the public. They 
little realize what it costs her. 

There is an old story of a dancer who wore about her 
neck a precious chain of pearls as she came before the king ; 
in the midst of the dance the chain parted, and the pearls 
were scattered beneath her flying feet. How was she to 
step the measure so gayly that the king should never know 
her care, nor the handsome courtiers smiling lightly down, 
nor the gentle ladies looking on in languid grace, and yet 
never crush a single snow-white pearl, while the cymbals 
clashed and the wild, glad music sounded madder and 
merrier, and the witchery of the dance dulled her fear and 
deadened her caution ? The exceptional woman of excep- 
tional breeding may, when the court pageant has passed, 
count her pearl chain and find it all complete, even as those 
which home-guarded women wear so proudly. Will you 
remember what it costs? Will you think of the danger a 


moment of forgetfulness, a careless step ? Will you help 
us by understanding us help us with your sympathy, your 
influence lest we crush our pearls ? 



To show clearly and fully woman's relation to and influ- 
ence on dramatic art, it would be necessary to treat compre- 
hensively of the whole history of the drama, which it will be 
impossible for me to do at this time because of the necessary 
brevity of this paper. 

I hope to show, however, by a few historical examples 
and a brief discussion of woman's peculiar adaptability to 
the needs of the drama, not only her special fitness for 
dramatic expression, but also her right, by accomplishment, 
to the exalted position in this art which she has won, and 
won by courage, industry, and perseverance. 

The struggle that actors have undergone for recognition, 
and for a respectable, established position in society, since 
the modern drama first appeared in the tableaux and the 
spectacles of the early Christian church, is now a matter of 
history ; but it is not generally known how much more 
fierce has been the strife in regard to women on the stage, 
and how much more difficult it has been for them to con- 
vince the world at large of the importance of their hard- 
won position, and their beneficial influence in dramatic art. 

Notwithstanding the marked disfavor with which women 
were first received upon the English stage, about 1660, 
reasonable and serious-minded persons could not fail to see 
the propriety of having Juliet and Desdemona acted by 
a girl rather than a boy. The need for the innovation is 
well expressed in these lines, taken from the prologue writ- 
ten for the introduction of the first actress : 





' Our women are defective, and so sized 
You'd think they were some of the guard disguised; 
For, to speak truth, men act (that are between 
Forty and fifty) wenches of fifteen, 
With bone so large, and nerve so incompliant, 
When you call Desdemona enter giant." 

The work that properly belonged to women, when given 
to men, often caused ridiculous incongruities ; and the idea 
in itself is so truly fantastic that I can not refrain from, 
citing the apology that was made to his majesty Charles IL 
when, during a prolonged wait at one of the theatrical per- 
formances at which this sovereign was present, the delay 
was explained and indulgence begged on the plea that the 
" queen was not shaved." It would appear that immedi- 
ately upon the substitution of women for boys, in the 
advancement of dramatic illusion, the importance of 
woman's appearance, and the artistic need for it, must have 
been generally felt, for we read that actresses were soon in 
great demand, and it was found not only that they increased 
the popularity of the theaters in which they performed, but 
that their cooperation was indispensable to the proper pres- 
entation of any play. They made possible a fullness and 
beauty of interpretation which had not before been 
dreamed of. Take, as a single example, the women of 
Shakespeare. They stand as vivid types of youth and 
beauty, so alive, indeed, with the living- warmth of feminin- 
ity that their expression by other than women is a sacri- 
lege. A play performed by men only can hardly be con- 
ceived to-day, and the wonder is that such an absurdity 
should ever have existed. The feeling of the need of 
woman's cooperation with man for dramatic purposes grew 
rapidly, for men's minds were at this time too highly sus- 
ceptible to advancement to remain in ignorance of this 
necessity, and it was not long before actresses were recog- 
nized and highly respected. Mrs. Betterton, for instance, in 
the year 1674, when "Calista" was performed at court, was 
chosen as instructress to Lady Mary and Lady Anne, and 



much of the subsequent graceful elocution and dignity of 
bearing of these princesses was accredited to this actress. 
We read that, in company with her distinguished husband, 
she made her home the abiding-place of " charity, hospital- 
ity, and dignity." 

What a vast work has been accomplished in the drama 
since then, and what a lasting monument of art has woman 
reared for herself in the annals of the stage ! To those 
whose souls are filled with sacred reverence for creative 
genius what a wealth of delight there is in looking back 
upon the dazzling record of the theater ! The achievements 
of Mrs. Betterton, Nell Gwynne, Woffington, Oldfield, Sid- 
dons, and more latterly Rachel, Ristori, Fanny Kemble, 
Ellen Terry, Charlotte Cushman, Helen Faucit, Adelaide 
Neilson, and a host of others stand forth as irrefutable proofs 
of the dignified importance of woman's work in the line of 
true artistic, dramatic advancement. 

The history of the theater will show her serious devotion 
to dramatic art, and that it has absorbed her very being as 
no other calling has ever done ; that it has not been a fancy, 
nor in the higher expression even a gratification of vanity, 
but has been and is a life devotion, an art to which woman 
has given her best intellectual and emotional self. 

Innumerable instances may be given of women in the 
profession who have shown rare administrative ability. The 
history of the English stage affords many examples of the 
women who have been successful managers, and the same 
is true in this country Mrs. Conway, for instance, and Mrs. 
John Drew, who, aside from her fine ability as a comedienne, 
for years conducted the Arch Street Theater, Philadelphia, 
with dignity and success. 

It is often stated that woman is lacking in most walks of 
life in the faculty of creative genius, and indeed that in 
this particular, in comparison with man, she is decidedly 
inferior. This is, perhaps, a reasonable conclusion in view of 
her history, but not so emphatically in regard to dramatic 


It is by no means a new thought that man is by nature 
more intellectual, and woman by nature more emotional. 
Of course it is not meant by this that man is never emo- 
tional and woman never intellectual, yet it is surely fair to 
assume that to man belongs more properly the power of 
intellectuality, and to woman the emotional quality. Was 
it not, therefore, the very possession by nature of this latter 
quality, which is certainly an absolute necessity in dramatic 
art, that made her inherently suited for dramatic expres- 

Mr. Ruskin, in speaking of the necessary qualities that 
go to form great artists, says : " First, sensibility and 
tenderness ; second, imagination ; and third, industry." 
Woman's nature is peculiarly alive to all these conditions. 
It is then no wonder that women on the stage have accom- 
plished great things ; and they will accomplish greater 
things in the future while such women as Modjeska, Terry, 
Duse, and the matchless Bernhardt continue to show their 
genius to the world. 

Woman's work in literature has, with few exceptions, 
been denied any claim to greatness. In music and in other 
arts she is admitted not to have shown any particular crea- 
tive power, but her place upon the stage is as absolutely 
unquestioned as man's. In having thus secured for herself 
an eminent position in the drama, the actress has advanced 
the whole cause of woman, since every individual triumph 
raises the estimation in which the intellectual achievements 
of a whole class are held. W^oman is better understood 
because she has been faithfully portrayed ; she is more 
highly regarded because of her ability to make that por- 
trayal; and that faithful portrayal has, I feel, a powerful 
moral influence in an educational sense. I thoroughly 
believe it is the duty of mothers to foster in the hearts of 
their children, while at a tender age, a serious consideration 
for the better form of dramatic literature and dramatic 
representation, avoiding the unhappy tendency of the 
present age, which is to regard acting merely as a form of 


amusement rather than, as it should be regarded, an amuse- 
ment combining a means for intellectual control and artistic 
suggestion, presented in an attractive and suggestive man- 

That woman is capable of arduous effort and untiring 
devotion has been fully demonstrated upon the stage. She 
has helped to elevate the drama to its rightful place among 
the educational forces of life, and to make true what Morley 
says : " At the play-house door, we may say to the doubt- 
ing, ' Enter boldly, for here, too, there are gods.' ' 



THE title of this chapter may suggest the question, 
"Why connect two subjects apparently so remote 
from each other? " The reason for doing so is two- 
fold science rests upon positive knowledge ; religion 
rests upon faith. Until recently the general tone of relig- 
ious discussion has implied that the blinder the faith the 
truer was the religion. A priori arguments ascribed to 
women capacity for faith in direct ratio to their incapacity 
for reason. Recent history, however, shows that the 
opposition which devout women have encountered in con- 
quering opportunities to apply their religious experience 
and their faith to the service of humanity has developed 
in them the ability to reason, and the habit of applying 
reason to the solution of problems heretofore deemed to 
belong to the realm of faith. This explains the fact, other- 
wise anomalous, that clergywomen of whatever denomina- 
tion are, as a rule, more liberal in their interpretation of 
Scripture than are clergymen of the same sect, and more 
inclined to ignore sectarian barriers. This high average 
of liberal-mindedness among clergywomen justifies the 
expectation that they will be a potent agency in unifying 



the branches of the Christian church. On the same fact 
is based the hope that clergywomen will lend large aid to 
the reconciliation of science and religion. It is a current 
belief that the pursuit of science matures skepticism, and 
that, of all the sciences, medicine is most destructive of the 
religious faith of its followers. The manner in which the 
religious faith of women has met the severe test imposed 
by the practice of medicine is another reason for the hope 
that women will help to bridge the chasm too long assumed 
to exist between science and religion. 

Another reason for grouping together the addresses pre- 
sented in this chapter is that medicine and the ministry 
are the two of the so-called learned professions in which 
women have achieved most success. Authorship and 
teaching are, indeed, now admitted to be professions, and 
journalism has asserted its title to the same rank. Women 
have conquered personal success and public recognition in 
all of these callings, but the majority mind does not yet 
instinctively include them under the phrase, " The learned 

Doctor Jacobi's address affords a general survey of the 
scientific work of women, and thus properly introduces the 
more specific consideration of women as physicians. The 
information it contains could hardly be presented more 
briefly. It has seemed wise, therefore, to publish it almost 
complete, although this compels omitting large portions of 
the remarks of those who participated in the discussion of 
the same theme. 

From the admirable report of Doctor Jex-Blake have 
been omitted parts reproducing the information contained 
in the other addresses. 

In the discussion of women as ministers, their struggle 
to gain access to the pulpit, their contribution to the inter- 
pretation of the Scriptures, and their peculiar adaptation to 
pastoral service are considered from the standpoints of 
history, philosophy, fancy, and biography by regularly 
ordained clergywomen of the Universalist, Unitarian, 


Methodist-Protestant, and Congregational denominations. 


Those who interest themselves in the modern develop- 
ment of mental activity in women, are liable to imagine 
that this has been aroused equally in all directions. This, 
however, is far from being the case. The two great activi- 
ties of modern times are industry and science, and it is 
precisely in industry and science that women are least con- 
spicuous. In all industrial occupations, it is true, women 
are largely engaged they constitute more than two-thirds 
of all the factory operatives of the world, they throng the 
workshops, they carry on the retail business of stores but 
we rarely find them as yet among the captains of industry, 
among the leaders, projectors, or controllers of industrial 
enterprises on any large scale. 

Physical science at the present day has opened up a 
sphere of activity resembling that of industry in an enor- 
mous development of details, w r hich can afford useful 
employment to multitudes of persons of moderate ability, if 
well trained in technical methods and possessed of patience 
and conscientiousness. Either original researches or the 
processes of applied science demand the cooperation of a 
great number of assistants to perform manipulations involv- 
ing much labor and time, requiring intelligence and great 
accuracy, but not necessitating original mental power. 

This is a most useful and important field of work for 
women. Should they enter largely upon it they might still 
remain as far removed from the position of the scientific 
thinkers as is that of the factory operatives from that of the 
mill owner. But the work of laboratory assistant, though 
relatively inferior, is absolutely so important, dignified, dif- 


ficult, and interesting that the women who should or do 
engage in it may be well satisfied, even when they do not 
advance to the dignity of original contributors to the 
science they serve. 

Mathematical calculations are required for many branches, 
notably astronomy. The Woman s Journal, of April 2Qth, 
quotes from the " Transactions of the Astronomical Observ- 
atory of Yale College " a paper by Miss Margaretta Palmer, 
a graduate of Vassar College in 1887. This young lady is 
working as regular assistant in the Yale Observatory, under 
Doctor Elkin, and has been reinvestigating the orbit of the 
comet of 1847, which was discovered by Maria Mitchell. 
Maria Mitchell herself, after establishing her reputation 
by the discovery of this comet for which she received a 
gold medal from the king of Denmark was for years 
employed upon the Coast Survey and in the compilation 
of the "American Nautical Almanac." 

Some years ago Professor Bowditch of Harvard Univer- 
sity published some valuable researches on the growth of 
American school children. The result of these researches 
was summed up in tables based on mathematical calcula- 
tions, and these were made chiefly by Miss Jacobs at the 
Massachusetts Institute of Technology. At this institu- 
tion, and also at the Stevens Institute, at Hoboken, ladies 
have worked as assistants in the chemical laboratories. 
One of these ladies, Miss Chevalier, was offered a position 
as permanent assistant in the chemical laboratory at Cor- 
nell University, but declined, and has been for many years 
professor of chemistry at the Woman's Medical College 
of New York. She has performed difficult chemical re- 
searches on nerve tissue. At Ithaca, also, in the labora- 
tory for comparative anatomy, the wife of Prof. Burt G. 
Wilder assists in her husband's work, and has illustrated 
his paper on brain anatomy, published in the reference 
hand-book on medical sciences. 

In the histological laboratory of the Woman's Medical 
College of New York excellent work is done by female 


assistants to the professor in the preparation of embryolog- 
ical and other specimens. Similar work is done at the 
Western colleges where coeducation prevails, as at Ann 

These little glimpses are all I have been able to obtain of 
the work of women as laboratory assistants in this country. 
In Europe, however, and especially in the Swiss universi- 
ties, women are constantly engaged in the laboratories, and 
from time to time their names become associated with those 
of a senior teacher in the publication of some original re- 
search. The "Kendall," who, with Leuchsinger at Zurich, 
published an important essay on the innervation of the 
sweat glands, was an American girl and medical student. 

It is easier for the moment to ascertain the names of the 
women who have done some independent work in differ- 
ent branches of science. To the original work of Maria 
Mitchell I have already alluded, and it is well known to 
every one. Born in 1 8 1 8, she was the first American woman 
to be known in any science. She was educated in mathe- 
matics and astronomy by her father, and it is said that at 
the early age of eleven she was already able to assist him 
in his work. I do not know of any actual contribution to 
astronomical science made by Miss Mitchell after her one 
famous discovery, but she published several astronomical 
treatises, and was the first female member of the American 
Academy of Arts and Sciences. 

It is an interesting fact that the debut into science of 
American women should have been made in mathematics 
and astronomy, for these are the fundamental sciences of 
the entire hierarchy, and it is as logical that women 
should begin with them as it is contrary to much current 
opinion about women's faculties that they should show any 
capacity for mathematics at all. However, before Maria 
Mitchell became known in America, several women in 
Europe had already achieved distinction in mathematical 
science. In a biographical dictionary which extends from 
Rhea Silvia, the mother of Romulus, to Juliet Adam of 


modern Paris, there are recorded relatively few names of 
women who have become known in connection with any 
branch of science ; and ten of these were mathematicians. 
Of these the earliest reported to us is Hypatia, the cele- 
brated Neoplatonist philosopher, who lived and lectured at 
Alexandria in the latter part of the fourth century. She 
was murdered by fanatic monks in 41 5 A. D., and her books 
were burned with the Alexandrian library by equally fanatic 
Mohammedans. The titles of only three have been handed 
down to us a commentary on Diophantus, an astronom- 
ical canon, and a commentary on conic sections. 

After Hypatia history is mute respecting scientific wo- 
men for eleven centuries. In the seventeenth century the 
names of three are recorded. The wife of the astronomer 
Gottfried Kirch, in upper Lusatria, assisted her husband 
and published almanacs. Maria Cunitz, a learned German 
lady of Silesia, edited in more convenient form the astro- 
nomical tables of Kepler, and in 1650 published others 
under the title of " Urania Propilia." Finally a French 
lady, Jeanne Dumee, published in Paris a " Discourse on 
the Opinion of Copernicus Respecting the Mobility of the 

The eighteenth century, so illustrious with famous men, 
gave birth also to six women all justly famous for mathe- 
matical talent and achievement. The first of these was the 
Marquise du Chatelet, born in 1706. English and German 
biographers declare that her writings are saved from obliv- 
ion only on account of her association with Voltaire, in 
whose companionship she pursued her studies. Yet it was 
no mean achievement to translate, as she did, Newton's 
" Principia " into French. She also published a work on 
physical philosophy entitled " Institution de Physique." It 
is said that in experimental science Mme. du Chatelet 
proved to be considerably more of an adept than her illus- 
trious companion, and that, when both competed anony- 
mously for a prize offered for a scientific essay on the nature 
of fire, hers received an honorable mention, his, none at all. 


Voltaire, after persevering but futile efforts, became con- 
vinced that his genius lay in another direction than exper- 
imental science, and decided to concentrate himself exclu- 
sively upon literature, where he achieved his fame. 

Maria Agnesi, born at Milan in 1 7 1 8, is said to have been 
a woman of wonderful intellectual powers. When only 
twenty years old she was able to discourse on abstruse 
questions of mathematics and philosophy in many different 
languages. At the age of thirty she published in remarka- 
bly pure Latin a treatise on algebra, with the differential 
and integral calculus. 

Nicole Reine Lepante was born at Paris in 1723, and 
acquired distinction as an astronomer. She was a friend 
of Clairant Lelande, whom she assisted in the calculations 
of the return of Halley's comet in 1757. 

Caroline Herschel is more generally known to English- 
speaking people. She was the faithful and untiring assist- 
ant of her brother, the celebrated astronomer, Sir William 
Herschel, and in the course of eleven years she discovered 
five new comets. In 1798 she published a valuable cata- 
logue of 5 1 6 stars, and later received a gold medal from the 
astronomical society. 

Sophie Germain is in many respects the most interesting 
of this group of eighteenth-century women. She was born 
at a notable epoch for us Americans, namely, in 1 776. We 
are told that in 1789, when a girl of thirteen, being pro- 
foundly disturbed by the mutterings of the approaching 
French revolution, she sought in her father's library the 
means to distract her mind from the thought of impending 
disasters. Here she discovered the story of Archimedes at 
the siege of Syracuse, so engrossed with the problems of 
geometry that he remained deaf to the Roman soldiers 
invading his room. The child was seized with enthusiasm 
for a science so noble that it could absorb the mind to this 
extent, and immediately resolved to devote herself to the 
study of geometry. Self-educated, and in the teeth of 
the violent opposition of friends, she became the compeer 


and friend of the most noted mathematicians of an age 
noted for its great men. By correspondence on mathe- 
matical subjects she even conquered an intimacy with 
the great German mathematician, Gauss, writing to 
him, however, over a masculine signature. Her sex was 
revealed only when, during the campaign of Jena, Mile. 
Germain interceded with the French general in behalf of 
her learned unknown friend, shut up like Archimedes in a 
beleaguered city, for whom, perhaps, she feared a similar 
fate. Mile. Germain's important original contribution to 
science is contained in memoirs on the mathematical 
theory of elastic surfaces, a problem for the solution of 
which the Institute had offered a prize. The first memoir 
failed to receive the prize, which indeed was not awarded. 
" The truth is," observes her biographer, "that Sophie Ger- 
main, working, so to speak, by instinct, and without having 
regularly studied analysis, did not completely solve the 
question ; but her memoir opened the way so decidedly in 
the right direction that from it Lagrange drew the exact 
equation." The competition for the prize was offered a 
second time. Mile. Germain sent a second memoir, and this 
time received an honorable mention. Finally, in the third 
memoir the persevering young scientist was fortunate 
enough to receive the prize. This honor only stimulated 
her energies to continue working on the same subject. She 
discovered remarkable theorems which Legendre inserted 
in his treatise on the " Theory of Numbers." In the " An- 
nales de Physique et de Chimie " Mile. Germain published 
researches on the laws of the equilibrium and of the move- 
ment of elastic solids, and in another scientific periodical 
a memoir on the curvature of surfaces. A philosophical 
essay written by her, and entitled " Consideration on the 
State of Sciences," is remarkable for its breadth of thought, 
and for its anticipation of doctrines to be later enunciated 
by Auguste Comte. 

I have devoted so much of the brief time at my disposal 
to Mile. Germain because she may, better than any other 


modern woman, serve as a model with whom to compare 
others who may claim, often too lightly, a rank in science. 

The last female mathematician of the eighteenth century 
is Mrs. Mary Somerville, who was born in Scotland in 1 780. 
Mme. du Chatelet had translated Newton's " Principia " into 
French ; Mrs. Somerville in turn gave to England a transla- 
tion and analysis of the " Mecanique Celeste " of Laplace. 
She also wrote a treatise in 1834 on the connection of the 
physical sciences, and her services to science were pub- 
licly acknowledged by her election to membership in the 
Royal Astronomical Society, and by a yearly pension of 
$1,500. Mrs. Somerville lived to such an advanced age that 
she was able to connect the traditions of the eighteenth 
century with the nineteenth. Mrs. Somerville, living until 
1872, thus belongs to our own time, as well as to the brilliant 
epoch in which she was born. No Englishwoman has, as yet, 
succeeded her, but I think every one is familiar with the 
remarkable triumph of Philippa Fawcett at the Cambridge 
examinations, where she ranked 400 marks above the senior 
wrangler. England literally rang with this triumph from 
sea to sea. The Spectator, in one of its solemn editorials, 
declared that this extraordinary achievement necessitated 
an entire revision of the current views on the natural ca- 
pacity of women. 

Miss Fawcett seems to have inherited her exceptional 
capacity from her father, also a talented mathematician, 
whose power of abstraction had been trained and inten- 
sified by a lifelong habit of mental work under the terrible 
affliction of blindness. 

In America, Mrs. Franklin, while still Christine Ladd, 
so distinguished herself as a mathematical student that at 
the peremptory request of Professor Sylvester she was 
made a fellow in the mathematical department of the Johns 
Hopkins University, the only woman so far who has 
enjoyed this honor. 

Mrs. Franklin is the Sophie Germain of America. Her 
original work in pure mathematics, in logic, and in physics 


is remarkable, and preeminently deserves commemoration 
on this occasion. She has published nine scientific essays. 

Mrs. Franklin's extreme modesty, as well as the profound 
nature of scientific tastes and pursuits, keeps her far removed 
from the publicity which confers superficial and transitory 
fame ; but if there be to-day a woman in America entitled 
to represent women in pure science, to demonstrate, indeed, 
the capacity of women for engaging in science, it is unques- 
tionably Christine Ladd Franklin. 

In Europe, however, the young Russian, Songa Kowalew- 
ski, until her recent premature death, was the fitting col- 
league of our American mathematician. She was appointed 
to a full professorship at the University of Stockholm in 1884. 

Like Sophie Germain, at the age of only thirteen Songa, 
starting from some elementary instruction in arithmetic, 
plunged all alone into mathematics and mastered trigonome- 
try without a teacher. At sixteen she married a gifted 
scientist, who assisted her in her studies and secured her 
admission to the University of Heidelberg. She obtained 
the Doctor's degree from the University of Gottingen, with- 
out an oral examination, on account of three essays, two in 
mathematical analysis, the third in mathematical physics, 
concerning the shape of Saturn's ring. Some years later 
she discovered the complete mathematical solution of the 
optical problem regarding the movement of light in a crys- 
talline medium. At a spring semester in Stockholm, Songa 
Kowalewski delivered a course of lectures on the theory of 
partial differential equations, and this was so successful that 
the following year she was invited to a full professorship. 
But this gifted woman died prematurely, after a brief enjoy- 
ment of the arduous duties of the position. . 

In comparison with the difficulties of the mathematical 
sciences all others appear easy. The natural sciences afford 
more scope for moderate abilities, and it is, indeed, surpris- 
ing that, while so many women throng into literature, so 
few, as yet, have devoted themselves to these delightful 


Mrs. Susanna Gage, wife of Professor Gage of Cornell Uni- 
versity, is a microscopist of recognized ability. She has 
made valuable original researches upon muscular tissue, and 
has prepared the microphotographs for several scientific 
essays of her husband. 

Miss Julia Platt, a pupil of Professor Wilder of Cornell, has 
pursued morphological studies at both Cornell and Freiburg, 
and has published the results of original researches in the 
Journal of Morphology and in German anatomical journals. 

In England, Dr. Frances Hoggan has published, in asso- 
ciation with her husband, a series of researches in micro- 
scopical anatomy, principally on the lymphatic system. 

Other women, English, Russian, and American, have 
written upon medical science, but I am not acquainted with 
other histologists or anatomists. Yet in the eighteenth 
century Madame Manzolini, in Italy, was made a member 
of the Institute of Bologna, and professor of anatomy in 
the university of that city, and contemporaneously, at Paris, 
Marie Catherine Biberan was preparing an anatomical cabi- 
net, which after her death was bought by Catherine of 
Russia. Mme. Lachapelle and Mme. Boivin in the same 
century made important contributions to pathological anat- 
omy, as well as to clinical midwifery. Doctor Gregory, 
Professor of Botany at Barnard College, has given me the 
names of half a dozen ladies, besides herself, who have made 
original researches in this science, which for ages tradition 
has assigned to women. A homonym of our own Elizabeth 
Blackwell, wife of Alexander Blackwell, published in 1737 
an herbal, with colored plates of the principal plants used 
in the practice of physic. 

A modern English botanist is Marianne North, who has 
especially devoted herself to painting in detail the flora of 
tropical countries. Her collections include upward of six 
hundred paintings, each panel including six or seven varie- 
ties of plants. According to Sir John Hooker, it is impos- 
sible to overrate the usefulness and scientific importance 
of this collection. 


In the adjacent branch of natural history we find the 
name of Miss Eleanor A. Ormerod as one of the eminent 
entomologists of the day. She is consulting entomologist 
of the Royal Agricultural Society of England. She has 
written a manual upon injurious insects and on methods of 
preventing their ravages, of which Mr. James Fletcher, 
Entomologist to the Government of Ontario, says : " The 
advance made during the last decade in the art of reducing 
the injury done to crops by insects is in large measure due 
to the talented author of this book." 

Miss Mary Muretfeld of St. Louis has been vice-president 
of the Association of Economic Entomologists. Another 
female observer of note both in entomology and botany is 
Mrs. Mary Treat of Vineland, N. J. 

In this connection should be mentioned Mme. Clemence 
Royer of Paris, born in 1830. In 1862 she made the first 
French translation of Darwin's "Origin of Species," accom- 
panied by a preface and notes, which gave her an estab- 
lished reputation. Since this, however, Mme. Royer's 
work has been in the line of literature and economics, 
rather than in that of natural science. 

One lady, Miss Alice C. Fletcher, has distinguished herself 
in a somewhat unexpected field as an ethnological student 
of our North American Indians. Her work has received 
practical recognition from the National Government in an 
appointment as Indian agent, especially charged with the 
assignment of lands in severalty. 

A Russian lady, Mme. Ragotzin, is noted as a scholar in a 
still more abstruse branch, namely the science of Chaldaic 
and Assyrian inscriptions. These philological researches, 
however, lie outside of the sphere of physical sciences, con- 
cerning which alone this paper is intended to report. 

The longest list of feminine names must be culled from 
the medical sciences. Since 1872 in America 150 written 
contributions to medicine have been made by thirty women 
physicians. Only a very few of these contributions, how- 
ever, deserve to be called scientific, for they are chiefly 




records of cases, or discussions on subjects from the purely 
clinical or empirical standpoint. The same remark 
applies, of course, to an immense amount of the medical 
literature written by men, only a small proportion of which 
is addressed to the solution of -scientific problems, or is 
based upon scientific methods. Indeed the daily work of 
the physician is as yet far removed from that of the scien- 
tist in any department. Even biological sciences, upon 
which the art of medicine reposes, are most irregularly 
invoked in the actual practice of medicine, and really 
scientific habits of thought are foreign to the great mass 
of physicians. 

Women who so largely enter medicine from the practical 
side necessarily exhibit this empiricism to an even greater 
proportionate extent than men. Still a few of the medical 
papers published are concerned with scientific problems 
rather than with purely practical questions. Among the 
150 American contributions the following may be said to 
bear this character : An essay on basiliar kyphasis in rela- 
tion to certain cerebral deformities, and some studies in 
sphygmograms, by Dr. Sara Post ; a remarkable case of bi- 
lateral cerebral hemorrhage in a new-born child, by Dr. 
Sara McNutt; a study on myxedema, by Dr. Elizabeth 
Cushier; microscopical studies on hyaline placenta and on 
the uterine decidua, by Dr. Jeannette Greene ; an essay on 
blood, by Emily White; studies in endometritis and a 
new theory on menstruation, by Mary Putnam Jacobi. 

The number of women engaged in literature contrasts 
strikingly with the short list of women engaged in sci- 
ence. A volume entitled " Women of the Day," published 
in 1885, contains a total number of 426 names. These in- 
clude writers, painters, actresses, and singers, and women 
noted for work in philanthropic and public enterprises. 
Only nine among them seem to have even touched upon 
scientific work. 

This fact, however, is not at all surprising. Owing to 
the unequal rate of development which to the present day 



has been permitted to women, the standard of education 
accorded to them has always been about an epoch behind 
that prevailing for men. Up to the present day, indeed, 
there has been absolutely no superior, or even common- 
sense, education for women at all. The few women who have 
nevertheless achieved intellectual distinction, have done so 
in virtue of immense native ability, which instinctively 
found its way, like Columbus, uninstructed, unpiloted, over 
unknown seas. At the most has been secured the personal 
aid of some relative or friend, and this as an offset to the 
violent opposition of other friends, or an entire family and 
social circle. Only immense ability is capable of achieve- 
ments under such circumstances. 

Enough, however, has been done to show that there is no 
physiological impossibility in scientific work for women. It 
now remains to insist more and more strenuously that the 
doors of the laboratory, as of the library, shall be thrown 
open to them ; that early in childhood and during the for- 
mative stage of the brain's development a strenuous edu- 
cation shall be secured, scientifically planned to favor the 
maximum development of brain power ; finally, that the 
love of knowledge for its own s"ake shall begin to be dif- 
fused more widely among women. Hitherto the love of 
knowledge has either been forcibly discouraged in favor 
of every other conceivable motive, or encouraged only so 
far as it may be made useful for practical purposes. 

The latter, certainly, should not be neglected. But 
underneath all practical activities, even for such strenuous 
mental work as is needed for the practice of medicine, there 
should lie a broad and deep foundation of speculative work 
done by solitary students aiming at nothing but the discov- 
ery of truth. Until this becomes true for women as for 
men we can not expect from women the contributions to 
scientific thought of which they are intrinsically capable. 
Minds capable of constructive scientific thought are always 
in a very small minority probably must always be so- 
and it is probably true that the proportion of speculative to 


practical capabilities is still smaller in women than in men. 
The immense middle ground, however, of observation and 
experiment, of work upon details destined to be used scien- 
tifically by some mind of superior scope this sphere is 
already perfectly accessible to women, may be occupied by 
them most profitably, and they should by every means be 
encouraged to enter in and take possession. 


DR. JULIA HOLMES SMITH briefly introduced the discus- 
sion as follows : 

I should not be a Chicago woman if I allowed you all to 
go home after hearing only about English, Boston, Russian, 
and German scientists; if I should allow you to go home 
without telling you that here in Chicago we have one of the 
most noted of scientists, Emily Nunn, the wife now of Pro- 
fessor Whitman of the Chicago University. Her researches 
in biology are noted everywhere. Her contributions to 
scientific papers are of such value that she can command 
any price, either in America or in Europe, and we measure 
things here, you know, by the price thereof. I assure you 
that in the quiet laboratories of many a medical college, 
some of the very best work is being done by unknown 
women students, who are waiting until they die to be 
recognized by you and me. 

MRS. LEANDER STONE, continuing the discussion, dwelt 
upon the difficulties encountered by scientists because of a 
lack of mechanical appliances, and by biographical refer- 
ences sustained the view that the advancement of the 
mechanical arts will facilitate the scientific researches of 
women to a proportionately larger degree than it will those 
of men. 

DR. MARY A. DIXON JONES, succeeding Mrs. Stone, dwelt 


chiefly upon the adaptation of woman, by both her delicate 
physical organization and her patience, to the minute and 
long-continued observation necessary to original research. 
She reported two discoveries as follows : 

I am glad to report to this honored assembly that by 
microscopical studies I have made two discoveries in rela- 
tion to cancerous disease. 

First, as to the " small cellular infiltration " around a 
growth, which was recognized by Virchow, and which Dr. 
Charles Heitzmann, one of our most eminent living path- 
ologists, said, in 1883, was the " pre-stage of cancer." In 
1884 Doctor Heitzmann said : " Should the view be correct 
that this infiltration is the preliminary stage of cancer, etc." 
In June, 1892, 1 saw clearly that the inflammatory corpuscles 
of the " small cellular infiltration " around the growth were 
changing to cancer epithelia and forming cancer nests. 
So the small cellular infiltration around a malignant growth 
is not only the pre-stage of cancer, but is cancerous in its 
nature, and really forms part of the malignant growth. 
This fact is of great practical importance. It teaches the 
necessity, recognized by eminent surgeons, of carefully re- 
moving all the diseased tissue around such a growth. 

Another discovery I have made in cancer is : I have 
demonstrated that the epithelia are conveyed by the 
lymphatic vessels to different and distant parts of the 
body, forming there new centers of infection. That cancer 
cells are carried by the lymphatics has long been supposed 
to be the case, because the lymphatic ganglia, in the neigh- 
borhood of the growth, were the first to become affected ; 
but the process had never before been seen. This, so far 
as I know, is the first time the lymphatic vessels have been 
recognized distended with their burden of cancer epithelia 
and carrying the diseased germs. 

Doctor Jones also discussed two diseases endothelioma 
and gyroma discovered in the course of her microscopical 
researches, and closed her remarks by describing certain 
improved methods in uterine surgery. 



The movement in support of the admission of women to 
the medical profession began in England in 1850, when Dr. 
Elizabeth Blackwell of New York, the pioneer of the same 
movement in the United States, studied for a time in Lon- 
don at Saint Bartholomew's Hospital. Thanks to her 
having afterward practiced in England before the Medical 
Registration Act was passed in 1858, she was allowed to 
place her name on the British Register, and she thus led 
the way in England, as she had already done in America, 
in opening the medical profession to women. Doctor Black- 
well returned to New York, and the seed she had sown lay 
for some years dormant. 

In 1 860 Miss Garrett, now Mrs. Anderson, began to study 
with a view to obtaining an English medical qualification. 
Miss Garrett made many efforts to get admission into one 
of the existing medical schools, but without success. In 
the end she obtained leave from the Apothecaries' Society 
the only examining body willing to admit her to examina- 
tions to get her education privately from teachers in the 
recognized schools. She passed the last examination at the 
Apothecaries' Hall in the autumn of 1865, and was then 
able to register herself as a legally qualified English prac- 

Other ladies shortly afterward essayed to follow her 
example, but the Apothecaries' Society refused to admit 
them till they could go through the complete medical 
course in a recognized school and under the conditions 
laid down for men. As this was impossible in England, 
several Englishwomen went abroad to study, and gradu- 
ated at Zurich. 

In 1868 Miss Mary Putnam of New York obtained leave 


from the French Imperial Government to study in the Paris 
Medical School, and to pass the examination, for the M. D. 
degree. Miss Garrett applied for leave to enter the exam- 
inations for the M. D. degree of which there were six 
without repeating the course of medical study at Paris. 
This was permitted, and early in 1870 she took the degree 
of M. D. at Paris, a few months before the graduation of 
Miss Putnam, to whom, however, the opening of the uni- 
versity to women was entirely due. Since 1870 many 
women have studied and graduated at Paris. 

In 1 866 a dispensary for women and children was opened 
in a poor district in London, and Miss Garrett was for some 
years its only medical officer. After a time the ladies who 
had graduated at Zurich divided the work with her, and the 
dispensary was converted into a small hospital. This has 
gone through various changes till it is to-day a very hand- 
some and commodious building in the Euston Road, and is 
known as " The New Hospital for Women." For some 
years after Miss Garrett and her colleagues were at work in 
London the movement seemed to be at a standstill, except 
that a great number of poor women and a fair number of 
well-to-do women showed their preference for the services 
of the medical women by employing them. There was at 
this time no medical school that would teach women, and 
no examining board that would examine them. 

In 1869 several ladies, headed by Miss Jex-Blake, tried 
for a long time to gain admittance into the Edinburgh 
School and Hospital. After a long and valiant fight, of 
which in pity for the then conquerors the details need 
not be narrated, the little band of women had to give up 
the struggle, and in 1874 they left Edinburgh. Miss Jex- 
Blake then came to London, and, finding there was no 
chance of getting into any of the existing schools, she and 
her friends decided to start " The London School of Medi- 
cine for Women," at 30 Handel Street, Brunswick Square. 
For sometime the teaching of the school was theoretical only, 
as it was not connected with any hospital or other place for 


clinical teaching. The General Medical Council of Eng- 
land requires that a hospital recognized as adequate for the 
purposes of teaching must contain 1 50 beds, and must also be 
a general hospital, and not for women only ; so that the 
new hospital, with twenty-six beds, worked by Miss Garrett 
and her colleagues, could not be utilized for school pur- 
poses. In 1877, however, an alliance was formed between 
the women's school and the Royal Free Hospital, which 
contains 1 60 beds, and since that time the students of the 
London school have enjoyed excellent clinical teaching 
and the sole use of a large and well-appointed hospital. 
About the same time one of the examining boards, that of 
the King's and Queen's College of Physicians, Ireland, 
decided to admit women to the examinations for its diplo- 
mas, and in this way the last of the initial difficulties was 
overcome. It had taken twenty-five years from the date of 
Miss Blackwell's visit to England to found a medical school 
for women, with the required amount of hospital practice, and 
with an examining board willing to confer on women a legal 
qualification to practice. In the sixteen years which have 
elapsed since 1877 much more rapid progress has been 
made. In the place of one examining body prepared to 
give women a diploma there are now six, and instead of 
one medical school there are now eight. Of these schools 
the second as well as the first owes its existence to the 
energy and courage of Miss Jex-Blake. Having started the 
London school, she determined to try again at Edinburgh, 
and after settling there in practice she succeeded in 1886 in 
creating the Edinburgh School of Medicine for Women, 
and in allying it with a large general hospital at Leith, 
which is a short way distant from Edinburgh. Three years 
later a second school for women was established in Edin- 
burgh, and its students now enjoy that which was refused 
with so much vehemence to Miss Jex-Blake and her party in 
their original attempts, viz., a share in the clinical practice 
of the Edinburgh Royal Infirmary. 

At Glasgow a handsome college known as Queen Mar- 


Caret's has been endowed by the munificence of a private 
lady, Mrs. Elder, and it has been incorporated with the 
university. Part of the infirmary has been assigned to its 
students for clinical teaching, and the medical examinations 
and degrees of the university are open to them. 

In the four schools for women only there are now 242 
students 143 in London, 56 in the two Edinburgh schools, 
and 43 at Glasgow. There are, moreover, at Dublin, Belfast, 
Cork, and Newcastle four men's schools to which women are 
admitted, and in which seventeen women in all are studying. 

The course of medical study in the United Kingdom now 
extends over five years from the date of registration as a 
student in arts. Latin, elementary physics, and geometry are 
compulsory upon all students before they begin the medical 
course. In the case of some of the examining bodies, c. g., 
the London University, this matriculation or arts examina- 
tion covers a wide range of subjects, and it is slight in 
none. The six examining bodies that admit women are 
the universities of London, Ireland, and Glasgow, the 
Apothecaries' Hall, London, and the united colleges of 
Physicians and Surgeons of Edinburgh and Glasgow, and 
of Dublin. 

Over one hundred and forty-four women are now upon 
the British Medical Register. Of these many are in India, 
China, Australia, or elsewhere abroad, and about fifty are 
in London. 

Mention has already been made of the new hospital for 
women, which in 1890 was moved into the large and hand- 
some building in the Euston Road, London, which it now 
occupies. It has forty-two beds and a very large patient 
department. A considerable proportion of the patients 
admitted into the wards require serious operations. 

The hospital has a staff of four in-patient physicians and 
surgeons, an ophthalmic surgeon, three out-patient physi- 
cians, three assistant physicians, and six clinical assistants 
in the out-patient department. During the past year there 
were 5,833 new cases and 21,866 attendance. 


The expenditure of the new hospital last year was 3,460 
pounds and the receipts 3,790. 

An out-door maternity department has lately been started 
in connection with the new hospital, in which eighty 
patients have been attended, with no mortality. At Clap- 
ham, on the South of London, Dr. Annie McCall has formed 
a more important maternity charity, consisting of a hospital 
with a large out-door department. In the hospital 502 
women have been attended, with no maternal death, and in 
their own homes 2,600 women have been attended with only 
one maternal death. Over three-fourths of all the cases 
admitted into the hospital have been primiparse, all the 
consultants are women, and all the operations have been 
performed by women. As a few years ago Dr. Matthews 
Duncan estimated the ordinary mortality in child-birth to 
be, in skilled hands, as high as i per cent, the 3,100 cases 
treated by Miss McCall, her assistants and pupils, with only 
one death, is a most excellent record. 

A provident dispensary for poor women and children has 
been for several years successfully carried on in Netting 
Hill by Mrs. Marshall, M. D., and other qualified medical 
women. A small hospital in connection with refuge work 
among young girls is also at work in the North of London, 
under the care of Mrs. Stanley Boyd, M. D., and is doing 
much good. 

Medical women have hitherto been excluded from all the 
medical societies in London. There are, however, indica- 
tions that this will not much longer be the case. The 
British Medical Association, to which Mrs. Anderson had 
been admitted in 1872, passed a formal resolution in 1878 
to exclude women in future from its membership. Mrs. 
Anderson remained a member, but no other woman was 
able to follow her into the association. During last year, 
however, several of the colonial branches of the association 
petitioned to be allowed to admit women, and, the question 
being brought up at the annual meeting at Nottingham, a 
resolution to rescind the hostile vote of 1878 was proposed 


by a member of the council, Dr. J. H. Galton, seconded by 
Mrs. Anderson, and carried by an overwhelming majority. 
It is hoped that this striking evidence of change of opinion 
on the part of the medical profession generally will lead in 
a short time to making women eligible for admission to all 
other medical societies. 

In the meantime an excellent medical library and club- 
room have been organized for the use of medical women at 
the new hospital, where the leading English and American 
periodicals are taken, and where monthly meetings are held 
at which papers are read and discussed by the members of 
the Medical Women's Association. Many valuable gifts of 
books have been received. Medical women from America 
and the Continent are permitted to make temporary use of 
this room while in London upon payment of a small sub- 
scription. Application for admission should be made to 
Mrs. Marshall, M. D., 13 Upper Berkeley Street, London,W. 

The review now made of the past history and present 
condition of the medical women's movement in the United 
Kingdom affords good grounds for encouragement, and 
though much yet remains to be done before women can be 
said to have completely overcome the prejudice against 
their engaging in a work of so much responsibility and dif- 
ficulty as that of medicine, it may confidently be antici- 
pated that they will at no distant date succeed in their 
endeavor, and that in doing so it will be recognized that 
they have done good service to the community at large, as 
well as to themselves. 


The university that practically led the van in admitting 
women to British degrees was, as was perhaps to be 

* The valuable appendix to this report will be found in the appendix to 
this volume. [The Ed.] 


expected, the University of London. When, in January, 
1878, the question of the admission of women was brought 
by the senate before convocation, it was decided on the 
side of liberality by an overwhelming majority (241 to 132 
votes), and the degrees of this, the leading university of 
Great Britain, have ever since been thrown open on equal 
conditions to all comers, as the rewards of academic merit 
alone ; no longer to be regarded, as still are unfortunately 
the degrees of some other British universities, as a mere 
" appanage of the male sex." It is a matter of some 
interest that examinations are, in this university, con- 
ducted by papers marked with numbers only, so that 
examiners do not know the sex of the candidate ; and thus 
the question of relative capacity for success has been for 
the first time tried before an inevitably impartial tribunal. 
It is at least worth notice that an analysis of the results 
given in the University Calendar shows that during the first 
five years (1878 to 1883) 7,208 men went up for the matric- 
ulation examination, and 3,712 passed, i.e., 51.5 per cent; 
while 619 women went up, and 427 passed, or 69 per cent. 
Of course I would not for a moment argue from this fact 
that the mental power of women is superior to that of men 
(an assertion which seems to me just as absurd as its con- 
verse), but that the comparatively small number of women 
who take advantage of the lately opened door value their 
privileges more highly, and are more thoroughly in earnest 
in their use of them, than is the case with the average 
student of the other sex, for whom academic honors have 
always hitherto been arbitrarily reserved. 

With regard to the colleges of surgeons, the final 'success 
was to be still delayed for some years. It was not till 1885 
that the Irish College of Surgeons, under the enlightened 
presidency of Sir Charles Cameron, threw open its doors to 
women on the same terms as to men ; and in February, 1886, 
the conjoint Scottish Colleges of Physicians and Surgeons 
took the same step. This action was singularly opportune 
in view of the passing of a new medical act a few months 


later, which required a u double qualification " (i.e., in both 
surgery and medicine) from all candidates for registration, 
and which therefore, but for the voluntary action of the 
Irish and Scotch colleges, would once more have excluded 
women from the register ; unless, indeed, it had contained 
a compulsory clause requiring every recognized examining 
board to admit all candidates, irrespective of sex. Now, 
however, the requisite provision has been made by the 
wise liberality of the Scotch and Irish colleges, and it is 
left to the English Colleges of Physicians and Surgeons to 
remain alone "on a bad eminence " of persistent exclusion. 
It might have been thought that when, in March, 1886, these 
colleges asked a woman to lay the foundation stone of their 
new conjoint examination hall, it would have been a grace- 
ful act to announce that students of Her Majesty's sex 
would no longer be excluded from their portals but this 
unfortunately was not the view taken by the learned bodies 
in question. 

Until 1886 the London school afforded the only oppor- 
tunity of medical study for women, and this fact presented 
very great difficulties to those residing at a distance from 
the metropolis, especially to Scotch and Irish students. In 
point of fact the number of Scotch girls who desire to study 
medicine is considerably greater in proportion to population 
than the number from either England or Ireland ; and I 
can myself testify to the many applications I have had in 
past years from natives of Scotland, whose circumstances 
made it impossible for them to go so far from home as was 
then necessary, though they would gladly have availed 
themselves of more readily accessible opportunities. When, 
therefore, early in 1886, the Scottish colleges threw open 
their examinations and diplomas, it seemed of pressing 
importance that classes should once more be reopened in 
Edinburgh ; and, after an interval of twelve years, this, I 
am thankful to say, was successfully accomplished in 1886. 
A first year's course was provided for women in Surgeon's 
Hall, and eight students at once took advantage of the 


opportunities offered. These ladies, moreover, acquitted 
themselves with marked distinction ; for the prize lists of 
the Extra-mural School of Edinburgh (published in the 
Scotsman of March 28, 1887) showed the very unusual fact 
that every member of the little class had attained a place in 
the honors lists. A small executive committee, consisting 
of members of the larger committee of the National Asso- 
ciation for Promoting the Medical Education of Women, 
was constituted, and arrangements completed for the full 
curriculum of medical education ; though, while the num- 
ber of students is small and the funds low, some of the 
courses of lectures are, for the sake of economy, given in 
biennial rotation only. The authorities of the Leith Hos- 
pital most kindly consented to throw open their wards to 
our students, and arrangements for full courses of clinical 
instruction were made. Excellent premises were secured 
for the school in the historic precincts of Surgeon Square, 
comprising a circular lecture-theater seated for about a 
hundred and fifty persons, two large halls lighted from 
"above, and other smaller apartments. Here, however, as 
elsewhere, we find the chief difficulty to consist in the pro- 
vision of the sinews of war, and in the fact that, no public 
funds being available, every penny has to be obtained from 
the comparatively small number of those who are fully 
awake to the importance of the movement. In Edinburgh 
the number of wealthy friends is much smaller than in 
London, and we can not fall back upon the great city com- 
panies, who have on more than one occasion given generous 
aid to the London school. We live in hopes, however, that 
some enlightened Scotchman, or Scotchwoman, with equally 
large heart and large means, will come to our rescue, and 
enable us to tide over the first few years of difficulty, w r hen 
the expenditure must necessarily exceed the income from 
students' fees. It is, however, somewhat unfortunate that 
the time of success should have been delayed by the unwise 
opening of some other medical classes in Edinburgh, at 
lower fees (and without access to qualifying hospital 


instruction), which has split up the already insufficient 
number of students, and prolonged the period of depend- 
ence upon outside support. 

Quite recently, in March, 1893, the final success has been 
won for the Edinburgh school by the consent of the Uni- 
versity of St. Andrews to accept its classes as of academical 
value, to allow its students to enter their names as matric- 
ulated undergraduates of the university, and to present 
themselves for examination for its medical degrees. In 
fact, the school has now become an outlying section of the 
University of St. Andrews, and the battle that began in 
Edinburgh almost a quarter of a century ago has ended in 
complete and absolute victory, though unfortunately the 
University of Edinburgh has not done itself the honor of 
contributing to the final result. 

In Glasgow the medical education of women has been 
taken up by the authorities of Queen Margaret College, 
which is fortunate in possessing considerable endowments, 
and by this means it has become possible to affiliate the 
women's school to the University of Glasgow, which exam- 
ines its students and grants to them the ordinary degrees. 

In Ireland all the examining boards, with the exception 
of Trinity College, are open to women ; and women are 
also received as students at most of the schools, viz., at the 
College of Surgeons in Dublin, and at the Queen's Colleges 
at Belfast, Cork, and Galway. In all these cases their 
education is mainly, if not entirely, conducted in mixed 

It will thus be seen that there is now little difficulty in 
obtaining medical education and a registrable qualification 
in any one of the three kingdoms, and what obstacles 
remain depend chiefly on the fact that the medical schools 
for women have as yet received no share of public money, 
and that very considerable expenses have to be met en- 
tirely from private sources. The women who desire to 
study medicine are frequently unable to meet the cost of 
the five years' education now required, and the scholarships 


and bursaries, which are available in such large numbers at 
the universities and colleges for men, are but slenderly 
represented in the women's schools. A few have, however, 
been founded in connection with the. London school, and 
two in connection with Edinburgh. One of the latter is of 
special interest, as it is designed to aid Hindu ladies who 
may desire to complete their medical studies in this coun- 
try, and one of them, Rose Govindurajulu, has been enabled 
by its means to come to us for a British education and reg- 
istrable diploma. 

At the beginning of 1 893 the number of women who had 
entered their names in the British Medical Register 
amounted to 158, of whom nine have died since registra- 
tion. About fifty are in practice in India and other parts 
of the East, chiefly as medical missionaries ; some of the 
younger women (perhaps twenty) are still engaged in 
study at various schools and hospitals, chiefly on the Conti- 
nent ; and the remainder are in practice in various parts of 
Great Britain, more than half of these having settled in 
London. The number of posts thrown open to medical 
women increases every day, and the demand for their 
services in various directions is still considerably in excess 
of the supply. I have within the last few weeks had appli- 
cations from three different quarters, viz., from Lady Duf- 
ferin's Association, from an independent post in India, and 
from a medical missionary society, and have been unable to 
supply any of them with the medical women they desired. 
From provincial towns, also, in England and Scotland come 
inquiries why medical women do not settle there in prac- 
tice, and quite recently I was consulted as to the propriety 
of establishing a medical woman in a country village, for 
the benefit of the surrounding district, after the fashion of 
Dr. Rhoda Gale in Charles Reade's "Woman Hater/' 

The stringent regulations attending medical registration 
in this country, though increasing the difficulties in the first 
instance, have in the long run been of real service to med- 
ical women ; .as they have made it impossible that a num.- 


her of half -educated women could foist themselves upon 
the public, and claim equality with practitioners of either 
sex who have gone through a complete curriculum. Some 
female quacks there have been no doubt, but the line drawn 
by registration is so sharp and clear that a very moderate 
amount of caution makes any deception on this head 
almost impracticable. Some of the medical missionary 
societies were for a few years somewhat ill-advised in this 
matter, for, finding it impossible to obtain a sufficient sup- 
ply of fully qualified women, they committed the fatal mis- 
take of employing a certain number of half-educated per- 
sons, who had gone through a fallacious " two years' 
course," but the results have been so far from satisfactory 
that the societies are now recognizing their error, and are 
recalling some of their half-trained women in order that 
they may be fully qualified, or that their places may be 
taken by others. 

To sum up the preceding brief and imperfect sketch, I 
think we may now claim that the victory is substantially 
won all along the line ; for it is the exception rather than 
the rule at present to exclude women from any examining 
board, and adequate schools for their education exist in 
each of the three kingdoms. In an appendix I submit a list 
of the schools and examining boards open to women, and 
also a list of those who, up to the beginning of the present 
year, have taken their place on the National Medical 

In conclusion, I trust I may be allowed to say that, as an 
Englishwoman who received a great part of her medical edu- 
cation on the other side of the Atlantic, and who has occa- 
sion to cherish very grateful memories of her American 
sisters foremost among whom stands my late noble friend 
and teacher, Dr. Lucy Sewall I feel it to be a great pleas- 
ure and privilege to be allowed this opportunity of greet- 
ing the World's Congress of Representative Women at 
Chicago, and of touching hands of greeting with my profes- 
sional sisters on the other side of the ocean. 






DR. ELLIS R. SHIPP, discussing the same topic, opened 
with a tribute to woman in the medical profession, her 
peculiar fitness to the work because of the gentleness, tender 
sympathy, kindness, and patience of her nature, and her un- 
selfish devotion as the guardian of infancy and childhood 
through times of suffering, and even up to man's estate. 
Dwelling upon the divine mission and characteristics of 
motherhood, she adds, " Who is so well qualified to minister 
to the maternal pangs of woman as one of her own sex ? 
And we aver that none are more capable of comprehending 
the great physical laws that govern procreation ! " 

The writer referred to the recognition of women physi- 
cians not only in enlightened countries, but in far-off 
climes, in China and Japan, where skillful surgery had 
secured to some in the profession world-wide honor and 


Woman in the world is the product of the will of the 
First Great Cause. Woman in the pew is the natural 
sequence of woman in the world. " Woman in the pulpit " 
is the inevitable consequence of woman in the pew. 

Logically, the power that gave woman being is account- 
able for the fact of her thought and her discussion upon 
questions relating to her origin, duty, and destiny. Theo- 
logically there is no responsibility in the case. Woman 
antedates theology, however, so before her mental and 
moral activities were prescribed we find her one of the 
active agents in awakening, quickening, and propagating 
certain religious truths ; instrumental, also, in not only giv- 
ing the world its great prophets, priests, and teachers, but 



sustaining them in their efforts to fulfill the mission on 
which they were sent. 

It was a mother's love and a woman's wit that rescued 
Moses from the hand of the slayer of the innocents, and so 
gave the Hebrew nation a leader, and all civilization a law- 
maker. It was Miriam who prophesied for her beloved 
people, and told them of their coming weal and woe. 
Deborah, the Hebrew Boadicea, as Coleridge calls her, 
whose knee had not bowed to Baal a woman of faith, 
courage, and patriotism was given the high office of 
Judge of Israel, and at last became the military leader of 
her people ; and how grandly the day was won, and Israel 
redeemed, the ode of Deborah triumphantly sings. The 
prayers of the once childless Hannah gave her despairing 
nation an inspired leader. Queen Esther and Judith were 
the savior and the avenger of their people ; and so on 
through Hebrew history. 

From the early dawn of the Christian era down to the 
present day woman has been one of the most potent factors 
in the presentation, growth, and spread of the new religion. 
The tenderest acts of service on the part of Christ were 
bestowed upon women the unfortunate, the sorrowing, 
and serving. Through woman's wrongs, her loyalty, her 
sorrows, he taught the world the sublimest lesson of unself- 
ishness, sympathy, and charity that the ages have ever 

Only through a woman's nature could these new princi- 
ples of conduct be proclaimed to the world. The twelve 
were not more clearly called to preach the gospel than the 
" last at the cross and the first at the tomb " were ordained 
to speak not merely of his gospel, but rather of him of 
his power and compassion, of his wondrous love and illum- 
ined life. As example is more valuable than precept, the 
testimony of these women concerning Christ has been more 
valuable than all the recorded miracles of his ministry 
aye, even than his sermon on the mount. 

Other prophets and inspired teachers the world has 


known before Christ's voice was heard in exhortation and 
prayer. But the world passed their words of wisdom by, 
and turned a deaf ear to their exhortation. But when the 
life illumined the word, and the spirit gave the letter its 
own invincible power, the teacher became greater than his 
lessons, and his simplest precept took a new significance. 

Men were sent forth to preach his gospel. Women just 
as truly were given the higher, more valuable, more deli- 
cate mission of proclaiming him his sermon to the woman 
at the well, his sympathy at the grave with the mothers and 
their children to the unfortunate, the betrayed, the 
afflicted. And when the hour of agony had passed and the 
victory had come, it was faithful, loyal, and believing woman 
whom the angel met at the empty sepulchre, and com- 
manded, authorized, ordained to " go quickly and tell his 
disciples that he is risen from the dead, assuring them that 
he goeth before you." 

Later, while Paul was yet the fierce Saul of Tarsus, " per- 
secuting the Christians even unto death," the " Marys and 
Marthas " were loyal to the teachings of the Master, and 
faithful, tender, and reverent to his memory ; never betray- 
ers of Christ, but always his friends ; never among his 
persecutors, but always with the persecuted. Gifted with 
that fine spiritual insight that made it possible to recognize 
the authority of Christ, it is not strange that the records of 
the Christian church, from the earliest down to the latest, 
should be illumined with the deeds of heroism and self- 
sacrifice so freely performed by women " in his name." To 
a nature capable of this loyalty, and imbued with this faith, 
it was but in keeping with the inward impulse to impart it 
to others. 

To every careful reader of the Bible it is a profound 
mystery from whence came that morbid and unholy senti- 
ment that seeks refuge behind St. Paul, and interprets 
his " Women, keep silent in church," to mean " Keep out 
of the pulpit only." Sing in the church, pray without 
ceasing in it and for it God knows it needs your prayers 


teach the young, form their theological opinions, awaken 
their spiritual nature; expound to them the doctrines of 
prayer, of repentance, of forgiveness ; form their immortal 
minds for immortality do all this and more ; build 
churches, pay debts, educate young men for the ministry ; 
turn, if need be, the church into a concert hall, a sewing- 
room, a salesroom, a restaurant, a bake shop ; do all this, if 
need be, to raise money for church extension, for the Bible 
and tract society, for home and foreign missions ; but do 
not preach for a salary, do not desecrate holy services by 
administering the sacraments of the church ; for Paul said 
" Let women keep silence in the churches, for it is not per- 
mitted unto them to speak." 

Higher Biblical criticism and the better judgment of 
thoughtful men and women took this question under serious 
consideration, with such results as I am glad to place before 
you at this time in reference to the position of the various 
religious bodies in regard to the indorsement of women 
for the work of the church. 

FIRST, THE UNIVERSALISTS. In the year 1856 the Uni- 
versalist denomination at Canton, N. Y., founded a college 
of letters and arts, in connection with a divinity school, 
known as the St. Lawrence University, and threw open 
the doors of this institution to both men and women on 
equal terms. The first woman who entered the theological 
department of St. Lawrence University was Olympia 
Brown, who entered in the year 1861, graduated in the 
year 1863, and was regularly ordained to the Christian min- 
istry. Since the founding of St. Lawrence University 
eight women have been regularly graduated after pursu- 
ing the full course of study, six more have pursued special 
courses, and four are at present studying there. One of 
these will graduate next month. 

In 1 88 1 the Ryder Divinity School, at Galesburg, 111., in 
connection with Lombard University, was opened to men 
and women on equal terms, and has had from one to three 
women students every year. 


A third divinity school of the same denomination opened 
its doors to women last September that of Tuft's College, 
Boston. Three young women immediately entered it. 

As a result of this policy the Universalist Register for 
1893 contains the names of thirty-six women, twenty-seven 
of whom are regularly ordained to the Christian ministry, 
while the remaining nine are licensed to preach by the 
ecclesiastical authority of the church, and will be entitled to 
full ordination at the expiration of two years as licentiates. 

SECOND, THE UNITARIANS. Women were admitted as 
students to the Meadville school in the year 1868. The 
present year three are in attendance. Up to the present 
time the whole number admitted is twenty-one. Of this 
number six graduated from the full course, the others tak- 
ing special work. It is a fact worth remembering that 
the number of young men in this divinity school who have 
taken but a partial course of study is proportionately as 
large as the number of women who have done so. 

Manchester New College, Oxford, England, is open to 
women, and in the first year has received three American 
women to its lectures two Unitarians and one Universalist. 

The year-book of the Unitarian church contains the 
names of nineteen clergywomen. The demand for them 
in both the Universalist and the Unitarian denominations 
far exceeds the supply. 

lege of this denomination at Hillsdale, Mich., was founded 
in 1855. Its charter provides that " all persons, regardless 
of sex, color, or nationality, shall be entitled to all its 
advantages." The theological department was opened in 
1878, admitting women on equal terms with men. During 
the last fifteen years twenty women have taken a partial 
course of study in this department. In addition to this 
number, six women have taken the full course and re- 
ceived the degree of B. D. 

The theological seminary at Lewiston, Maine, in con- 
nection with Bates College, is also open to women. 


In the Free-Will Baptist denomination twelve women 
are in full ordination, and fourteen are licensed as lay 

FOURTH, THE BAPTISTS. The dean of the divinity 
school of the University of Chicago, in answer to a letter 
of inquiry concerning the status of women in the ministry 
of the Baptist denomination, writes : " The divinity school, 
which is a part of the university, is under a special charter, 
obtained years ago. For the past twenty-five years we 
have been admitting women to all our classes." 

They are not there by sufferance. The paragraph in the 
calendar on this subject is as follows : " Women are admit- 
ted on equal terms with men. They receive no encourage- 
ment to enter upon the work of public preaching, but on 
the contrary are distinctly taught that the New Testament 
nowhere recognizes the ordination of women to the Chris- 
tian pastorate." I may say that seven or eight women are 
now regularly matriculated in this divinity school, prepar- 
ing themselves, doubtless, for pagan pastorates, as it is the 
denominational policy of this church to recognize and 
encourage women as foreign missionaries. 

So, while the " Christian pastorate " is kept in special 
reserve for the men of the Baptist denomination, the theo- 
logical scholars will welcome to their halls and educate the 
women who will brave the perils of land and sea, of canni- 
balism and scourges, fevers and plagues, spiritual darkness 
and moral degradation, to carry the gospel of Christ to 
those who sit in darkness. 

plies, this intelligent and progressive body of Christian 
people are self-governing ; therefore it has, in the question 
of the ordination of women, no fixed policy, but each 
church exercises such liberty in the matter as the majority 
of its individual body may choose. Hence we find some 
churches freely granting ordination to women. There are 
at least twelve women in this body enjoying the full 
ecclesiastical rights and privileges of ordination. Three 


years ago the great theological seminary of Hartford was 
thrown open to women students, and a number availed 
themselves of the opportunity thus afforded. At present 
four women are pursuing a course of theological study 

Oberlin College, in compliance with the terms of its 
charter, opened all its departments to men and women on 
equal terms. Antoinette Brown Blackwell was an early 
graduate of this worthy institution, and received ordination 
from the Congregational church in the year 1853. 

SIXTH, THE PRESBYTERIANS. This body ordains no wo- 
men to the ministry, and has, since the day that Sarah 
Smiley preached from the Rev. Dr. Cuyler's pulpit, inserted 
a clause in its blue book prohibiting the ministers of that 
body from inviting women into the pulpit. 

I could fill a volume with a statement of the work that 
this denomination permits its w^omen to do out of the 
pulpit, in the way of money-raising, church-building, home 
and foreign missionary teaching, praying, praising ; but all 
this is common to all churches. 

SEVENTH, THE METHODISTS. In October, 1891, the Wes- 
leyan Methodists in council struck out from the discipline 
of the church the clause prohibiting women from receiving 
ordination in that body. Protestant and Primitive Meth- 
odists also have ordained women. The exact number who 
are exercising full ecclesiastical privilege in those branches 
of the Methodist church I have not been able to ascertain. 
That the church has taken this just attitude toward the 
women of its body is sufficient to command for it the 
highest respect and confidence of all who believe in the 
law of liberty. 

great body of devout and earnest Christians has not yet 
accorded to its women the justice that many foremost in 
its ranks are demanding. For years their theological 
schools have been educating women, accepting their money 
and time, but the General Conference has steadily refused 


to equip them thoroughly for the very work for which their 
theological schools were encouraging them to educate them- 
selves. As missionaries, home and foreign, as thoughtful 
and scholarly preachers, as earnest and convincing exhort- 
ers, they have proved until proof is no longer necessary 
- their perfect fitness for the work of the ministry ; and 
they and the world are waiting for the General Conference 
to acknowledge the fact. 

NINTH, OTHER DENOMINATIONS. The secretary of the 
Women's Ministerial Conference reports the interesting 
fact that to the United Brethren belongs the honor of 
having ordained the first woman to the Christian ministry. 
The Rev. Lydia Sexton of Seattle, Wash., now ninety-three 
years old, was ordained by the United Brethren in 1851, 
two years prior to the ordination of the Rev. Antoinette 
Brown Blackwell. The Rev. Mrs. Sexton has been in act- 
ive service in her denomination until within a few years, 
when failing eyesight compelled her to withdraw from 
active work. 

Among the Friends, women have from the first taken the 
same rank as the men of that body. It is computed that 
more than two hundred and fifty women are to-day enrolled 
among the accredited speakers of this sect. 

The universities of Switzerland admit women to lectures 
on theology, though not to examination. Germany has not 
yet moved in the matter. 

That women are in the pulpit, and in larger numbers are 
going to it, is a fact. Women alone can account for the 
fact. They do account for it, as follows : First, moral influ- 
ence has superseded physical force ; we need not theology, 
but ministry. Second, the right to do a work is now 
determined by the disposition and the ability of the indi- 
vidual. Third, women possess powers, moral and spiritual, 
that make her a competent minister. 



It will doubtless be conceded that some one of the follow- 
ing propositions is true : 

1. Woman is in her mental, moral, and spiritual nature 
substantially the same as man, and his equal ; or, 

2. She is, in these respects, substantially like man, but 
inferior to him, a " lesser man " so to speak ; or, 

3. She is in her mental, moral, and spiritual nature sub- 
stantially different from man. (Whether his equal, inferior, 
or superior we need not now ask.) 

Now, if woman is in her mental, moral, and spiritual 
characteristics substantially the same as man, and his 
equal, then she has precisely the same call as man to enter 
upon the work of the ministry, in which mentality, morality, 
and spirituality are the supreme tests of qualification. But 
if, secondly, she is substantially the same as man, but his 
inferior, how can the fact of her inferiority in any depart- 
ment be ascertained except by allowing her a free field, 
without favor or hindrance, so that she may demonstrate 
her innate inferiority, which the world is growing so skep- 
tical about ? It does not comport with the most advanced 
ethics that the stronger should deny the weaker a fair trial 
of their strength. It is too much for fortitude to be born 
neither free nor equal. The matter of equality can never 
be settled till freedom be granted, and then the law which 
governs " the survival of the fittest " will determine woman's 
lease of the pulpit as of all other mundane things. But, 
thirdly, if woman is in her mental, moral, and spiritual con- 
stitution substantially different from man, then by that 
difference is she unerringly called to the work of the minis- 
try, whether the sum total of woman's gifts is an exact 
equivalent of man's gifts or not. 

Humanity is made up of two halves, male and female, 
and it seems to me a self-evident fact that, if these two 


halves of humanity are substantially different in their 
mental, moral, and spiritual traits, the one half can never 
fully understand, interpret, or represent the other half. 

I wish to elaborate this third proposition, self-evident 
though it appears to me, because most persons who oppose 
woman's entrance into this and other fields which have been 
hitherto exclusively occupied by men do not, of course, do 
so from the standpoint of conviction that woman is sub- 
stantially the same as man nor do most of the opponents 
base their opposition upon woman's supposed inferiority 
-but the claim is made that woman, being essentially 
different from man, has a proper orbit of her own which 
must not impinge upon the orbit of man ; and so she is shut 
out of participation in much of that work in life which 
affords the best self-development and the largest usefulness 
to the world. 

But let us glance at the fundamental facts. Woman is 
first of all a human being ; before she is a woman, before 
she is a mother, before she is a preacher, before she is a 
parishioner, back of all, and fundamentally, she is a human 
being. As such she possesses in common with man those 
traits which distinguish humanity from the lower animals 
reason, conscience, sympathies, coordinating faculties, 
the desire and the capacity to help and to be helped by 
other human beings toward more ideal ways of life. Now 
let us dismiss the silly notion that man is all reason and 
woman all intuition. Both reason and intuition are human 
powers, and the man or the woman who is destitute of 
either is a defective human being. 

Whether the difference between manhood and woman- 
hood consists in the possession of some quality or qualities 
by each which the other does not possess, or whether the 
difference lies in the usual preponderance of certain quali- 
ties in the one sex and of certain other qualities in the 
other sex, still the two resultants are substantially, and let 
us trust ineradicably, different, so that the ideal humanity 
is not man and is not woman, it is both. And thus it is 


that humanity, being made up of two diverse halves, needs 
to draw its interpreters, its teachers, its ministers from both, 
else the interpretation, the teaching, the religion must be 
warped, incomplete, ineffective, and not roundly human. 
Does that mean that a man and a woman should minister in 
each church ? That would indeed be an ideal arrangement, 
and one, as you have heard to-night, not wholly unrealized. 
But it would not be universally practicable, nor is it neces- 
sary. There is another way of infusing the dual and com- 
plete human element into the religious life, and that is to 
get it into the fountain-source. Then it will flow through 
all the channels. What is the trouble to-day with the creeds 
from the tyranny of which so many of the churches are 
trying to free themselves ? What but that they were form- 
ulated by one-half of humanity for both the woman ele- 
ment was utterly ignored, the mother heart was not permit- 
ted to speak. Relentless " logic," which we say preponder- 
ates with man, was allowed full sway, without having first 
determined whether the fundamental premises upon which 
men built were in harmony with the thought of love at the 
heart of the universe. When women help to formulate the 
expressions of religious faith which contribute so power- 
fully to mold the religious life of those who subscribe to 
them, the church itself will be humanized ; and whether it 
be a man or a woman who ministers from your pulpit, the 
genius of the church, the spirit of the religion taught, 
which is greater than the individuality of the minister, will 
be broadly and highly, strongly and tenderly, bravely and 
purely human and divine. But exclude woman from the 
pulpit and never will you have her unique and humanizing 
influence at the fountain-head. Nay, you degrade her 
everywhere. For what is the work of the ministry but to 
teach the art of life? What is the true church but the 
school in which we are to learn how to live and act nobly, 
purely, unselfishly, helpfully, day by day, here and here- 
after? If in this school man is always the teacher and 
woman the pupil, if he must always speak and she listen, 


if he must preach and she practice, what does not she and 
the world lose by this constant repression of her genius, 
this rejection of her point of view, this perpetual silencing 
within her soul of her divine call ? 

Moreover, nothing but woman in the pulpit can give her 
rightful place and dignity to woman in the pews, or woman 

And yet I would make no extravagant claim for woman 
as a teacher of religion. I would not say woman is so good, 
so raised above temptations that assail man, that she should 
therefore be the religious teacher. A class so good by 
nature that it could not comprehend or sympathize with 
the tempted angels, for instance could not much help the 
average man or woman with its preaching. We should be 
very apt to say : " You can not possibly comprehend my 
situation ; you are too far above the trials, and turmoil, and 
the motives that touch me." I make no such plea of 
superiority for woman. When made it weakens her cause. 
We want in our religious teachers and preachers every- 
where not mere ignorance of sin and sinful motives, but 
virtue which blooms from overcoming these. 

And again, I for one should regret a great preponder- 
ance of women preachers over men preachers, even more 
than I regret the present overwhelming majority of women 
as teachers in our public schools ; yes, as much as I regret 
that so many children are robbed of their full rights of 
paternal care and training, and are wholly dependent upon 
maternal influence. We all of us men, and women, and 
children need not only guardians, teachers, ministers who 
shall interpret and reveal ourselves to us ; we need also 
those who shall reveal and interpret to us that other half of 
humanity with which, as husband and wife', father and 
daughter, mother and son, brother and sister, friend and 
friend, we are, to our blessing, inextricably commingled. 

But to-day, while the present abnormal state of things 
exists in the church, I believe that the greatest need of the 
church is to be mothered. Until the creeds are humanized, 


which were formulated by the early " church fathers " and 
by our Puritan forefathers ; until the lost balance of religion 
is restored by the restoration of the woman element to the 
mutilated human and the mutilated divine ; until the 
motherhood as well as the fatherhood of God is recognized 
by this world of self-made half-orphans ; until these things 
be, the supreme call to the ministry that vibrates through 
the world to-day is to womanhood to give herself to the 
service of unifying and uplifting humanity, and bringing it 
up to the true knowledge and glad service of our Father 
and Mother God. 


We believe that woman's native intuition is as necessary 
in the pulpit as man's logical, reasoning powers. Reason 
has stood still and argued from cause to effect, and has 
asked these questions: " How shall it be done?" "Why 
shall it be done ? " " Can it be done, and shall we do it ? " 
Meanwhile intuition has made rapid transit across the path- 
way of reason ; has probed the mystery, solved the question, 
brought the remedy, and when reason has come to its con- 
clusion intuition is already at work at the business. 

Woman is just as powerful with her intuition in the pas- 
torate as in the pulpit. She can tell whether she can offer 
a morning prayer, or read a passage of Scripture, or sing a 
song, or say a kind word, or pat a little child on its head and 
gladden the heart of the poor mother as she goes in and out 
among her people. She sees the field as soon as she enters 
it, and meets the need by applying the remedy. If it is a 
business meeting of her church her intuition sees the crusty 
man that has come to break the harmony, and she uses a 
woman's tact to the overcoming of the stubborn nature, and 
anticipates him at every step. Therefore we find to-day that 
man is puzzled, in an executive body, how to handle the 
women preachers, while the woman preacher is delighted 


at the way she is able to handle the body of executive 

We turn, then, and say in conclusion that by woman's 
power of intuition she has been able to reach out in the 
line of winning souls to Christ continuously. It is said the 
underwork has been given us, but it has been given to us 
in discipline to prepare us to take the pulpit. Now we are 
at the foot of the cross, being taught by the great teacher, 
inspired with hope that we may be able to fill the place that 
God has opened, even broader than we had asked for. 

It seems to me that intuition and reason have come to 
woman in the new era, and that she is not only able to 
exert her intuition, but she is able to reason, and the two 
faculties combined will make the perfect whole. 

We find in the occasion of the hour only the sequel to 
what has been done in the past by the brave women whose 
voices we hear to-day, who have stood in the ministry for 
thirty-seven years, some of them without church orders ; but, 
praise God, the orders are coming faster than we knew of. 


I am doubly interested in this point of woman's entering 
the pulpit. I can not imagine what could have been in the 
hearts of the brethren all these years to have closed the 
doors of the pulpit and said to woman : " You can come 
just so far and no farther." They want women in the 
services ; they want them in the prayer-room, and in every 
department of the church, but not in the pulpit. I am 
more than interested when I realize what this congress is 
going to do for the churches of the different denominations. 
It may be possible to-night that some young woman is 
sitting under me that is thinking seriously of entering the 
pulpit. Many hindrances, no doubt, are placed before you ; 
but let me assure you there is no chasm so hard to cross 
but that, if you have faith and courage, you can cross it. I 


do not speak especially from an experience of hardship in 
entering- the ministry myself. Years ago, in a little town in 
Massachusetts, I got my call from God, and I said to the old 
minister of my church : "I will not be a minister ; I will 
not enter the ministry when men are opposed to it. I do 
not propose to choose a life of hardship." And so I put off 
the earnest call and went out into other departments of 
work. But one day, unexpectedly, it seemed to me that 
God again had led me out in spite of my wish or desire ; 
and so the deacons of the church to which I had been called, 
said " Miss Moreland, it is your duty to be ordained." 
And I said: ''It is not; don't mention this matter ; you 
will break up the church and spoil our meetings." I said I 
had never heard of a lady's being ordained in a Congrega- 
tional church, but I found I was mistaken, for there was 
one before myself. That ordination was urged upon me, 
and the work of the pulpit became possible. 

Objections are often presented to the ministry of women ; 
but you know that women from the earliest centuries have 
served in every capacity and every department of life. 
How very strange to say that women shall not enter the 
ministry. The word minister means more than a mere 
leader. It implies that we must bear together all the serv- 
ice that may be placed on the shoulder of each individual. 
I realize that many a woman will be called into hard places, 
called to places where perhaps many temptations will be 
met, and she will say: "I must fail." But when those 
moments have come she should say : "I will not fail, because 
I am a woman." 

It is becoming customary to ordain women in the Con- 
gregational church. Ten ladies have been ordained 
into our church, and I hope to see many more enter. Let 
us hail all the opportunities that may come ; let us welcome 
the privileges God brings ; let us no longer stand on cus- 
toms of the past in questions of ministry, any more than in 
other calls of life. 



As that monarch of the forest, the oak, is the result of 
the evolution of physical life, so woman's place in the 
church as a minister of religion is the result of that evolu- 
tion of spiritual life which will yet transform the world. 

For centuries the power of church and state rested on 
human souls with crushing weight. Little hope there 
seemed that the sons and daughters of God could ever rise 
into the noble stature of a free manhood and womanhood. 
But the demand for civil and religious liberty grew 
stronger and stronger, and slowly but surely the divine 
right of kings has given way to the diviner rights of human 
souls ; the authority of the priest has yielded to the author- 
ity of reason and conscience, until at last the world is awak- 
ing to the truth that every human being has a right to 
grow. Thus it has come to pass that to-day woman stands 
in the pulpit as an ordained minister of religion. The 
growth of civil and religious liberty explains her advance- 
ment in the state and in the church. As a part of human- 
ity she has shared in its unfolding life. With the growing 
recognition of the worth of the individual, woman is com- 
ing to her own. 

Vainly does the church attempt to stay her progress. At 
one time, armed with the power of the state, it could forbid 
her standing in the pulpit as a minister of the eternal gos- 
pel of truth, and love, and righteousness. Now it can only 
fling at her the missiles of ridicule and invective. No 
longer a child, woman claims the privilege of deciding 
for herself what is right. When told that woman is not 
fitted to preach, that it is enough for her to attend the 
weekly sewing society and embroider altar-cloths, she 
quietly answers: "You can not decide these matters for 
me. The right of private judgment is mine as well as 
yours, and I shall exercise it." 


MINNIE D. Louis. 





In a word, while conservative clergymen have been 
slowly adjusting their spectacles to look up Biblical texts to 
be used as weapons against her, she has left them to their 
discussions of disputed passages and serenely gone forth to 
proclaim the living word of truth to the many who have 
gladly welcomed her as a true minister of God. 

The eternal sanction for entering upon any good work is 
the ability to perform it. The questions, "Can woman 
preach?" " May woman preach?" which some well-mean- 
ing people are still debating with ludicrous solemnity, have 
been answered affirmatively, in the most convincing way,, 
according to the scientific method, by actual experiment. 

As Galileo, when ridiculed and denounced for declaring 
that all bodies fall equally fast, performed his experiment 
at the leaning tower of Pisa, by which he demonstrated the 
truth of his assertion for all time, giving to the world the 
first law of falling bodies, so woman, though told that she 
could not preach, has proven the contrary in a way that 
makes the arguments of her opponents amusing. 

In the face of deep-seated prejudice and bitter, persist- 
ent opposition, she has shown beyond question that she is 
not only able to preach, but is also able to do far more to 
endure the strain of long city pastorates and build up 
strong, growing churches. The place she holds to-day as a 
minister of religion has not been given to her ; she has won 
it for herself, and holds it by right divine. 

Doubtless the woman makes as many mistakes as the 
man in ministerial work. But despite the fact that the 
leading theological schools have been closed against her, 
that she has been compelled to labor under great disad- 
vantages in securing that thorough preparation for her 
work which is essential to the highest success, she has 
already accomplished far more than could justly be 
expected, and the future is full of promise. 

While ministering most helpfully to the deep needs of 
human souls, so far as her influence reaches, it tends in a 
special way to make religion less one-sided, less masculine 



in some departments, less feminine in others, more human 
and divine in all. 

While interested in theology as the thought side of 
Teligion, women do not emphasize it at the expense of right 
feeling and right action, but find God in all that liberates 
and lifts, in all that humbles, and sweetens, and consoles. 
To them the life is more than the creed ; hence their pres- 
ence in the pulpit tends to soften theological animosities 
and promote religious unity. Woman's fanaticism in the 
past has been largely due to her blind belief in the teach- 
ings of the church, which has presented religion from the 
masculine standpoint only, making it largely consist of 
intense devotion to certain theological beliefs. 

But now the subject is also presented from another 
standpoint ; and more and more, as men and women study 
side by side in theological schools, and work and confer 
together as equals in the ministry, religion will become 
less masculine in the pulpit, less feminine in the pews, 
more nobly human in both. Thus in its greater complete- 
ness it will the more strongly appeal to all human beings, 
and the churches will cease to be so largely composed of 

The Roman Catholic church, by its exaltation of the 
Virgin, supplies the deep need of the human heart for 
infinite mother love ; but those who would worship God 
alone must be led to realize that the Eternal is mother as 
well as father to all human beings ; they must be led to see 
that the words, " As one whom his mother comforteth, so 
will I comfort you," have as deep a meaning as those other 
beautiful words, " Like as a father pitieth his children, so 
the Lord pitieth them that fear him." We must do away 
with the exclusive use of masculine nouns and pronouns 
when speaking of the Eternal, that in the all- wise, all-loving 
one every yearning of the human soul may find fullest 

Women in the ministry also exert a special influence in 
setting aside those offensive marriage customs which are 


relics of a time when woman was really given away, was 
not recognized as an independent human being, but was 
transferred from the guardianship of her father to that of 
a husband. When entering into the most sacred relation- 
ship of life, where man and woman should stand side by 
side as equals, whatever detracts in any way from dignity 
and sweet sincerity should be put aside. The bride should 
not be given away, nor asked to promise to obey, for the 
promise if sincere means subordination, and certainly there 
should be no idle forms, no meaningless promises of any 
kind. The whole service should symbolize a voluntary, 
sacred union of equals ; for in view of the subtle influence 
of outward forms upon human thought and feeling, what- 
ever tends to ennoble the marriage service tends to enno- 
ble marriage, and thus to uplift and purify humanity. 

But while in special ways the influence of woman in the 
ministry constantly tends to remove long-standing abuses, 
to which in the very nature of things she is more sensitive 
than her brother ministers, her work in general is the 
same as their work, and must be tested, as theirs is tested, 
by its actual results. Since woman's civil rights are 
not yet fully recognized, her public ministry of religion 
might be suppressed by conservative clergymen were it not 
for that separation of church and state, that religious 
liberty, which has enabled her to win the place she holds 
to-day. For this reason, apart from all other weighty con- 
siderations, women make a great mistake when they uphold 
any legislation which tends to the union of church and 
state, which interferes with that religious freedom which 
by the constitution of these United States is guaranteed to 
all. When honest men are fined and imprisoned for refus- 
ing to keep Sunday instead of the Sabbath as a day of rest, 
when Government aid of a World's Fair is conditioned by a 
Sunday-closing clause, earnest, thoughtful women should 
utter a protest against such manifest injustice to those who 
do not hold the religious views of the majority. 

There is no tyranny more to be feared than ecclesiastical 


tyranny, and unless women are willing- to be deprived of 
hard-won privilege, they must persistently oppose whatever 
tends in any way to destroy religious freedom. Vigilantly 
guarding that, they will be able not only to hold the place 
already secured for themselves as ministers of religion, but 
to make it a place of constantly growing influence ; for 
the times are ripe for change. The world grows weary of 
worn-out creeds and lifeless traditions, and asks for some- 
thing better. Men and women, who think and judge for 
themselves, demand a religion that authenticates itself to 
reason and conscience. Hence the minister who would 
meet their needs must be thoroughly alive, must be respon- 
sive to the best thought and noblest feeling of the age. 
Never was there greater need of a thoroughly equipped 
ministry, and women have reason to rejoice that those who 
enter it can not lean on external supports, but must prove 
their calling by their work. 

In a ministry that must demonstrate its worth by what it 
does to help the world, woman need ask no favors, but may 
quietly go forward in the strength of the Eternal to accom- 
plish all the good that her ability permits. 


Christianity reveals and emphasizes the relation of the 
individual soul to God, and it removes the obstacles made 
by sin between God and the individual. It bridges the 
gulf, and takes the man back to God. It does more it 
works, not mechanically but chemically, for in giving the 
revelation, the vision of God, it inevitably turns fear into 
love ; it reunites God and the individual soul. Religion can 
not do a higher work, since to see God is to see as God sees, 
and that is to act as he acts, so far as the human soul can 
do this. Thus, then, to unite souls to God is to do all of 
God's work for men. 

Are women fitted to do the work of this all-including 


ministry ? What qualifications are necessary ? Evidently 
one must be able to see and hear, morally and spiritually, 
and able to repeat after God his spoken thoughts to his 
children. Are women endowed with these qualifications ? 
Are they the natural teachers ? Ask history ; ask even the 
dark ages ; ask also the poets and the prophets ; then let 
each questioner look into his own home, and into his own 
heart, and make reply. To ask the question to-day is to 
answer it. 

If woman is qualified, is she called ? How can one know ? 
Again let us take the divine judgment. How can we know 
God's call, his purpose, his requirement of any creature ? 
The song-bird sings. She can not help it. And the great 
creatures of the sea must take their place therein. They 
die if out of their own domain, as any soul does if out of 
God's plan. And all God's ministers must chant his love, 
for they see his presence and feel his touch, in places, in 
persons, and in principles, and they must repeat his 
thoughts after him. Are women thus moved ? Let even pre- 
Christian history answer. Have women thus moved, thus 
inspired, men, and cities, and nations ? Let dying martyrs 
and transfigured saints give reply. In the latest floodtide 
of the world's philanthropy and Christian work are women 
seen and felt ? Let the overwhelming statistics of the last 
thirty years give the answer. 




NO preceding chapter has so clearly illustrated the 
impartial character of the management of the great 
Congress as does this. The World's Congress of 
Representative Women anticipated the World's Parliament 
of Religions in bringing together, on the plane of mutual 
respect and sympathy, representatives of rival sects, nay, of 
antagonistic faiths. 

While a majority of the papers setting forth the work of 
various religious societies will appear in the chapters 
devoted to Department and Report Congresses, the spirit 
of tolerance, nay, of fellowship, which characterized the 
Congress as a whole pervades this chapter, wherein are 
presented the aspirations and opinions, the history and 
hopes, of Jew and Gentile ; of Catholic and Protestant ; of 
the orthodox, whose soundness has never been questioned ; 
of the heterodox, -at whom a widening charity no longer 
cavils ; and of the new heterodox, whose views are so 
recently formulated, or so vaguely shadowed forth, that 
they are still classed with vagarists. 



The general tone of the addresses reproduced here, con- 
sidered in connection with their respective authors, is most 
significant, and may reasonably be adduced in support of 
the following propositions : 

First. Although not incapable of metaphysical specula- 
tion, women are by nature and by training practical; they 
measure a creed by its adaptation to human service. 

Second. In spite of their conservatism and timidity,, 
women are gaining rapidly "the courage of their convic- 
tions " ; and their natural hopefulness, which some critics 
name credulity, induces in them an open mindedness which 
is the best corrective of excessive conservatism. 

Third. The results of the higher education and of the 
spirit of progress are nowhere more clearly visible than in 
the modern methods of philanthropy. The educated, the 
progressive woman will remain devout and charitable. She 
will continue to be the loaf -giver; but she will read her 
Bible with a vision cleared by some knowledge of econom- 
ics, and she will pursue her philanthropies in the light of a 
growing knowledge of science, sociology, and politics, with 
all of which she begins to see that philanthropy is connected. 

The addresses of Mrs. Robinson, Miss Richmond, Mrs. 
Hoffman, Miss Toomy, Mrs. Louis, Mrs. Clymer, Mrs. Dick- 
inson, Miss Hultin, Mrs. Hughes, and Mrs. Gary are repro- 
duced almost entire. Mrs. Louis' paper was discussed by 
Mrs. Emily Marshall Wadsworth of New York, representa- 
tive of the International Board of Woman's Christian Asso- 
ciations, and by Mrs. John T. Unger of Pennsylvania,, 
representative of the Woman's Foreign Missionary Society 
of the Reformed Church of the United States ; the discus- 
sion was brief, and incompletely reported, and is therefore 
omitted. From Mrs. Gestefeld's address about one-half is 
omitted, in order that the discussion of it, which was long, 
and representative of many lines of thought, might be 
inserted. In reproducing the discussion the intention has 
been to omit repetitions, but to give the main thought of 
each speaker. [THE EDITOR.] 



The Revised Version tells us " The women that publish 
the tidings are a great host"; and what commentary the 
future is to give us upon that verse no mortal voice can at 
present foretell. But I design to limit our consideration to 
one phase of woman's work in the modern church which 
lies quite apart from any of the forms of woman's activities 
that are so familiar to us. Apart, and yet again near, 
because all alike relate to woman's helpful service and her 
interpretation of God's truth by god-like deeds. Yet this 
form of service has about it an old-time atmosphere that is 
in quaint contrast to the exceeding modernism of the age 
in which we live. In truth, it reaches back to the days of 
St. Paul, and curiously links the modern church with that 
of apostolic times. When St. Paul said (Romans xvi, i) 
" I commend unto you Phebe, a deacon of the church at 
Cenchrea," he had in mind an individual filling an office 
precisely similar to that occupied by the deaconess in the 
modern church. The best German authorities are agreed 
on this point. Schafer in " Die Weibliche Diakonie," 
Wacker in " Der Diakonessenberuf," as well as Fliedner 
himself, maintain that the office of deaconess, as it is exer- 
cised in the Protestant church of Germany at the present 
time, is essentially the same as the office known to the 
authorities of the early church. 

It was in the fourth and fifth centuries that the female 
diaconate attained its highest importance. It developed 
especially in the Eastern church, for the customs of the 
country favored the seclusion of women members, and 
made it important that certain duties connected with bap- 
tism, the visiting of the sick, and the religious instruction 
of women be performed by women members who were 
deaconesses. As a consequence, the diaconate of women 
was known much longer in the Eastern than in the Latin 


church, and traces of it were still found in the twelfth cent- 
ury, showing that it was a factor to be counted on for 
nearly two-thirds of the Christian era. As a distinct office 
it vanished during the Middle Ages, together with other 
important features of primitive Christianity. Yet it is a 
singular fact that occasionally the mists of oblivion are dis- 
pelled, and we catch glimpses of the office. This is espe- 
cially true at any period of religious awakening. So we 
find some traces of a renewal of the ancient order among 
the Waldenses in the twelfth century ; among the churches 
of the Netherlands shortly after the great Reformation, 
and among the Puritans of the sixteenth century. These 
attempts at the revival of the office, sporadic as they were, 
show that the conception of it still remained as a good to be 
realized. At the beginning of this century many thoughtful 
people were impressed with the importance of restoring to 
the Protestant church this arm of service of which it had 
been so long deprived. The cloistered nuns had replaced the 
apostolic deaconesses in the Catholic church, but since the 
famous labors of the great Bishop Vincent de Paul, that 
gave rise to the Sisters of Charity in the seventeenth cent- 
ury, the Catholic church had enjoyed many of the excel- 
lent features of the work of the deaconesses in caring for 
the needs of childhood and the infirmities of old age. Von 
Stein, the famous German minister of the early years of the 
century, had echoed the complaint of Southey in England, 
" Why can not Protestantism have its Sisters of Charity?" 
The answer was given by a humble pastor of an obscure 
village church in the little village of Kaiserswerth on the 
Rhine. The pastor was Theodore Fliedner, whose heart 
was early stirred to sympathy with the poor, the weak, and 
the erring. It was through his efforts that the first Prison 
Society was started in Germany. In his attempts to reform 
and aid discharged women prisoners he was led to an 
intelligent conception and clear conviction of the value of 
the services of Christian women. He determined to form 
a society of deaconesses. A physician's daughter gave her- 


self as the first candidate, and a house was opened for the 
instruction and aid of the sick and friendless poor. The 
first patient was a Roman Catholic servant-girl. Such was 
the beginning of the deaconess movement of the nineteenth 
century. This was in 1836. To-day a visit to Kaiserswerth 
would be a revelation of the growth of the movement. 
Instead of the hired house, which gave shelter to the dea- 
conesses in the days of the humble beginning, there is 
a fine building of vast proportions, the Mother House of 
Kaiserswerth, to which over seven hundred deaconesses, 
scattered throughout the nations of the world, look as to a 
veritable home. Connected with this is a building called 
the " Feierabend Haus," or " Home of Evening Rest," which 
is a home for those who have become infirm or aged in 
their self-denying toil. 

There are various schools in which the deaconesses are 
given practice in teaching ; an infant school or kindergar- 
ten, where, together with other instruction, great pains are 
taken that the stories of the Bible shall be told so as to 
make them clear and interesting to the youngest child. 
There is, too, a normal school, where deaconesses are pre- 
pared for all grades of teaching ; an orphan asylum is main- 
tained, where children of the educated middle class, whose 
fathers were pastors or professors, are received ; while an 
insane asylum, built with every regard to modern scientific 
equipments, crowns an eminence just outside the village. 
Here only Protestant women are received, as, singularly 
enough, there are no questions that insane patients more 
violently wrangle over than differences of religious faith ; 
but the deaconesses go forth to nurse equally patients of 
either sect. 

At the hospital over seven hundred patients were received 
and cared for last year. The refuge for discharged female 
convicts, which was the starting point of the movement, still 
continues its good work. Over nine hundred women have 
been sheltered here, given an opportunity to turn to lives 
of virtue and goodness, and afforded every aid that true 


friends could give them. A publishing house is also con- 
nected with the institution, which issues religious books 
and tracts. The institution had only existed a year and a 
half when some deaconesses were asked to take charge of a 
hospital in a neighboring town. That was the beginning 
of work in outside stations, so that now in Germany alone 
Kaiserswerth deaconesses are at work in twenty-eight dif- 
ferent stations. But the most notable extension of the work 
is in Jerusalem and large cities of the East. The hospital 
at Jerusalem had five hundred patients last year, and over 
seven thousand outside patients were treated. There are 
also hospitals in Cairo, Alexandria, Beirut, and Constanti- 
nople. In addition there is a girls' orphanage at Jerusalem, 
another at Beirut, and prosperous girls' schools exist in 
Smyrna, Bucharest, and Florence. The homes of eastern 
lands are constantly being reached through the influences 
of these schools, and they already have had a perceptible 
effect upon the cause of woman's education in the East. 

But what is tangible and apparent in the Kaiserswerth 
field of work is the least of its results. Its example has 
stirred the heart of Protestant Germany. Similar institu- 
tions have multiplied all over the continent and have mar- 
velously prospered. 

Deaconess institutions now exist in Switzerland, France, 
Holland, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Russia, Austria, Eng- 
land, and Germany, while the countries in which these 
homes have stations are literally too numerous to mention. 
Spain, Italy, Greece, Turkey, the countries of Northern 
Africa, and of Asia Minor, as well as isolated mission stations 
throughout the entire world, are now served by deaconesses. 
The institutions that are similar to Kaiserswerth unite with 
it in a general conference held once in three years at the 
little German village where the movement first began. At 
the conference of September, 1888, nearly sixty mother- 
houses were represented ; and seven thousand one hundred 
and twenty-nine sisters were working in two thousand two 
hundred and sixty -three different fields of labor, distributed 
over nearly all countries of the world. 


The deaconess performs her duties without fee or reward. 
This is a main feature of the system. She is not free even 
to accept personal presents, for in that case unworthy 
motives might creep in. The deaconess at Kaiserswerth 
receives from the institution her modest wardrode, consist- 
ing of a Sunday suit of dark blue, a working dress, blue 
apron, white caps and collars. She has also a small allow- 
ance of pocket-money. In case of sickness she is tenderly 
cared for, and when she becomes infirm or aged in the dis- 
charge of her holy duties she knows there is waiting for 
her a room in the House of Evening Rest, the home for 
aged deaconesses. A deaconess attired in her garb, with 
the peaceful, gentle countenance that seems distinctively to 
belong to her, is a pleasant sight constantly seen on the 
streets of German cities. Her deaconess' attire is not only 
a protection, assuring her chivalrous treatment from all 
classes of men, but it is a personal commendation that 
serves her well as an introduction to opening doors that 
would otherwise remain closed to her. There are two 
classes of deaconesses formally recognized teachers and 
nurses. The training given to nurses at Kaiserswerth may 
be said to have transformed the hospital wards of Europe. 
It was at Kaiserswerth that Florence Nightingale received 
the preparation that enabled her to render such wise and 
valuable ministrations in the Crimean War, and to render 
like service to the hospitals of England on her return. On 
the battlefields of all the more recent European wars the 
deaconesses have been found caring for the wounded, min- 
istering to the dying, taking messages for home friends, 
who otherwise would never know the fate of their loved 
ones. They perform their holy duties not from any out- 
ward motive or command, but from the impulse of the 
heart that genuine Christian love inspires. 

Outside of nurse and hospital duties there is a wide range 
of activities performed by these devoted women of Christ's 
church. Some have charge of refuges for magdalens; 
others serve in penitentiaries and prisons, performing dis- 


tasteful and difficult duties with patience and devotion. 
They do not shrink from positions of positive danger. The 
Kaiserswerth deaconesses have a right to be consulted 
before being assigned to cases of contagious diseases, but 
to the honor of these saintly women it can be said that no 
instance of refusal has ever occurred, no matter in what 
form of epidemic or pestilence the duty has been presented. 

An important part of the deaconess' work is to serve con- 
gregations under pastoral direction. Deaconesses who per- 
form this service are known as parish deaconesses, and their 
work is held to be the consummate flower of the service of 
the diaconate, as it approaches most nearly to that of the 
deaconesses of the early church. 

In Paris, on the Rue de Bridaine, is located an establish- 
ment under the direction of the Calvinistic church of 
France, entirely devoted to the training of parish deacon- 
esses. The older and larger mother-house is on the Rue 
de Reuilly, in the Faubourg St. Antoine, and is under the 
patronage of both branches of the Protestant church of 
France. It is situated in a portion of the city that has been 
the haunt of the turbulent and revolutionary ever since the 
days of the Fronde. They have under their care a school, 
a hospital, a reform school, and penitentiary, and from here 
the deaconesses go forth to the gloomy prison of St. Lazare, 
to have charge of the women in the Protestant division. 
The same story of patient love and ministration can be told 
of the French as of the German deaconesses. 

In England the deaconess' cause is making notable ex- 
tension. It has now a place of its own within the Anglican 
church, and outside of the London institutions has homes' 
in the dioceses of Canterbury, Chester, Ely, Salisbury, and 
Winchester. Within the Established church, however, it is 
not to be denied that the sisterhoods have developed more 
prosperously than have the deaconess' homes. There are 
in England many independent institutions that owe their 
origin to the loving faith and persevering effort of individ- 
uals. Such are the establishments of Dr. Grattan Guinness 


at Harley House in East London, the prison mission of Mrs. 
Meredith, and Doctor Lascron's Hospital and Deaconess 
House at Tottenham. Perhaps, however, in the United 
Kingdom there is no institution so widely known or so 
extensive in its beneficent operations as the Mildmay estab- 
lishment in North London ; outside of Kaiserswerth itself 
none occupies a greater field or is doing more to commend 
woman's work in the line of practical benevolence to the 

In the German deaconess' houses the larger number of 
the deaconesses are from the social grade that furnishes 
domestic servants, although there are also among them 
ladies of education, of cultivation, and of better social 

But the English deaconesses, in the large majority, are 
ladies of gentle birth and manners, often of noble families, 
who put aside lives of ease and pleasure to devote them- 
selves to the suffering, sick, and poor " for the love of Christ 
and in his name." In the midst of the slums, the crime, 
.and destitution of the most wretched parts of London, these 
holy women pursue their calling. The course of training 
is thorough and complete. Candidates are received the 
first month at the Probation House, that their fitness may 
be tested and that they may examine themselves as to their 
motives and the strength of their calling. Those who are 
retained are sent to the training-school, where a course of 
two years' training is generally pursued. Those who are 
to become trained nurses attend medical lectures and have 
hospital practice. In addition to the studies pursued it is 
expected that a portion of every day will be spent in prac- 
tical work under the charge of an older deaconess. The 
Mildmay deaconesses, who are engaged in parish work 
under the direction of the clergyman of the parish, visit 
from house to house among the sick and poor, hold mothers' 
meetings, teach night-schools, conduct Bible-classes sepa- 
rately for men, women, and children ; hold special classes 
for working-women and girls who are kept busily employed 


during the day, and during the winter months have a 
weekly average of more than nine thousand attendants at 
their services. 

They are solving the problem of " how to reach the 
masses " by resolving the masses into individuals, and 
then influencing these individuals by the power of personal 
effort and love. Besides the hospitals under their care, 
there are Convalescent Homes in the country, a Nurses' 
Institute at Malta, and a Medical Mission at Jaffa. There 
is also a railway mission for men on duty, and special work 
for policemen and postmen, besides other lines of useful 
work that we can not take space to enumerate. 

From England the deaconess idea extended to Scotland, 
where it has found a secure lodgment in the old historic 
church of John Knox. With true Scotch foresight and 
prudence the committee appointed by the General Assem- 
bly spent nearly three years in studying the entire question 
of woman's work with reference to the church, and at last 
evolved a scheme which was reported to the Assembly in 
1886, and after further consideration by the Assembly of 
1 887 was adopted and made a part of the organization of 
the church. The entire work of women in the church is 
divided into three divisions ; the first and broadest is the 
Woman's Guild, that embraces members of Bible-classes, 
mission bands, school-teachers, and workers of whatever 
kind within the church. The next higher grade is the 
Woman-worker's Guild, into which none are admitted who 
have not attained a specified age and who have not worked 
at least two years with the approval of the kirk session. 
The third and highest grade is formed of the deaconesses 
who must engage to make Christian work in connection 
with the church the chief object of their lives, so long as 
they shall occupy the position of deaconesses. A Deaconess 
Institution was soon after opened in Edinburgh, and in the 
winter of 1888-89 three deaconesses of the church of Scot- 
land were solemnly inducted into the office. By its action 
the Scotch church has formally recognized the deaconess 


as an officer of the church, being the first of Protestant 
churches to take that measure. 

A plan similar in operation to that of the church of Scot- 
land was laid before the London Council of the Presbyte- 
rian Reformed churches last summer, and was commended 
to the churches represented in the alliance. Certainly the 
form of Christian woman's service embodied in the office of 
the deaconess is assuming an important place in the Prot- 
estant churches of Europe. Neither is it without influence 
in America. 

The German Lutheran church, influenced by the example 
of the mother church in Germany, was the first to endeavor 
to introduce into America the beneficent services of women 
deacons. In 1849 Fliedner himself accompanied four 
deaconesses who came to serve in a hospital in Pittsburg. 
The work so begun did not increase. The sisters received 
but few additions. More recently, however, the erection of 
the Mary J. Drexel Home and Philadelphia Mother-house 
of Deaconesses has given a new impetus to the movement 
among the Lutherans. The mother-house in Philadelphia 
is strictly modeled on the German plan, save that the home 
is built with such magnificence and so provided with the 
comforts and luxuries of life that no other deaconess house 
can compare with it, not even the mother-house of all, at 
Kaiserswerth. But outside environment is but an incident ; 
the spirit within is the determining quality ; and the mother- 
house at Philadelphia preserves the features and maintains 
the spirit that constitute the value of the work. 

In the Protestant Episcopal church of America the dea- 
coness work was initiated at Baltimore. There are now 
two orders of deaconesses, and also different stations of 
work, although in America, as in England, within the Epis- 
copal church sisterhoods are more influential and more 
rapid in their growth than are deaconess institutions. 

In the Presbyterian church the question of the revival of 
the office of deaconess has already claimed some attention, 
and a prominent professor, in the theological seminary for 



many successive years, earnestly recommended the revival 
of the office to the members of his classes at Princeton. 

The Methodist Episcopal church has gone further. It has 
already taken action that places it first among the evangel- 
ical denominations in America, and second only to the 
church of Scotland in Europe, in that it has accorded to the 
deaconess a distinct status in the organization of the church. 
In May, 1888, the General Conference passed the measure 
that effected this result, and it is doubtful if any other meas- 
ure taken at the Conference will be more far-reaching in its 
results than that which instituted the office of deaconess. 
The full and complete recognition accorded by the highest 
authority of the church commended it to the people, who 
have already shown a remarkable readiness to accept its 
provisions. Deaconess houses have already been started or 
projected in Chicago, Cincinnati, New York, Boston, Phil- 
adelphia, and Detroit, and many earnest Christian women 
have presented themselves as candidates. 

Viewing the facts that have been presented to you, do 
they not awaken in your mind heightened respect for the 
aid that capable, devout Christian women can give to the 
religious uplifting of the civilization of our times ? And is 
it not fitting that a world's congress of women, which con- 
cerns itself with a wide range of subjects touching the wel- 
fare of the Christian church, should give careful consider- 
ation to this phase of woman's work in the modern church? 
As ancient as the days of St. Paul, it is yet so modern that we 
in America are looking upon it as an innovation, and specu- 
lating as to its future. 

It has a future ; we may be sure of that. Firmly fixed in 
the working forces of the Protestant Episcopal church, and 
protected by its highest dignitaries ; cared for by the Ger- 
man Lutherans in America with a generosity and magnifi- 
cence that its fatherland can not equal ; become a working 
power in the Methodist denomination, and recognized offi- 
cially by the highest authority of the church ; adopted 
already by the Presbyterians of Scotland and England, and 



favored by men of influence in American Presbyterianism 
the diaeonate of women is bound in the near future to 
become a factor of church life in America. 


A word first of all with regard to organization in philan- 
thropic work, leaving women out of the question. Relig- 
ion and education, between which philanthropy has its 
logical place in this programme, have been recognized 
always as great organizing forces in human development. 
It is only very recently that philanthropy has deserved to 
be so recognized. Tradition and a perverse interpretation 
of detached scriptural texts seemed to have established a 
permanent lawlessness in the region of charity, and every 
man did, in alms-deed, what seemed to him right in his own 
eyes. Love is not in itself a disorganizing force, and yet 
the expression of it has been placed more and more, as 
civilization advanced, under restraints the most sacred and 
inviolable. That particular form of love which we call, for 
lack of a better name, " philanthropy" needs, like all other 
forms, to be strengthened and deepened by restraint, by 
enlightened self-denial, by cooperation, by organization. 
In what follows I am compelled, for lack of time, to take 
the value of such cooperation and organization largely for 

In casting about for the causes which have broadened 
women's charitable activities, one of the most important 
seems to me the new classification of charities a classifica- 
tion which will be a distinguishing mark of the centtrry so 
rapidly drawing to a close. Within these hundred years, 
for the first time in human history, the criminal, the pros- 
titute, the insane, the vagrant, the idiotic, and all other 


defective classes have become objects of care and solicitude, 
not only to the individual philanthropist, but, through him, 
to the State. In the most civilized communities there are 
still survivals of our old carelessness and inhumanity, but 
these survivals are doomed. With this tendency to include 
many things in the list of charities which were not before 
so classified, has appeared a counter tendency to exclude a 
large class of the higher educational charities to call them 
charities no longer. Now, they resent, and rightly resent, 
this classification. Many of the higher forms of helpfulness 
will not allow the word " charity "to be associated with 
their work. 

But the new dispensation has included on the one hand 
far more than it has excluded on the other ; and this inclu- 
sion has multiplied many-fold the number of new institu- 
tions and the sum of public and private charitable 
expenditure. The increasing complexity of our charitable 
system brought about an artificial division of labor between 
the sexes. Men monopolized official and impersonal serv- 
ice, women cared for the private and more personal side of 
the work. For many years the women of our country con- 
tented themselves with private efforts in homes for chil- 
dren, in hospitals, and in relief societies. In some States 
this still is all that they attempt to do, and even here their 
work is supplemented frequently by " advisory boards " of 
men, who take charge of the financial investments, and lend 
to the institutions an air of respectable solidity. 

This is a transition stage. Advancing civilization 
demands that official charity shall become more and more 
personal ; and the increasing responsibilities placed upon 
them require, on the part of our private charities, more 
practical and business-like methods. Individual women 
like Dorothea Dix, Josephine Shaw Lowell, and Katie Fay, 
who concerned themselves with the larger issues of official 
relief, not with the aim of " advancing the cause of women," 
or with any aim, however worthy, -which was aside from 
the main issue of effecting the specific reforms which they 


had in view individual women like these have proved, 
with single-hearted devotion, their ability to administer pub- 
lic charitable trusts. Such examples were instructive, and 
as other women showed a devoted interest in the work, they 
were appointed in a number of States to official positions 
which gave them a voice in the management of public 
institutions for women and children. The higher educa- 
tion of women is destined to play an important part in the 
future of public and private charities. Charitable work in 
the future will demand a trained mind and an intimate 
knowledge of social science and economics. Good inten- 
tions are no longer the only essential of philanthropic lead- 
ership ; in this, as in all departments of serious work, the 
best of good intentions will not be good enough until we 
have patiently learned before we attempt to teach. The 
social science departments of our universities offer to 
women the best possible training for a useful and honorable 

Two years ago a committee of the National Conference 
of Charities and Correction a gathering where women 
have received equal recognition with men for twenty years 
sent letters of inquiry to all the States and Territories 
about the philanthropic work of women. From the replies 
received I gather the following facts : In six States women 
serve with men as members of State boards of charities, 
having supervision of State charitable institutions ; in 
eleven States women have a semi-official recognition, 
being appointed by the legislatures or the courts to visit 
and report upon certain institutions ; in fifteen other States 
women are reported as taking a very prominent part in the 
administration of private charities ; in eleven States their 
administrative functions, both private and public, are 
reported to be very limited. 

The line of probable development is indicated by these 
returns. It must be a question of only a little time when 
women will be actively engaged in every department of 
charitable activity, and not even a special tag can then indi- 


cate what percentage of the glory is theirs in a work done 
side by side with men. In the South, where their progress 
has been most tardy, they are beginning to take a more 
intelligent interest in problems of pauperism and crime. 
The existence in any community of a group of women who 
care intensely to make things better, and who know how to 
do so, will bring them their opportunity. The true open 
sesame for women everywhere, as it seems to me, is simply 
this, " I am ready." 

Are women to have any monopoly of philanthropy in the 
future ? By no means. The division of labor will no longer 
be a question of sex, but of capacity. I know men, and am 
proud to know them, who think it only a small part of their 
duty as citizens to sit upon boards and vote away charitable 
cash ; who are not content when they have sent their checks 
upon the bank to the various charities in which they are 
interested ; but who contrive to take some time from busy 
days for personal service in the homes of the needy; who 
know and care for individual cases of weakness, temptation, 
and misfortune. If we have ever believed that it was 
woman's peculiar function to be a ministering angel, we 
have learned better. Men of the younger generation in our 
large cities are realizing more and more the pressing need 
and the privileges of personal service. 

There is always danger that women may hope for larger 
results from the more attractive, " poetic " charities, as 
some one has called them, than the facts warrant. The 
vicious and the idle were too long neglected for the more 
lovable classes of dependents; and one can not put too 
great emphasis upon the importance of prompt and 
thorough treatment of neglected evils which are a con- 
tinual menace to society. All the wisdom of men and 
women both is needed to cope with the difficulties of insti- 
tutional life and management. Wherever imbecile women 
are allowed to become mothers in our almshouses, we need 
both men and women the wisest and most devoted to 
prevent this crime. Wherever vagrants are permitted to 


use our poor-houses as temporary retreats to recover from 
one debauch before beginning another, we need both men 
and women to enforce compulsory educational work. 
Wherever juvenile reformatories, so called, are made the 
feeders of our prisons, we need both men and women to 
reform these reformatories. Wherever little children are 
kept in large institutions until they become hopelessly 
unfit for the battle of life, we need both men and women to 
place them in country and childless homes, where their 
young lives may be replanted in a healthful soil. 


The world has always confused philanthropy with charity. 
Charity is the act of giving ; philanthropy is the act of love ; 
of seeking to do good to the individual, and to the whole race 
to which each individual belongs. Charity is the giving of 
a loaf of bread to the hungry ; philanthropy is the teaching 
the women how to make the bread, provided the men have 
earned the wheat to make it with. Philanthropy is deeper, 
brighter, richer, and higher than charity. If the millions 
of dollars and the years of labor that have been given to 
works of charity had been given to the broader and more 
Christian work of elevating humanity, and broadening 
their ideas, and teaching them how to do for themselves, 
the world would be better off to-day than it is. Again and 
again have the nerves of self-respect and of self-support been 
cut by the large outlay for charity in the great city an 
outlay which amounts to millions, and does not benefit 
humanity beyond the present hour. We are to talk about 
the value of organization in promoting philanthropy. I 
want to say there can be no doubt in the mind of any sensi- 
ble man or woman that organization advances any cause. 
I shall illustrate by speaking of an organization that has 
not appeared as prominently as it would have done if our 


beloved chieftain, Frances E. Willard, had been here. We 
can benefit humanity best by teaching humanity to live 
rightly. It was Oliver Wendell Holmes who said that if a 
man wanted to be born right he had to begin two hundred 
years back. I think, if you want to promote the cause of 
humanity, you have to begin, at least, with the children. We 
must teach the children to come up into sober, earnest, 
honest, and thrifty manhood and womanhood, and then we 
shall not so much need all the display of philanthropy that 
we have. The organization I am always proud to represent, 
the Woman's Christian Temperance Association, struck the 
key-note in the kindergarten system that they have been 
establishing in all our cities. They teach the little girls the 
very things they must do in domestic life to sweep, to 
make bread, to lay the table, to cook beefsteak. Many men 
get drunk because they never have any decent cooking ; 
there is no doubt about it. But it is not the wives' fault 
that they do not have their meals well cooked. How can 
the wife cook meat or bake bread well when she has never 
been taught the art ? And especially how can she do it 
when she has to spend the most of her time trying to make 
a living, just as the husband does? Reform in these things 
can not be accomplished except by organization. No one 
society can do it. It must be a great organization spread 
over the country. It must be given prestige by women of 
culture and women of standing. 

We struck the key-note again when, in thirty-eight States 
and all the Territories, we succeeded in compelling by law 
the education of children in the effects of alcohol and nar- 
cotics upon the human system, laying a foundation there 
that could be laid only through organization. No single 
society, no woman, no matter how conscientious and ear- 
nest, could have accomplished it ; it required a great national 
organization of women. 



The purpose of this paper will be to consider the organ- 
ized work of Catholic women in respect to religion, philan- 
thropy, education, moral reform, and political liberty. 

In considering these various departments of woman's 
labor, each branch of work leads into and is the forerunner 
of the next, its natural successor, thus forming a chain of 
evolution full of suggestive thought to the student of 

In the early ages of the church there were no public or 
State institutions of charity, such as almshouses, hospitals, 
orphan-asylums ; all these were the work of the church and 
of religious houses. Throughout all the centuries until 
our own, almost all the work of women in organizations was 
carried on in cloisters. These places of seclusion and pro- 
tection were made necessary by the turbulent and warlike 
spirit of the ages in which most of these associations of 
women were founded. Hundreds of Catholic sisterhoods 
having various benevolent works for their object grew up 
and nourished in the early centuries after Christ. Many 
of these organizations, such as the female Templars, and 
other orders of women who followed the Crusaders, to nurse 
the sick and wounded, have ceased to exist with the need 
for their work ; but hundreds of these societies continue 
to-day among us, though comparatively unknown. Such is 
their spirit of humility and self-abnegation, that these noble 
women are reluctant to have the world know of their devo- 
tion to the service of others. There is no kind of loving 
service among the poor, the sick, the aged, the homeless, 
which is not the life-work of many organizations of Catholic 

Until the sixteenth century all European civilization was 
Catholic ; hence all the work of women in organization was 
the work of Catholic women. 


Early in the seventeenth century was founded an organ- 
ization of women which is to-day one of the most extensive 
and widely known among societies of Catholic women. In 
1630 Louise le Gras, a devout young widow, under the 
direction of the noble-hearted Vincent de Paul, the Father 
of the Poor, founded the Sisters of Charity. In this, as in 
all Catholic sisterhoods, the members voluntarily bind 
themselves to their order by vows of poverty, chastity, and 
obedience, either made for life or renewed at intervals. By 
these vows these women give up all that, from our worldly 
standard of the independence of the individual, we call hap- 
piness in this life. They voluntarily renounce wealth, 
home, position, friends, and family, all to serve God and his 
needy suffering children. Perhaps the hardest thing in 
the life of the religious orders is the complete surrender of 
the will in obedience to those placed in authority. In each 
country, State, or province there is a head, or mother house, 
whence are sent out missions, or colonies of sisters, to estab- 
lish branch houses wherever necessity calls them. The 
government of these sisterhoods is that of a republic, the 
superior, or mother-general, being elected for a term of years 
by the whole community. Implicit and prompt obedience 
to the superior, as to the voice of God, is the magic 
power which controls these vast organizations of women. 
Every hour of the daily life of the average religious sister- 
hood, from half-past four or five in the morning until eight 
or nine in the evening, is spent in continuous hard work, 
lightened by an hour's recreation after the midday meal and 
another hour's recreation in the evening. We, in the world, 
can form no idea of the heroism of these sisters, who for 
the love of God give their whole life to this service. One 
of the chief works of the Sisters of Charity is the care of 
the sick in hospitals. 

Of organizations of Catholic women who devote them- 
selves to the nursing of the sick there are more than thirty 
in the United States. In one of our large cities alone there 
are twenty-three orders of Catholic women, each having 


one or more establishments for the care of the sick. There 
are more than three hundred hospitals in this country 
entirely under the charge of Catholic sisterhoods. Several 
organizations of women, such as the Sisters of Bon Secour 
and the Little Sisters of the Assumption, devote themselves 
to nursing the sick in their own homes. 

The Sisters of Charity and several other orders of Cath- 
olic women take care of foundling asylums. The sisters 
who devote themselves to the service of the " least of 
these little ones " give their adopted children all a loving 
mother's care and devotion. At six or eight years of age 
each child is adopted into a good Christian home, and the 
sisters' work is done. The sisters have a kindergarten 
connected with the foundling asylum, and usually, also, a 
maternity hospital. There are between three hundred and 
four hundred foundling and orphan asylums in the United 
States under the charge of Catholic sisters. 

A more advanced stage of the foundling asylums is the 
protectory, or industrial schools, which are also the work of 
Sisters of Charity. Some estimate may be formed of the 
membership of this order when it is stated that in New 
York State alone they number over two thousand five hun- 
dred. At the protectories, or industrial schools, are received 
orphans, foundlings, and the children of parents unfitted to 
take care of them. These boys and girls are received in 
every stage of depravity and disease. Under a system of 
moral and physical cleansing and training, these children 
are brought up to be good and useful citizens. In the boys' 
department is taught every branch of mechanical work and 
trade, from shoemaking to engineering. The girls are 
trained in household work, and are taught dress-making, 
glove-making, stocking-making, typewriting, etc. So that 
when, at the ages of eighteen or twenty, these young people 
are sent out into the world, and are given positions in 
shops, factories, and offices, they are able to earn their own 

One of the most beautiful works of philanthropy is that 


of providing homes for the aged poor. The Little Sisters 
of the Poor, in their homes for the aged, shelter and care 
for all who come to them, regardless of nationality, creed, 
or color. The life of the Sisters of the Poor is a daily mar- 
tyrdom. They support their aged charges by what they 
beg from door to door in the form of broken food and cast- 
off clothing. By their wonderful French economy and 
management they are able to set an excellent table from 
the refuse food they are given. 

Besides the special organization of Catholic women for 
the care of the aged, the Grey Nuns, the Sisters of Mercy, 
and many other associations support the aged poor. The 
Sisterhood of Saint Francis was founded many centuries 
ago by its holy patron, St. Francis of Assisi. Among the 
many beautiful works to which they devote themselves 
such as the care of hospitals for the deaf and dumb, the 
blind, and the insane is the care of the lepers. There are 
many hundreds of these sisters in this country. The Order 
of Grey Nuns is the oldest organization of Catholic women 
in America. The Grey Nuns were established in Montreal 
one hundred and fifty years ago, their work being- the care 
of aged men and women, invalid soldiers, incurables, 
orphans, and magdalens. The Sisters of Saint Francis and 
the Grey Nuns, following the example of the sainted Father 
Damien, are indefatigable in their efforts to relieve the 
suffering of the Hawaiian and the Canadian lepers. The 
sisters establish schools, hospitals, asylums, and homes, and 
give the tenderest care to their charges, inevitably falling 
victims themselves sooner or later to the loathsome disease, 
through their self-imposed martyrdom. Truly are these 
sisters disciples of the great Teacher who said, " Greater love- 
hath no man than this, that a man lay down his life for his 

There are several organizations of Catholic women who 
devote themselves to the care of the blind and the deaf- 
mutes. Notable among these orders is a society of lay 
women known as the Nardins, so called from their founder, 


Ernestine Nardin. These women make a special study of 
the physical and mental peculiarities of the blind and the 
deaf-mutes. The Nardin ladies establish homes and schools 
where the boys are taught printing, tailoring, shoemaking, 
carpentering, baking, and gardening. The girls are in- 
structed in dress-making, hand and machine sewing, and 

A beautiful philanthropic work is that of the Young 
Ladies' Charitable Association. In one of our large Eastern 
cities the organization numbers over one thousand members, 
who, by a monthly subscription of ten cents each, are able to 
maintain the Free Home for Consumptives, and to give their 
patients every care and comfort. Besides the Home, the 
association conducts diet kitchens in poor quarters of the 
city, where the sick poor are daily supplied with milk, beef- 
tea, eggs, and delicacies. The city is districted, and a band 
of twenty or thirty young ladies has charge of each dis- 
trict. Consumptives are placed in the home ; and patients 
with other diseases are supported in the general hospitals. 
Every week each district band takes its turn in caring for 
the patients at the Home, in amusing them and reading to 
them, and in providing them with fruit, flowers, and deli- 
cacies. Patients are admitted to the Home regardless of 
creed or color, and may be visited at any time by clergymen 
of their own choice. The only qualifications for admission 
are poverty and consumption. A matron and trained nurses 
are in charge of the Free Home for Consumptives, and con- 
nected w r ith it are a children's library, a working-girl's club, 
and an employment bureau. 

In the United States there are more than fifty orders of 
Catholic women devoted to education. The numbers of 
women in these orders may be counted by the tens of thou- 
sands. In most of our cities there are from five to twenty 
of these orders of women, each having one, or perhaps half 
a dozen, educational establishments. Each of these associa- 
tions of Catholic w r omen undertakes some especial training 
or is suited to some particular need. There are about four 


thousand six hundred schools in the United States under 
the charge of Catholic sisters. There are half a dozen or- 
ganizations devoted to the teaching of the Indians and the 
Negroes. Notable among these is the Order of the Blessed 
Sacrament, recently established by Katharine Drexel of 
Philadelphia, to which she has devoted her life and large 
fortune. The sole purpose of Miss Drexel's order is the 
instruction of the Indians and Negroes. The foundation 
house of the Order of the Blessed Sacrament is near Phila- 
delphia. Mother Drexel proposes to establish branch 
houses throughout the South and West wherever such 
schools are needed. Many other orders are also carrying 
on this work with great success. Notable among them 
are several orders of colored women, such as the Sisters 
of Providence and of Saint Benedict. Saint Frances Acad- 
emy, Baltimore, is a school for colored girls conducted 
entirely by colored women. 

To give an account of the almost numberless educational 
organizations of Catholic women would be tedious. A few of 
the leading teaching orders will serve as types of the others. 

Probably the first society of Catholic women bound by 
their rules to the work of educating the young was the 
order known as the Ursulines. This sisterhood was founded 
in the latter part of the fifteenth century by a young Italian 
maiden, Angela Merici. The. disturbed conditions of those 
times made it dangerous, if not impossible, for women to go 
about, manage affairs, or mix with the world, unless under 
the protection of father, husband, or brother. Hence arose 
the cloister, and naturally most of the orders of Catholic 
women founded during the Middle Ages were cloistered or 
inclosed societies, whose rules forbade them to leave the 
inclosure of their convent. 

Such cloistered orders were the Visitation Nuns, founded 
in 1600 A. D., by a pious young widow, Jane de Chantal ; and 
the Presentation Nuns, established in the early part of the 
eighteenth century by an Irish lady of wealth and position, 
Nano Nagle, who saw the disastrous effect of the " Penal 


Laws " on the people of her beloved country, and farmed 
the order of Presentation Sisters to carry on schools for the 
poor. The School Sisters of Notre Dame of Namur were 
founded in France in the sixteenth century, also for the 
purpose of teaching the poor. Another long-established 
order is that of the Sisters of Saint Joseph, who number 
over two thousand in this country. Two other organizations 
widely and favorably known in this country are the Sisters 
of the Holy Cross, of whom there are one thousand five hun- 
dred members, and the Sisters of Notre Dame of Namur, who 
number moie than three thousand in the United States. 
Both of these orders were founded in France, in this cent- 
ury, and have adapted themselves to the wants and condi- 
tions of our day. In all of the academies or parish schools 
under the charge of any of these teaching orders, the most 
careful attention is given to the mental, moral, and phys- 
ical training of the children. Visiting one of the many 
thousand of these educational establishments, one is struck 
by the spirit of love and harmony, and by the admirable 

Before bringing this paper to a close, some mention 
should be made of the extraordinary work accomplished in 
the moral reform of fallen women by the Sisters of the 
Good Shepherd, an order founded at Caen, France, three 
hundred and fifty years ago. 

The sisters use no compulsion in dealing with their 
charges ; the whole relation is that of love and confidence. 
They seek to carry out in their work the spirit of our divine 
Saviour toward Mary Magdalen. In the industrial schools 
the sisters teach the fallen women and girls trades and 
handicrafts, to enable them to earn their own support in 
honesty. Above all, the sisters seek to teach these women 
the principles of virtue, and that true self-respect which 
comes from the consciousness that life holds for them 
unlimited possibilities in careers of purity and integrity. 

I should like to say a few words about the great good 
work that is accomplished by the Sisters of Mercy and 


other organizations of Catholic women in visiting jails, 
penitentiaries, hospitals, reform schools, etc. 

In the limited space of this paper I have been able to 
make only the briefest mention of a few out of the thousand 
works of religion, philanthropy, education, moral reform, 
etc., carried on to-day by organizations of Catholic women. 

Whole volumes might be written on any one phase of 
these works of benevolence. Gradually the world is learn- 
ing what it owes to the Catholic church and to the work of 
Catholic women. 


In the Hebrew cosmogony, the world was incomplete 
without woman ; with her creation her organic equality 
with man was at once assured. As soon as she had shown 
her ingenuous desire that they should " be as gods, knowing 
good and evil," had fearlessly sought knowledge at the 
threatened sacrifice of life, and had generously made the 
man share with her what she had found so good and pleasant, 
she was accorded a higher plane, and was acknowledged 
" the mother of all living ;" the mother of all the quickening 
powers of mind and body ; the maternity-element in all that 
lives; she is recognized in this ''philosophic legend" as 
the divining, exploring, discriminating component of the 
universal mind. 

In verification of these statements, the Hebrew fathers, in 
their narration, present her as an integral part of their plan ; 
not an accessory, but a prime force, not directing, but shap- 
ing in her intuitions the development of that mission for 
which they felt themselves chosen. In the pictures of 
patriarchal life drawn by the Scripture writers, without bias 
of praise or censure, we feel that the accomplishment of 
the divine promise to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob was 


ascribed by them as much to the sagacious insight of their 
women as to the rigid obedience of the patriarchs them- 
selves to Jehovah's commands. 

The Mosaic code, which by common consent has antici- 
pated the thought and experience of mankind by many 
centuries, and is surely not antiquated even to-day, has 
bestowed equal rights and imposed equal duties on women 
with men, wisely, however, regarding the necessary and 
salutary boundaries of the sexes. No woman who im- 
presses upon her child the commandment, " Honor thy father 
and thy mother, that thy days may be long in the land 
which the Lord thy God giveth thee," can for a moment 
doubt her allotted place on the universal dais. Side by side 
she rules with man, side by side she shares his dignity and 
his honor. And from the sanctity with which the Hebrews 
invested the function of mother was doubtless developed, 
in later times, that aureole that was made to encircle the 
head of the Jewish woman Mary, the Mother of Jesus. 

Woman took no part in the priestly services, as the laws for 
purification debarred her from continual entrance into the 
sanctuary; but this did not interfere with her privilege to 
study the law, to prophesy, and even to administer the civil 
government. And never did queen or empress rise to higher 
eminence than Deborah, who dwelt under a palm-tree in the 
mountain of Ephraim, and to whom the children of Israel 
came for judgment. And in the days of King Josiah, when 
the admonitions of strange gods had supplanted the worship 
of the God of Israel in the land, when no man could explain 
the book of the law that had been found in the temple while 
it was undergoing repairs, a woman was sought out who pos- 
sessed the knowledge of the long-forgotten book " Huldah, 
then studying in the college at Jerusalem." In those an- 
cient days, among the Hebrews, the " higher education" 
was already open to women. She seems to have enjoyed 
all the privileges, even to assessments for the repairs of the 
temple. We have denied the women of the temple to-day y 
who are subject to assessments, any greater representation 


in its government ; though it is the sentiment of some lead- 
ing rabbis of the present time, as also of many laymen, that 
44 woman suffrage " should become an article in the constitu- 
tions governing temples and synagogues, extending, how- 
ever, only to women without husbands. 

After the return of the Jews from the Babylonian cap- 
tivity, and their rehabilitation in their own land, they were 
long in a colonial state. Their women remained quiet ; it 
was not until the fierce Syrian persecution attempted to 
force Greek idolatry on the Jews that the strength and 
steadfastness of woman's pious heart were brought into 
notice. The heroism of Hannah in exhorting her seven 
sons to suffer death in her presence rather than forswear 
the God of their fathers, the God of Israel, could not fail to 
inspire her people with a determination to die before they 
would yield their sacred inheritance. 

Though the Maccabees achieved independence for Judea 
and restored the glory of their ancient kingdom, it was but 
an ignis fatuus, the phosphorescence of a decaying state. 

In the conflict between Greek and Judaic culture, parties 
arose, known as the Pharisees and the Sadducees, whose 
strife often reached such violence that it menaced the 
safety of the nation. During these contentions a woman 
appeared, Queen Alexandra, who not only maintained 
peace for ten years, but, apprehending the danger of extra- 
neous influence on the Jewish polity, so closely interwoven 
with the Jew r ish religion, established throughout her realm 
schools for youths of sixteen and upward, where they could 
study their sacred law and become its maintainers and 
defenders. She also endeavored to suppress in her king- 
dom all panderers to superstition that moth of religion. 
That noble work was continued and improved by another 
woman, Martha, wife of the high-priest Joshua-ben-Gam- 
ala, who instituted schools for little children, that they 
might not grow up in ignorance of their history and their 
religious duty. Thus, along with learned men, who, amid 
all the turbulence of the internecine quarrels, never aban- 



doned their study of the law, there were women who 
adopted more practical means to preserve it by instilling it 
into the children the parents of the coming generation. 

The policy of cosmopolitan Rome was rather to absorb 
lier captives into her own state as contented subjects 
aggrandizing her supremacy than to separate them by 
intolerance. Hence, but for the lamentations over the loss 
of their territory, the Jews dwelt in peace, involuntarily 
disseminating by their advent among the pagans the germs 
of new thought. 

Up to the eleventh century the Jews enjoyed, though 
fitfully, the immunities of the various countries in which 
they settled. In the ambition of Christianity to become 
the dominant power in the world it adopted the aggressive 
policy of conquest by force as surer than the peaceable one 
of conquest by conviction ; the Jews, who found in it only 
strange accretions to their own religion, and no fulfillment 
of the Messianic rule of love and peace, were stolidly 
tenacious of their rational, monotheistic faith, and never 
surrendered it. Hence, they were driven from place to 
place, thrust out of one country to await the same fate in 
another, and robbed of some privilege with every banish- 
ment; they were pushed back to the Ghetto, and their 
intellectual and material activity beyond its narrow limits 
was asphyxiated. During this period of insecurity and 
apprehension men, much less women, had no heart to cul- 
tivate anything but resignation ; yet the preparations for 
religious observances, multiplying in proportion to the 
exclusive attention bestowed upon them, demanded such 
special knowledge that in the thirteenth century a rabbi 
issued a manual of religious duties for women, which he 
deemed it as necessary for them to study inasmuch as 
they had charge of all the preparations for these duties - 
as for the men to study the Talmud. The wives and 
daughters of the rabbis became the chief students and 
teachers of this branch; many of them also studied the 
Talmud ; and so learned did they become that their decis- 


ions on certain points acquired rabbinical authority. 
Noted among them was Dolze, the wife of a rabbi in 
Worms, who knew every rule concerning forbidden food, 
and the entire service as chanted in the synagogues, and 
gave open lectures on these subjects on the Sabbath. In 
Bagdad dwelt a daughter of a rabbi, so versed in the Bible 
and the Talmud, that she gathered around her thousands of 
pupils to whom she publicly lectured. 

The Protestant Reformation gave an impetus to the pro- 
founder study of the Bible. Christian women gained such 
proficiency in the Hebrew language that they read and 
wrote it fluently. What wonder, as Kayserling says, that 
Jewesses studied their own literature with more zeal, gain- 
ing power with knowledge. Thus in 1 709 A. D. Sara Oppen- 
heim wrote a prayer-book for the home, called the " Esther- 
roll "; Krendel Steinhardt, wife of a distinguished rabbi, 
received the name of " Rabbizin " female rabbi on 
account of her scholarly acquirements ; she understood so 
thoroughly the ritual for festivals that on one occasion her 
husband, unable to explain clearly a passage in it, sought 
her assistance. Bienvenida Ghirondi, who lived in the 
eighteenth century, while a young girl, held Talmudic dis- 
putations with the greatest Hebrew scholars of her time, 
and later taught her son and other young people the 
Hebrew grammar and Bible, and the commentaries of 
Maimonides and Raschi. 

In the forced wanderings of the Jews they sought refuge 
wherever a liberal rule permitted. We find them in 
Prussia, under the Fredericks, in whose successive reigns 
enlightenment was encouraged ; and this enlightenment 
was in no small degree accelerated by the Jew, Moses 
Mendelssohn. This " golden age " of German literature 
brought into the field Hebrew women of culture ; the most 
famous salons in Berlin were those of the Jewesses, Dorothea 
and Henrietta Mendelssohn, Henrietta Herz, and Rachel 
Lerin Varnhagen ; also in Weimar did the salons of Fanny 
von Arnstein and her sister rank among the first. Though 


the substantial, sparkling intellectuality of these women 
attracted to them the master-minds of the age, they con- 
tributed apparently nothing to their own religion, yielding 
to a vanity which prompted them to cloak it. Yet it is 
recorded that Rachel Varnhagen, the most noted of them, 
said in her last hours, " With a sacred joy do I think of my 
origin, and of this whole vast destiny by which the oldest 
remembrances, the most distant times and places, are with 
the newest conditions bound together. What for so long a 
time was to me the greatest ignominy, the sorest sorrow and 
misfortune, that I was born a Jewess, I would not now part 
with for any price." As ideas float in the air before they are 
condensed into positive shape in any single mind as a basis 
for action, it might be possible that this free intercourse 
between Christian and Jew had some vague bearing on the 
movement for " Jewish Reform," which originated in Ger- 
many, and which is nothing more than a nearer assimila- 
tion with modern customs, without sacrificing the essentials 
of Jewish belief. 

Judaism had no firmer, more trustful, more hopeful, yet 
lethargic, adherents than its English followers ; but it was 
the women who were first responsive to the awakening 
spirit of progress. Anna Maria Goldsmidt, Grace Aguilar, 
Hester Rothschild, and others have transmitted with 
rekindled ardor the pure glow of their ancestral faith to 
succeeding generations ; and in the noted house of Roth- 
schild their women have made the worth of Judaism per- 
meate and sustain the benefit of their great wealth. In our 
own fair land the Jew finds his soul in consonance with the 
heavenly refrain of liberty. His religion reaches out to 
the farthest border-line, and his women bravely help him. 
Already in the early part of this century did Miss Rebecca 
Gratz institute the first Jewish Sunday-school in this country; 
and since then the religious school, presided over largely by 
women, has become an adjunct to every Jewish congrega- 
tion. Among women conspicuous in this work are Emma 
Mordecai and Alice Dalsheimer. In these schools patriot- 


ism to country and constancy to religion are inculcated as 
the bases of all enduring worth. Probably, in the present 
age, nowhere have Jewish women battled so valorously for 
her people as here. Emma Lazarus, well known to the 
English-speaking world, again swept the Hebrew lyre, that 
its passionate tones might reach the heart of her suffering 
people, to bear unto them hope, and to bear unto the hearts 
of others, tenderness and compassion. An innovation in the 
Jewish service, due to a Jewess, Miss Peminah Moise of 
Charleston, S. C., was the singing of English hymns. Miss 
Moise wrote a book of English hymns for the first Reform 
congregation in her city ; many of them are embodied in 
the various hymn-books now in use in most of the temples 
and synagogues, to which also Emma Lazarus and Deborah 
Kleinert have contributed. And now the Hebrew woman, 
for the first time in her checkered career, will soon assume 
the priestly office. Already two intrepid women, marshal- 
ing the way, Ray Frank of Oakland, Cal., and Lena Aron- 
sohn of Hot Springs, Ark., are studying for the Jewish 
ministry in the Hebrew Union College at Cincinnati. 

The rabbis have said : " The world stands on three 
pillars law, worship, and charity." In private life the 
Jewess has always helped to strengthen these pillars ; but 
now she too " lets her light shine that they may see her 
good works " ; and with her kindergartens, her industrial 
schools, her homes for the orphan and friendless, her sis- 
terhoods of personal service, she enlists in the great " army 
of peace " which is battling to-day under that old Mosaic 
command, " Thou shalt love thy neighbor as thyself." In 
every humanitarian path does she enter. The first female 
resident physician in a general hospital in New York City, 
under male governors, was a Jewess, Dr. Josephine Wal- 
ter ; the first female dentist of Germany was Dr. Fanny 
Sternfeldt, a Jewess of Munich ; the fifth training-school 
for nurses established in this country was founded by a 
Jewess, Mrs. Alma Hendricks of New York ; the largest 
scholarship ever bestowed on an art student was given by a 


Jewess, Mrs. J. H. Lazarus of New York ; a Jewess of Lon- 
don, May Abrams, has become the first female factory 
inspector there ; and the latest projected movement in New 
York City, to empower trained female nurses to become 
inspectors of tenement districts, has been started by a 

I feel that I have been called to-day, insignificant as I am, 
not only to speak for my Hebrew sisters, but also to speak 
to my Christian ones ; to say that we Hebrew women, 
with all our pride in our origin, our prophets, our poets, our 
warriors, our statesmen, our artists, our scholars, our phi- 
lanthropists, our Moses, our Isaiah, yea, our Jesus, know that 
we belong to the roll of the world's worthies ; and we dare 
claim the just recognition due us. In culture, in labor, in 
charity, in every virtuous walk, we are in step with you 
nay, our shoes were already worn when you began the 
march ; and am I too bold when I say that in martyrdom 
to us belongs the palm? 

It is the history of a religion, its inspiration, its motive, 
its strength, its efficacy, that -must decide for or against it. 
We no longer live in a mist of superstition, in which natural 
phenomena are accepted as miracles. The necessity to find 
a new country ; the judgment to select a fruitful one ; the 
courage to conquer and hold it; the ability to govern it, 
making it a light unto mankind, under the faith that there 
is a guiding, ruling power in all this, Hebrew history is a 
prototype of American history. Shall the Jews and their 
descendants be hated for it ? Shall they be ostracized as 
aliens instead of welcomed as heirs ? 

We ask you, our Christian sisters, to study our history ; 
and let enlightened reason aid you to perceive and obliter- 
ate the misconceptions of the Christian mind ; even as to- 
day you are obliterating that other misconception, through 
which your just recognition as co-workers in the world's 
advancement has been so long withheld. 



Of all the departments of activity now open to woman, 
none is more important than the office of religious teacher. 
The requisites for this office, and what it entails upon the 
one who fills it, should be considered. 

Woman at present, more perhaps than man, leads by 
example. Her influence, like the greatest forces in nature, 
is silent and subtle. What she is within makes itself felt 
without. Grand as are her achievements in art, in science, 
in literature, in all lines on which humanity climbs, a noble, 
exalted womanhood outstrips them all. All education and 
experience, therefore, which tends to enlarge her nature, 
develop her latent powers, bring to her recognition the best 
of herself, are valuable. The education which comes from 
study and the education which comes from life are equally 
important in the training of woman as a religious teacher. 
While the education of the schools may make woman a 
preacher, it must be coupled with the education which 
comes from living, to make her a religious teacher. 

Woman needs to grow and ripen through experience to 
minister to souls. She must be able to say to the suffering 
and sorrowing, "I know"; to the wearied and wandering, 
" I see "; to the hopeless and despairing, " I feel with you." 
She must be able to stand on all levels, to descend to all 
depths, to show the way. For her there must be no high 
and no low. She must see in every soul only the child of God, 
only a member of the one body, even as she is. She must 
have this religion of the heart as well as a religion of the 
head, that she may not give to the hungry ones who clamor 
for food, a stone, instead of the living bread which alone 
can satisfy. 

It is the essentially feminine, the motherly, element which 
makes the religious teacher, as it is the masculine that 
makes the theologian ; and souls need instruction far more 


than they need theology. Where theology ends, religion 
begins ; where the theologian fails, the teacher succeeds ; 
where the arbitrary and unyielding decisions of theological 
creeds repel, the feminine intuitions invite ; where dogma 
drives through fear, the teaching which is the impulse of 
the feminine soul wins through love. 

Woman can not be a religious teacher and a dogmatist. 
Her instincts are naturally above her creeds. They lead her 
to serve her God by serving her fellow-men. How she can 
best do this is the kaleidoscopic problem continually con- 
fronting her ; and she sees a clearer road and larger possi- 
bilities before her when she elects to be the teacher rather 
than the preacher. 

As this teacher she will perceive the truth in science as 
well as in religion. Recognizing the injustice of the 
divorce which has existed between these so long, she will 
bring them together, uniting them in the marriage which 
shall beget an offspring the science of divinity. The 
world has waited long for its ecclesiastics to perform this 
marriage ceremony, and the time has come when woman 
assumes the role of officiating priest. 

Instead of " Believe, only believe," she cries, " Understand 
and prove, and you may know." 

It is no disparagement to the masculine nature to affirm 
that the feminine is nearer to the Infinite, and more 
closely in touch with it. That is the most successful cler- 
gyman to-day in whom the feminine quality is well devel- 
oped, although he is the one most likely to be tried for 
heresy. He has his own revelation, which often stands 
opposed to his doctrine, that Zacharias revelation, from the 
right side of the altar, which strikes him dumb ; for, filled 
with the God-knowledge which floods his being, he can no 
longer expound mere man-made creeds. 

Doctrinal theology is the formulation of the masculine 
intellect, and is hard, rigid, and unyielding in its limita- 
tions. God-knowledge is direct from the Oversoul, and 
woman is its receiver and transmitter. One of her first 


requisites as a religious teacher is to keep herself recep- 
tive, to seek more in the within than in the without. Then, 
instead of wrath, judgment, and retribution the mascu- 
line view of God she will proclaim love, charity, and peace. 

The coming religious teachers of the world will be the 
feminine souls, whether these be found in men or in 
women. The divine descends into the world only through 
them, and of them only can the Christ be born. For the 
masculine souls, developing only on the plane of the intel- 
lect, the divine remains the unknowable. 

Another requisite for woman as a religious teacher is fear- 
lessness. She must not be afraid to teach what her whole 
being recognizes as truth. If she makes the purest and 
noblest womanhood her standard, the ideal to which she 
bends every energy, she will not lead her people astray. 

If, with all her heart, mind, and soul, she desires only 
truth for the sake of truth ; desires it that she may impart 
it ; desires it that she may point the way for seeking feet to 
follow ; she will not err. 

Courage is a most essential requisite for a religious 
teacher; the courage of conviction and self-abnegation. 
No one is fit to hold that office, man or woman, who can 
not put his cause before himself, content to be veiled by it. 

Woman, more than man, can be self-sacrificing. She can 
lay all upon the altar, keeping nothing back, asking no 
reward for herself, though demanding all respect for her 
work ; content if mankind be helped forward through her 
efforts ; if the cause she represents be uplifted and honored. 

To-day woman is able to pursue power, in large measure, 
along the same lines with man, competing with him as an 
individual, asking no special consideration, only equal 
opportunities and privileges. As yet, enjoyment of polit- 
ical power is largely in anticipation, but she is tasting the 
delights of the intellectual sufficiently to have a vigorous 
appetite for more. Through intellectual development she 
has become comparatively independent, where before she 
was helpless ; and she enjoys, as only centuries of repres- 


sion can enable her to enjoy, the larger freedom which is 
now hers. Financial independence is possible to-day for 
the young woman who has brain and determination enough 
to secure it. It enables her to cultivate and develop her 
intellectual faculties, and makes her less inclined to enter 
any relation which does not give her scope for their 

We have brilliant women to whom men pay intellectual 
homage, and whom other women regard with admiration. 
And yet the religious teachers can not come from these, if 
moral and intellectual ability is all they offer. Intellect- 
uality without spirituality is a flower without perfume, to be 
admired but not enjoyed. Intellectuality without spiritual- 
ity first blunts, then covers, then smothers woman's intui- 
tions; and only the intuitive woman can be the greatest 
religious teacher. Intuitions are God's method of speaking 
to the soul. They contain the highest wisdom. But the 
purely intellectual woman, for whom everything must be 
objectively demonstrated, is first deaf and then dead to 
them. Her city of refuge is not " the secret place of the 
Most High," but, at the best, a liberal agnosticism. 

Neither can the religious teacher come from the ranks 
of the mere religionists, those who are ruled by their 
emotions and make no demand upon their thinking facul- 
ties ; for to live in the feeling only, is also to deaden 
the intuitions. From these come exhorters, and their 
work, as far as it goes, is good, a part of the whole ; but 
they are not religious teachers. 

The ideal religious teacher will be the woman who can 
iinite the ideal and the practical ; who can find the essence 
in every aspect of truth offered by the scientific, the philo- 
sophic, and the religious world, and, inspecting it in the 
light of the never-dying flame upon the altar of her own 
soul, bring it forth again with the divine seal upon it. She 
will teach principles more than personal views, insist upon 
deeds rather than theories, proclaim right-thinking the 
basis for God-like living. She will be the woman whose 


intellectuality does not stifle her emotions, whose feelings 
do not dwarf her intellect; one in whom both sides of 
her nature are well-developed and held in equilibrium ; 
strong, courageous, with fine moral sensibilities, unselfish, 
neither seeking commendation nor fearing condemnation ; 
a new humanity will be born of her labors, composed, not 
of Methodists, Baptists, Presbyterians, Episcopalians and 
Catholics, but of those who, conceiving the Christ ideal the 
divine pattern to which all mankind is to conform, press, 
forward as one body to actualize it. Charity for every 
form of belief, loving kindness for every traveler in this 
King's highway, whatever gates he elects to pass through 
on his journey, will characterize the members of this body. 


All thoughts of woman as a religious teacher can be 
brought under the four words, pulpit, press, pedagogue, 
and parent, and these four P's we shall briefly consider. 

First the pulpit : Woman was first admitted to the min- 
istry in this country in the year 1853, an d while she has 
since then become better fitted for this vocation, through 
higher education, yet comparatively few of her sex present 
themselves as candidates for this office. This is well, for 
not many women have the necessary qualifications. 

A good preacher needs to be fearless, not afraid to doff 
the garments of tradition and don such as are in keeping 
with the religious fashions of the times. The conservative 
and sentimental nature of woman unfits her in a measure 
for this work. The nineteenth century preacher must also 
be an explorer ; and our clerical women must be willing to 
search for truth everywhere " in the heavens above, the 
earth beneath, or the waters under the earth " if they are to 
obtain an intelligent hearing. The work of the ministry 


demands so much time for study that women ought not to 
undertake it unless they are willing to remain single. 
Domestic cares and maternal duties are too absorbing for 

Consider next the press : It seems that the people of 
to-day are all eyes, while in the Middle Ages they were all 
ears. There was comparatively little reading done then ; 
but nowadays most learning is acquired from the printed 
page. Now, young and old, ignorant and wise, jump for 
books, magazines, and newspapers, much as a bluefish leaps 
for his morning meal at daybreak. In the realm of liter- 
ary production, woman has a high place ; and she teaches 
religion as truly through the printed page as she can in the 
pulpit, and far more extensively. To prove woman's power 
through the press I need but mention the names of Frances 
E. Willard, Harriet Beecher Stowe, Jennie June, Frances 
Ridley Havergal, Louisa M. Alcott, Elizabeth Stuart Phelps, 
Susan Coolidge, Lucy Larcom, and Alice and Phcebe Gary. 

Third, let us consider woman as a pedagogue : We have 
seen that some are fitted for the pulpit, and that more are 
qualified to write for the press ; but into the field of instruc- 
tion multitudes may enter. Ethical culture has not been so 
banished from the school-room that the power of a life 
resplendent with Christian virtues, can not be felt. A holy 
life is a mighty religious influence, but of course it can 
speak with more power in the Sunday-school or junior 
endeavor society, for there the children meet to drink 
copiously from the fountain of ethical knowledge. 

Our last consideration is woman as a parent or mother. 
In the sphere of motherhood she reaches her climax of 
opportunity and usefulness. Woman should never delegate 
religious teaching to others, for no one can instruct her 
children so well as herself. This ought not to be trans- 
ferred even to the church of God. 

When the late Victor Emanuel sought to remove the 
nuns of the Sacred Heart, some noble ladies waited upon 
him and implored him to let them stay, declaring that their 


daughters could not receive proper religious instructions if 
the pious sisterhood were removed. The king listened 
attentively, and then said, " I know that there are at this 
moment many ladies better qualified to educate children 
than are the Sisters of the Sacred Heart, and these pious 
teachers," continued he, bowing courteously, " are your- 
selves, their mothers." 


I rejoice in the larger life of women in the church. The 
church has a right to the best gifts of noble women the 
mothers and the sisters who are doing the great work of 
life. " It is gold too precious to be lost, and we are dying 
for want of just such material." Yet in days not very 
remote, " on a mere punctilio," they excluded from active 
service in the church feminine elements that would have 
increased its power. As a noted clergyman said, "and so 
we have our bean-poles of propriety, but not a single morn- 
ing-glory twining about them and blossoming out to the 
glory of God." 

The Creator hath set the sons and daughters side by side 
at the hearthstone. It is a prophecy that the sexes are to 
work together. 

You too, dear workers, have a high and holy mission. 
The best way to teach the suffering that God is their father 
is to show them that we are their brethren and sisters. 
Sometimes a loaf of bread will do more to convince a soul 
of the reality of religion than all the arguments you could 
offer. A kind action will often do more than a spiritual 
suggestion. The church must prove its religion by its 
philanthropy. It was Christ's way. In all his miracles 
Christ said, virtually : " That ye may know what I would do 
for your soul for your higher nature let me show you 
what I would do for your body." 


And we know that this matter of doing good needs tact, 
wisdom, love, knowledge, and strong common-sense. To do 
the best work there must be a lighthouse in the head, as well 
as a lighthouse in the heart. It is a curious fact, that until 
very recently the church seems to have taken it for granted 
that anybody who truly loved the Lord could go right out 
and do wise and hard work. The supreme hindrance is not 
so much a lack of talent as a lack of energy and willingness 
to work. 

The hindrance above all other hindrances is the failure 
to recognize and accept the mighty agency of the Holy 
Spirit's power. It is a lack of faith in this heavenly impe- 
tus which makes so many good causes stagger. There is 
a spritual momentum. God's power in the soul of man, 
like God's power in the physical frame, springs it to health- 
ful activity. We are like tropical plants in a frigid zone. 
There is in every one of us a capacity for unfolding which 
needs only the kindling rays of the Holy Spirit of God. 
The only way to wait for this grace of God is as sailors 
wait for the breeze expand the heart to his favoring gale, 
and let him fill the sail. 

Just one other point, and I am done. There is no greater 
hindrance to the training of workers than the distinction 
which is drawn, even by professing Christians, between 
secular and religious work. Just as if one must go apart 
from his secular tasks to get at his religion. A religion 
that has everything for a future world and nothing for this 
world has nothing for either. A religion that neglects this 
life is a mother who neglects her babe, thinking that man- 
hood will set everything to rights. Genuine religion is not 
alone a preparation for some future world, but a grand 
instrument for the improvement of this. Workers 
must be trained to understand that God's laws in nature 
are as sacred and obligatory as are his laws in revelation. 
Obedience to both brings happiness. Disobedience brings 
misery. Teach workers to remember that great fact in 
sociology, that "pain and disease, destitution, vice, and 


crime the great evils of our social condition are the 
results of violated laws ; and that a good Providence will 
answer our prayers for relief when we do our part, by 
teaching the ignorant to obey physical laws, on which 
health depends ; moral and spiritual laws, on which happi- 
ness depends; and social and economic laws, on which 
plenty and comfort depend." 


Woman teaches that which she believes. Sometimes she 
does this in the class-room where she is publicly recognized 
as a regularly employed instructor. No biography of Gar- 
field fails to include a most honorable mention of Miss 
Almeda Booth. To her came the blessed privilege, as a 
teacher of James A. Garfield. on Hiram Hill, of deepening 
and strengthening in the growing boy those well-rooted, 
clearly denned, and firmly believed principles of the ever- 
lasting gospel of the Son of God that were first given to Gar- 
field by the example and precept of his mother, and after- 
ward crowned him the universally esteemed, Christ-an- 
chored statesman. Miss Booth taught what she believed. 

In Portland, Ore., the Christian Woman's Board of Mis- 
sions sustains a Chinese mission. The instructor is a native 
Chinese, Jen Hawk, who has received a college education 
in this country. By invitation from the Union Ministerial 
Association of that city he holds membership in that body, 
and is eagerly and respectfully heard in their proceedings. 
Last October, in a national missionary convention at Nash- 
ville, Tenn., this Chinaman, from a full heart of gratitude, 
testified before the hundreds assembled that a woman, Miss 
Sue A. Robinson, years ago, in the city of St. Louis, where 
he had come a lad with his father from China, patiently and 
prayerfully sat by him and taught him not only to speak 
and read in English, but to look to the Saviour of souls who 


alone can give any lasting value to intellectual attainments. 
So we see woman sometimes a religious teacher in the 
Sunday-school. Always she teaches what she believes. 

How vitally important it is that woman shall use all of 
her now limitless privileges for learning, in all directions, 
to seek and to possess the correct religious belief, that her 
teachings may be the truth which alone can really train 
the men and women of character who are to-day the world's 
greatest need. 


I wish it were possible to express in words the gratitude I 
feel in associating with you on this happy occasion ; yes, 
with those who have sought to elevate humanity, in the 
removing of prejudice, in the battle for right, in the great 
advancement for womankind which has been effected 
through the efforts and energy of these noble women 
assembled in this Congress and those they represent 
throughout the world. 

I wish to refer in brief to our people in far-off Utah, to 
tell you of the blessing of God that has been upon our 
efforts, in the midst of a desert country, in sustaining our 
poor, gathered from all nations. We acknowledge our 
Father's care through it all, and give him the honor and 
praise. I appreciate the grandeur and dignity of this 
august assembly, the order which prevails, the earnestness 
of the speakers. I wish I could tell you of the inspiration 
that filled my soul as I looked upon those assembled here, 
whOvSe souls beat in harmony with my own to do good, by 
maintaining honor, and uprightness, and virtue, which is 
acceptable to God, and which results in true happiness. 







Here we come together as a great body of women. We 
intend to close our exercises on Sunday. But the one thing 
for which the disciples met is going to be absent. We are 
not to have the Lord's Supper celebrated, but many of us 
want that great international service. If woman has any 
place in the pulpit she certainly has a right to administer 
the ordinances ; as evangelical believers we have no right 
to omit that supper, for Christ has invited us to show forth 
our love for him by celebrating it, that we may live unto 
life everlasting. I want every earnest, praying woman, 
believing in prayer and in God, to have that celebration, 
that we may show forth to the world our love and faith in 
that ordinance. 


Jesus gave us a religion, but not a theology. Paul clothed 
the religion of Jesus with a theological garb. So long as 
the masculine principle was dominant in the race we had 
a theology, but we know now that theology is short-lived, 
for the pendulum is swinging to the womanhood of the 
race, and the feminine principle is working to promote 

The standards or ideals established by theology were so 
remote that men despaired of reaching them, and were con- 
tent with a lip-service, throwing the responsibility of con- 
duct upon the church and the priesthood. " The woman 
tempted me and I did eat " has always been the plea of the 
individual for his misconduct under the theological regime. 

Woman is gladly laying down the power which she has 
had over man during ages past ; the power born of depend- 
ence, of sex indulgence, and of carnality, and she is recog- 


nizing that her power is of the Holy Spirit ; that as sin came 
into the world by her, so by her must come redemption. 
She must demonstrate that love to God includes love to 
man. She must prove that love is divine, and not carnal at 
all. She must depart from intellectuality and realize within 
herself, and give forth, a religion for men to live by. The- 
ology is of the intellect, and the intellect is cold. Religion 
is of the heart, and the heart is warm ; from its wellsprings 
comes life eternal. Emerson says : " Great thoughts come 
from the heart ; " and Ruskin says : " All true science begins 
in the love, not in the dissection, of your fellow-creatures, 
and it ends in the love, not in the analysis, of God." 

Love is the attracting power of the universe. Man must 
follow where love leads. As surely as the magnet attracts 
the needle will womanhood, ascending Godward, draw man 
after her. Emerson says : " Whatsoever the woman's heart 
is prompted to desire, the man's will is simultaneously 
prompted to accomplish." 


True mysticism is rarely understood ; it is not the con- 
templation of Deity alone, after the devout manner of the 
Hindu, but putting into immediate active work the knowl- 
edge of the Christ within, so as to give us the glorious 
results of the incarnation of this light which lights the 
whole world in every age and every clime. I speak always 
of the grand message which Jesus Christ delivered, not of 
poor imitations. All literature, art, and science shall be 
re-made under the teaching of the Light, with its amazing 
energy and infinite power. The body alone represents the 
soul. Jesus healed both soul and body, and the effect of 
this alchemic light and life was so great that Professor 
Drummond states that " day by day his disciples grew, and 


the people whispered, ' They have been with Jesus.' " The 
body is a great mirror, reflecting the state of the soul, and 
therefore not to be despised. 

To overcome all things as Jesus overcame is the light 
and life of true Christian mysticism, the work of the Holy 
Spirit ; all else is astral ; and the hour is approaching when 
its mighty Babylonian fall is decreed, and its reign will be 
gone forever. Christ says, " I am Alpha and Omega, the 
beginning and the end." This completes the circle. Is 
there any other religion or philosophy which is not ellip- 
tical, which has not something left out ? The climax of 
language is reached when we read what Jesus sent through 
his angel to Saint John, the mystical revelator, in the 
twenty-first chapter of Revelations. 

In the third and the eighth chapter of Proverbs is given 
a picture of the female principle of Deity, and as we uplift 
our eyes to this resplendent womanhood, the motherhood 
in God with the fatherhood is calling on us, as no other 
voice can call, to " come up higher; work for woman." It 
calls woman to a remarkable destiny, as joined to the incar- 
nated Most High, to Christ Jesus, for the regeneration of 
the race. Following this light around the whole world we 
shall become blessed, radiant, crowned with many crowns. 

But shall woman go forward alone ? Shall not man share 
this glory and blessing with her ? Can she not be an instru- 
ment in helping him escape from his terribly intense 
activity in the accumulation of wealth ? She desires the 
divinity and elevation which flow from the Christ-refined 
home, the love to God and one's neighbor, wherein both 
love and gospel reign, rather than the luxuries which come 
from the enslavement of man to the mammon of unright- 
eousness. To woman this message has come, and not in 
vain. As surely as the white cross has been planted on our 
flag this highest mystic symbol of equality (preceding 
the crown) so shall all nations move forward and upward. 
There shall be no more want and poverty, but peace and 
plenty throughout all lands. 


As this light is so closely related to the Order of Mel- 
chizedek, in fact coming through it, it may be interesting to 
many to hear a few words concerning that order. Mrs. 
McPherson, a distinguished literary mystic of Scotland, 
says : " There have been three utterances of Melchizedek, 
Genesis, Psalms, and Hebrews, in the Bible, and the fourth 
titterance is now at hand." As this order was organized in 
1872, her prophetic saying is verified. In the working of 
this Order of Melchizedek the fourth light has been placed 
in the north, which means woman. In Masonry the north 
is still a place of darkness. Thus we see the progressive 
character of the Order of Melchizedek concerning woman as 
she will be under the full glow of this universal light. The 
equality is established ; the even cross has its completion, 
around which the circle, the Omega, can be drawn. Plato 
affirmed that God geometrizes ; thence this white even cross 
must move around the globe. 

I approach this fourth utterance with awe and reverence, 
and any word of mine is powerless to convey all that is 
meant by Melchizedek. This power is spirit, and emanation 
from Deity ; its very essence is eternal. If the greatest 
preacher, Saint Paul, did not convey fully to us all the 
prophecy of the fourth utterance, I deprecate criticisms of 
my feeble tongue. It remained for Saint John the revelator 
to look down the stream of time and give us the consum- 
mation of the ages, the paradise again restored to earth, 
into which the power of evil shall not enter. Immortal 
youth awaits the race. Unto you, women, I call again to 
make yourselves ready ; for, " Behold, the bridegroom 
cometh," and through you, as transformed within this 
divine union with Jesus Christ, the only light and life, a 
race shall be born with whom God will dwell and go no 
more out forever. Sickness, sorrow, pain, and death, the 
last enemy, shall be destroyed ; there shall be a new heaven 
and a new earth, wherein shall dwell righteousness. 



When Jesus spoke to his disciples concerning his second 
coming, he described the suddenness of it as comparable 
to the lightning " which cometh out of the east and shineth 
even unto the west; so," he said, " shall the coming of the 
Son of Man be." 

Is the light in the east of which we think to-day that 
swift symbol which is indicative of the Lord's sudden 
appearing? Jesus rebuked the hypocrites of his day 
because they understood the physical signs of the face of 
the sky, and of the earth, and yet saw not the spiritual 
significance of the time in which they were living. 

"The judgments of the Lord are just and righteous alto- 
gether ; " and this great land which he has given to us for 
our inheritance, rich in all mineral wealth stored in the earth 
for man to appropriate to his legitimate uses do you not 
know that the Lord will ask us to render an account of this 
stewardship ? America is rich in all that is needed to bring 
comfort to the physical nature of man ; is she also cultivat- 
ing that spiritual wealth which alone can bring comfort to 
the heart and soul ? Man is a complex being ; "he does not 
live by bread alone, but by every word that proceedeth out 
of the mouth of God." His soul must be fed ; and in this 
age of the world the soul-hunger is increasing daily as the 
friction of civilization develops more and more the spirit- 
ual consciousness of mankind. To those who are watch- 
ing, many signs appear indicative of a change in the race 

The growing interest in psychic phenomena in all coun- 
tries and among all peoples shows that the race is rapidly 
discovering within itself a new set of faculties, a new species 
of power; thought-transference, hypnotic suggestion, and 
occultism in various forms are absorbing the attention of 
many, and are becoming popularized with other phases of 


science in these democratic days. The question before us 
is, What use will the race make of these newly discovered 
powers ? They are instruments of spiritual warfare which 
may be consecrated to its uplifting, or desecrated to bring 
about its downfall. The greatest production of a nation is 
its noble men and women. The greatest promise to Zion 
was that it should be said of her, " This man was born in 
her." No nation can be really great without the quality of 
ideality in the individual and in the race. 

I verily believe we are even now entering upon an era of 
this world's history more important than the earth has ever 
witnessed since our Saviour Jesus Christ was born at Bethle- 
hem ; for the destruction of Jerusalem which followed after 
his first ministry on earth was but an epitome and a type of 
the destruction which is doomed to come upon all govern- 
ments or institutions of any kind founded upon force, and 
not upon the divine attribute of love to God and man. 

The watchers on the mountain-heights proclaim the 
dawning of a new day. There are streaks of morning 
redness in the sky which declare that " the Son of Right- 
eousness shall rise with healing in his wings." The light 
in the east to-day is the light of the world, " the light 
which lighteth every man which cometh into the world." 
The commandments which Jesus gave to a few fishermen 
in the land of Judea nearly two thousand years ago have 
become the standards by which kings must rule ; for in the 
commandment, " Thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all 
thy heart, with all thy soul, with all thy strength, and with 
all thy mind, and thy neighbor as thyself," is concentrated 
all the wisdom of the ages wisdom which, if carried out 
in the governments of the world, would speedily transform 
this earth into a paradise. 

" The Word was made flesh and dwelt among us," and 
that dwelling of the Godhead in the flesh of humanity was 
in itself the prophecy of the reconstruction, purification, 
and redemption of mankind, and its final restoration to all 
the powers and attributes of sons and daughters of God. 


It behooves women of this present day to study the part 
which woman enacted so nobly eighteen centuries ago. 

It has been truly said that woman knew her Saviour. 
Jesus is called the " desire of women" and the "desire of 
nations." The Blessed Virgin accepted her election at the 
hands of God, exclaiming, " Be it unto me according to thy 

Women followed their Lord through his life, and minis- 
tered unto him of their substance ; no woman denied him, 
no woman betrayed him. Pilate's wife protested against 
his condemnation, while the daughters of Jerusalem wept. 
At the foot of the cross stood three women and one man 
John, the beloved disciple, most loving and feminine in his 
nature. Mary Magdalen, first at the tomb, beheld him 
after his resurrection, and proclaimed the joyful tidings to 
his disciples. Are not these significant facts that we 
should do well to ponder ? Seeking to know God's will to 
us in this our day and generation, what may our ministry 
be in his second coming to the earth? Are we waiting, 
like the Blessed Virgin Mary, until the Lord shall regard 
the lowliness of his handmaidens ? May we seek to know 
the*will of the Lord, and to do it in the coming days of trial ; 
and by our visions of the heavenly Jerusalem may we 
inspire the hearts of men with that divine faith which may 
remove mountains. O women of this bountiful land ! unto 
you are committed unseen treasures which you should bring 
forth for the world's uplifting. The spiritual forces of the 
universe are at your command, through your power to ally 
yourselves with the Son of Man, Immanuel " God with 
us." That is the name that we should seek to know him 
by ; and we should make our houses of earth so pure, so 
sanctified, that he may dwell in them as he dwelt in the 
home at Bethlehem. 

Is this a heavy task that is laid upon us ? He said, " My 
yoke is easy and my burden is light." Is not the world 
weary of sin ? Can we not bring down Jerusalem the 
vision of peace and let its holy walls encompass this fair 


land ? " Where no vision is, the people perish." For the 
sake of the perishing world, let us hold to the vision of that 
heavenly and eternal peace which follows, and is the crown 
of righteousness. 


What is the value of organization, first, to the individual 
religious life ? and second, to the problems of human help- 
fulness ? 

The second includes the first. Human helpfulness pre- 
supposes love for humanity. Love, the one divine and 
godlike attribute, upspringing in the human heart, is a 
stream whose source is the heart of God. The stream of 
our religious life is brighter for running so near to other 
streams as to catch the music of their flow. Alone, we may 
wander, and drift, and dream ; united, we gather the joy 
of companionship, the grace of sympathy in service. It is 
blessed to find other prilgrims traveling on the same jour- 
ney ; to go on by their side ; to halt where they halt ; to 
get broader and sweeter glimpses of the glory of the way 
by seeing through others' eyes, and from others' points of 
view ; to find one's own work more blessed because others 
rejoice to help ; to grow into gratitude that in the great 
tasks God has set to nobler souls than ours, each little life 
may have its little share. 

Still further blessed is organization in religious life, in 
the stimulus of emulation that comes in work that many 
share, and in which each must do his part. Great strength, 
too, is there in the consciousness of one's own forces many 
times multiplied in the larger hope of high accomplish- 
ment, and the gladness of greater success. 

Yet these most shadowy outlines are only a few hints at 


the answers that might be given to the question of the 
value of cooperation to the individual religious life. 

And as to the value of cooperation on the part of women 
in Christian helpfulness, what are we to say? Simply, 
that almost all the results of womanly Christian helpful- 
ness, since first the world began, are due largely to the 
cooperative principle, working upward and outward, until 
the tendency to economize the highest forces crystallized 
into one form or another of organized work. 

In order to note this tendency to multiply power, first by 
sharing and then by combining, we need not go back to 
listen to the song of Miriam, who, stirred to the depths of 
her soul by her nation's peril and its victory, gathered the 
maidens together to sound with her the timbrel, and to 
join with her in the song, "to him who triumphed glo- 
riously." The song was never her own, and by herself she 
never sang it ; but the one thing she did do was to call the 
women together, and that fact has kept the timbrel sound- 
ing down through the ages even from that day unto this. 

Even in the dimness of the medieval days, whenever the 
truer instinct changed women who were rivals into allies, 
there followed progress in refinement, and pleasure, and 
power. Women learned, without the higher motives, how 
to win and use the world for herself ; but it remained for 
religion to win and use her highest forces for the world. 
Witness the noblest of patrician women, the proud daugh- 
ters of Marcellus, following Saint Jerome ; witness the 
women in the army of martyrs ; witness the Roman 
church's calendar of saints. 

There is no time and no need to dwell upon the cloistered 
communities, about whose chapel-altars beat the love and 
longing of womanly hearts, like one long, unbroken wave 
of worship, a wave that, ebbing, overswept many a saintly 
soul with the mystic's solemn joy. Neither is there need 
to trace the development of the later orders of mercy, and 
service, and charity, which, says a famous modern divine, 
have done more in the last three hundred years to make 


converts to the Roman church than all the theologians and 
the clergy put together. 

The reaction against the cloistered life was not a reaction 
against cooperative labor. It sprang from a recognition, 
on the part of the wisest, of the fact that common and not 
isolated service is good, not only for those who are min- 
istered unto, but for those who minister as well. 

The Reformation emphasizes this fact. The Protestant 
church had its tradition of Phcebe, and its hints at an order 
of widows. The Lutheran church held a man large enough 
to apprehend woman's underlying heart-principle of mercy 
and love, and to see that the world had only to avail itself 
of her unused forces to find in her an all-embracing mother- 
hood, that made her outstretched arms an orphanage for the 
world. It was a man who had the wisdom to use what the 
Lord had provided, and so he founded the Order of 
Deaconesses, under whose united labors, in their early fields, 
pauperism was banished, idleness passed away, and pain 
soothed by their loving care became a blessing. They were 
not dispensers of soup and bread alone, but students of that 
problem that vexes the world to-day, as to how to stem the 
ever-rising tide of destitution and of sin. 

How well they wrought in that early time, the spirit that 
has descended upon the modern deaconess bears witness. 
A spirit that, like a strong stream, running for a time under- 
ground, has again burst forth to the light, and goes on its 
way with all fresh, new, and lovely life for body and soul. 

And all this, and much more, is true of the foreign mis- 
sion societies. What a cooperative force they are, these 
women who, staying at home, have organized every hamlet 
in the land, have created in every church its woman's 
auxiliary, its young people's union, and its little children's 
mission bands. 

There is a great temptation in this subject to follow all 
organized movements of workers down through the years 
and to trace the thread of Christian principle on which 
their beads of good works have been strung. In the limita- 


tions of our space this is impossible. We may, however, 
give a moment to the evidences of the power of the Christ- 
ian spirit as shown in one of the largest organizations in 
the world. 

That the Woman's Christian Temperance Union is 
throned to-day at the center of the world's encircling 
organizations of women, is not so much because its bat- 
tle is against the foe of childhood, motherhood, and the 
home ; not because its grand crusade is one of rescue to lost 
manhood ; not because of its numerous departments of 
human helpfulness, but because it struck this one chord 
to which the hearts of women answer. It made a union ; 
that was great. It made a temperance union ; that was 
greater. It made a Woman's Christian Temperance Union, 
and that, and that alone, made success in the highest 
degree possible. 

It was the voice of Christ that called together the white- 
haired and white-souled w^omen of that first crusade, and it 
is the Christ in the union, the Christ in the temperance, 
and the Christ in the woman that has been, in all this move- 
ment, the secret and source of its success and power. 

One glance at our civilization shows that there never 
before was a time when, at the heart of every movement, 
large or small, lay such consideration for the welfare of 
human beings as exists to-day. Never before were so many 
school-houses built, and so much money expended for the 
education of the illiterate. Never before were there such 
wise projects for preventing pauperism and disease. Never 
before was the spirit of Christianity so active in human 
affairs ; never was religion so patient with ignorance, so 
pitiful to suffering, so lenient toward superstition, so ready 
to shake off the shackles put upon it by bigotry, and to 
represent, by its living activity, the power of the love of 

Notwithstanding this, we are forced to recognize that still 
the whole world groaneth and travaileth in pain, and the 
problems of race conflict, of human freedom, of education, 


of labor, of social economics, of whatever touches the resto- 
ration of human souls and human bodies these problems 
beat against the heart of humanity to-day as they beat 
against the heart of Christ in that far-away time when men 
questioned how, in spite of all this misery and sin, could 
come the kingdom of God. 

For generations pulpit and press and reformer have been, 
as they are to-day, striving to arouse a sense of responsibil- 
ity, and induce woman to take her share in the regenerative 
forces of her time. The Woman's Christian Temperance 
Union recognized that a large class and its membership 
of two hundred thousand also shows this are no longer 
in need of this exhortation. They were ready for work 
not for all work, not for every work, but for some work if 
only the right place could be found in the mighty mosaic of 
God's temple, built of human lives, for their bits of precious 

To seize the already existing tide of aspiration and 
desire, to save it from exaggerated and sentimental self- 
spending, to guide it to the highest uses, and to make it 
one of God's regenerative agencies has been the effort of 
the Union. 

There are two oriental proverbs, one of which says, " A 
woman's wisdom is of the devil;" and the other, " Igno- 
rance is a woman's jewel ; " and there is a glint of truth in 
the saying, for the measure of a woman's knowledge must 
always be the measure of her responsibility ; and her care- 
free brightness, the sans-souci sparkle of selfish existence, 
must ever catch a shadow from a sight of the world's woe. 

But, as once a queen stood ready to part with her jewels for 
the faint hope of adding a new domain to her kingdom, so 
the women of this nineteenth century part cheerfully with 
that comfortable ignorance that knows no burden, for others' 
weal, for the chance of adding a new domain of truth and 
justice to their country, or of opening a new hope to a race. 

It matters little how we classify our work ; as social, scien- 
tific, legal, educational, philanthropic, secular, or religious 


the light by which we have seen the world's need, and 
the power by which we adapt woman's work to the need, 
both radiate, directly or indirectly, from the cross. To rally 
multitudes of women to work in its spirit, until the world is 
drawn to its feet, and its principles become the renovating, 
redeeming power at the heart of human work and life 
this is the ultimate power in organization, and this is doing 
in very truth what Columbus did in words, claiming, not in 
the name of one, but of many, queens, the nation's work for 



As a distinctively woman's work there has not been so 
much organization in religion as in other branches of activ- 
ity, and until woman is organized in every church there will 
not be much organized work. Of course woman organizes 
in church affairs in raising money, in doing the kitchen- 
work at oyster-suppers, the painting and papering and car- 
peting of the church, and holding church fairs ; but this is 
not distinctively church work, although it has a great deal 
to do with that which paves the way to religion. The clubs 
that women have entered for industrial and philanthropic 
work have helped them to know how to work together. 
Woman has been the great organizer in home life, and 
because she has been so successful in this organization it 
has come to be said, " Home is her only sphere." But she 
has begun to realize that outside of this there is a larger 
sphere for organization, by which she will be enabled to do 
better work in religion. 

What is religion ? It is not a theory ; it is not a creed ; it 
is not a gathering of certain formulas. Religion is the 
underlying current of human life which carries it upward. 
It is the science of the highest development of humanity. 
It is that something which makes life worth living. It is 
that something which puts the key in the gate and lets us 


into the so-called heaven. It is that which saves you and 
me. and forgives the universe. It has to do -with the morn- 
ing, noon, and night of life. It helps men know how to 
trade, and talk, and how to look up into the heavens, and 
see that God is there, and feel the divinity in the stillness 
of the night. 

Truth and goodness are not parts of religion ; they are 
religion. Religion is that which makes us know not only the 
fatherhood of God, but also the brotherhood of humanity ; it 
sees God in the clods as well as in the stars, and makes us 
know that in every atom we shall find a divine purpose and 
a divine inspiration. There is no place where God is not. 


" There is neither Jew nor Greek, there is neither bond 
nor free, there is neither male nor female ; for ye are all 
one in Christ Jesus." So says Saint Paul in the third chapter 
of Galatians ; and a few verses below he adds, " God sent 
his Son, made of woman, made under the law ; that he 
might redeem them who were under the law ; that we might 
receive the adoption of sons/' 

" Neither Jew nor Greek " - yet to the present day nation 
rages against nation ; " neither bond nor free " - but cent- 
uries passed before the voice of the church could procure 
for those in servitude more than a slight mitigation of their 
wrongs. How has it been with the third part of the 
prophecy, " neither male nor female " ? From the first days 
of Christianity we can see the beginning and the course of 
its fulfillment. Softly as the dawn, gentle as the power of 
that woman of whom Christ was made, arose the influence 
of women in the church. From the earliest days of apos- 
tolic times we see them, in all modesty, but with the valor 


of men, taking their share of work, of peril, and of com- 

To prove by quotations from great authorities that this 
recognition of the just claims of women was the natural 
as well as the supernatural result of the Blessed Virgin's 
place in the scheme of the redemption would be to fill the 
short space allotted to this paper with a list of illustrious 
names, and to leave that list unfinished. Beside the figure 
of the sacred humanity of Christ there stands his Mother, 
the feminine impersonation of wisdom, fortitude, grace, 
mercy, purity ; as far below her Son as the created is below 
the creator ; yet offering a standard of womanly perfection 
so exalted that it urged forward to maturity one element of 
civilization, while others toiled for centuries, only to have 
their importance acknowledged by the noblest, most en- 
lightened spirits of each age. Nay, to this hour there are 
claims of humanity which cry vainly, in the name of Christ 
and his church, for recognition, and the crimes against them 
hide behind the shield of virtues, such as justice, prudence, 
liberty, patriotism, and valor. 

I will not touch on the dangerous ground of theology ; I 
appeal to history to show that public opinion was so purified 
by the veneration felt for the Virgin Mary as to lift at once 
the service of women in the early church to a position of 
dignity ; to hold it at the same high level when the simple 
relations of Christians toward each other became involved 
with social and political combinations ; and in time to make 
the protection of distressed or oppressed women one of the 
holiest duties of the clergy and of the patrician class. We 
have the women of the apostolic age, beginning with those 
halcyon days when, " continuing daily with one accord in 
the temple, and breaking bread from house to house, they 
took their meat with gladness and simplicity of heart." 
The Blessed Virgin was the direct guide of the women of 
the earliest church. Tradition tells us that "she spoke 
little, but she spoke freely and affably ; she was not troubled 
in her speech, but grave, courteous, tranquil." Who in 


reading this does not recall the manners of religious women 
of our own time ? In convents are still found the exquisite 
manners which spring from a perpetual consciousness of 
God's presence. We often see in pupils of convent schools 
the same deference, sweetness, and dignity. Perhaps they 
have not as yet in perfection the " higher education," but 
time will soon bring that about ; and they have the highest 
education to-day in possessing a perfect standard of wo- 
manly behavior, drawn from the household of Nazareth. 

But the scene changes ; political problems become entan- 
gled with religious questions ; a more active participation 
in the trials and perils of men is called for, and in the 
arena, on the scaffold, in banishment and persecution, we 
find that there is in Christ neither male nor female. 

In the thirteenth century, painting, poetry, and theology 
all united in lifting on high the ideal of womanhood 
through the veneration of " Our Lady"; for then she was 
OUR LADY, so called through the devotion of the knights of 
chivalry, who saw her in all women, and found for her a 
thousand lovely epithets. " Our Lady of Liberty," cried 
captives; " Our Lady of Sorrows, " moaned the afflicted; 
" Our Lady of the Cradle," prayed mothers ; " Our Lady of 
the People," cried those who saw in her the elevator of 

Dante calls her " Ennobler of thy nature " in that mag- 
nificent apostrophe, which so satisfied religious feeling that 
Chaucer and Petrarch, nearly one hundred years later, para- 
phrased it in words as beautiful as Dante's. Saint Thomas 
and Saint Bonaventura among theologians, Giotto and 
Cimabue among painters, were her panegyrists. No won- 
der that in the succeeding century we have two women of 
transcendent gifts the Saint of Siena, controlling the youth 
of her city and molding the political events of the day ; and 
the Saint of Genoa ranked among the theologians of the 

Meanwhile, through the ages preceding the thirteenth 
century, three phases of civilization had tended to develop 





the talents of women and to show their powers. The 
feudal system, though in after times it was flung off as a 
most grievous yoke, was the creator of domestic life in dis- 
tinction from wandering life. The wife of the lord was of 
consequence ; his companion when he was at home, his rep- 
resentative when he was absent, especially in the Holy 
Land, for such separations lasted perhaps for years. Thus 
the crusades formed a second influence upon the develop- 
ment of women ; for, the head of the family being absent, 
the wife was forced to bear great responsibility and to act 
as regent in a sphere more or less extensive. The third 
external influence was chivalry, which made all women 
objects of romantic devotion, either as inspirers and patron- 
esses, or as sufferers, to be defended against the evil part of 
the human race. 

We can not linger over the period of the Renaissance, 
familiar to many through descriptions as various as the 
minds which have delineated its wonders. It brings us to 
the culmination of art, and to the close of the ages of faith, 
so called by those who had but little of the gift of hope. 
With the decay of religious art there came a spirit of lux- 
ury, far more perilous to religion than persecution can ever 
be. The extravagant self-indulgence of the upper classes 
aroused rebellion on the part of the people ; revolutions 
changed the face of the civilized world, and, while tearing 
off veils from hidden evils, checked civilization, and, above 
all, retarded the intellectual development of women. A spirit 
of scoffing and cynical incredulity possessed society. Many 
of the clever women of that day recall to our minds the 
dissolute women of pagan times. The average position of 
a good woman was merely that of a notable housewife or 
of a frivolous belle in the gay world. Where was now the 
spirit of chivalry, which should have defended women from 
the mocking spirit which prompted the farcical drollery of 
" Les Precieuses Ridicules " / 

But, beautiful to record, the heroines of religious life 

sustained the best traditions of their sex, and showed them- 


selves daughters of Mary. Many new congregations arose ; 
founded by women, and the ancient orders were preserved 
in their integrity. Education of a simple and wholesome 
kind was given in convent schools, and a foundation laid 
ready for the best development of feminine training when 
time should be ripe for it ; and, in imitation of our Mother, 
religious women were always to be found at the foot of the 
cross. Wherever there was adversity, hard work, or dan- 
ger, they stood ready to meet the crisis. Tabor could do 
without them, Calvary they claimed as a right. For women 
living in the world the pure ray of light which streams 
from the first century to the twentieth has been sometimes 
obscured; but for religious women there has been no mist 
rising from the miasma of self-indulgence, no smoke from 
the fires of vanity to hide that light ; and that it still shines 
for us all is due in part to their heroism in preserving 
unbroken the noblest traditions of womanhood. In the 
present century we owe much to women who have used 
their great gifts as nobly as any of the heroines of the 
early or medieval church to Madame Craven and Madame 
Swetchine, Lady Georgiana Fullerton and Miss Mary Stan- 
ley, and in our own country to Mrs. Petre, Mrs. George 
Ripley, and Miss Emily Harper. 

We stand at the threshold of the twentieth century, and 
muse on the future that it holds for spiritual and intellectual 
women. Does the church ask less of them than of their 
ancestors in the faith? It asks more, for the privileges 
which formerly belonged only to a few are now generally 
diffused. There is not a material invention of the present 
day which can not be bent to a spiritual purpose. The 
girdle put round the earth by electricity binds the world 
and the nations of the earth together, and the great deeds 
done in one quarter of the globe belong to the rest of 
humanity. Shall we lose courage while there are Christian 
colonies in the heart of Africa and martyrs for the faith in 
China ? But we have no thought of losing courage ; we 
claim all that is highest in modern education, in modern 


ingenuity, and unite ourselves to the traditions of the past, 
going back nineteen hundred years to the household of 
Nazareth, to study the spirit which should animate domestic 
life, life in communities, and that complex existence led by 
those who have not the protection of either the one or the 

Once more let us look toward her who is, in the words of 
Saint Sophronius, " the exaltation of humanity." We will 
not take as our interpreters Newman, Faber, or Mr. Aubrey 
de Vere. We will look where there might seem small 
chance of finding sympathy. We will let Shelley speak for 

Seraph of heaven! too gentle to be human, 

Veiling beneath that radiant form of woman 

All that is insupportable in thee 

Of light and love and immortality! 

Sweet benediction in the eternal curse! 

Veil'd glory of this lampless universe! 

Thou moon beyond the clouds ! Thou living form 

Among the dead! Thou star above the storm! 

Thou wonder and thou beauty and thou terror! 

Thou harmony of nature's art! Thou mirror 

In whom, as in the splendor of the sun, 

All shapes look glorious which thou gazest on. 


I have been requested to give an account of the work 
done by the Sisters of the People, which is the organiza- 
tion that I represent. Before I do so, however, I think that 
in a few words I would better describe the origin of the 
sisterhood, and the way in which it is conducted. 

Previous to my husband's appointment to the West Lon- 
don Mission, five years ago, we had both felt the want of 
organized work for women in connection with the Christian 
church. We had deep respect for the sisterhoods of the 
Anglican and Roman Catholic churches, and recognized 


the magnificent work they had done ; but were anxious that 
places should be opened to earnest Christian women, 
where, free from life-long vows and cramping discipline, 
they might engage in the form of religious or social work 
to which they felt specially drawn. 

We were told by many people that it was utterly impos- 
sible to establish a community of women who would work 
together on lines siich as these ; that vows, in some form or 
another, for at least a limited period, were necessary ; and 
that work could not be properly conducted and carried on 
without rigorous discipline. 

The attempt to establish such a sisterhood as ours was an 
experiment, and even those who had the matter most at 
heart had their doubts and fears ; but after five years we 
can honestly say that the experiment has met with a success 
such as we hardly dared to hope for, even in our most 
sanguine moments. I do not deny that an organization 
based upon principles so broad and free as ours has its 
special difficulties and drawbacks. A system of complete 
subjection and rigorous discipline is in some respects more 
easy to work. But we distinctly recognize the rights of 
women to their own individuality ; we wish to give them 
free scope to use whatever powers they may possess, and to 
develop themselves on their own lines and in their own way. 
We began with four sisters, including myself, and we have 
now about thirty-four actively engaged in work. 

In my travels about the country I had been struck from 
time to time with the number of refined, educated women, 
who were interested in the condition of the masses of the 
people in our great cities, who took to heart the social 
problems by which we are surrounded, and who longed to 
do something for the spiritual and physical well-being of 
the poor and unprivileged. It was this class of women 
especially whom we wished to enroll in our ranks. I know 
that many humble and devoted women have toiled as Bible 
women and visitors, and many more have done noble work 
in the ranks of the Salvation Army ; but, after all, there is 


a work that can be done by those who have enjoyed the 
privileges of refinement and culture, and by them alone. 
Hitherto I had observed that anybody, even if she had 
failed in everything else, was thought good enough for 
mission work, but we \vanted to bring home the idea that 
no one was too good for mission work. I had seen many 
women of the educated classes, who were longing for some 
useful work to do, who were spending their lives in com- 
fortable and luxurious homes, engaged in an aimless round 
of trivialities, when they would have been thankful if they 
could have joined in such work as ours. 

We chose the name " sisters" advisedly. We had no 
wish merely to copy the name used by the Roman Catho- 
lic and the Anglican churches, and we wished it to be 
understood in a democratic rather than in an ecclesiastical 
sense. It was the name that most perfectly expressed the 
idea that we wished to embody. We intended to establish 
an order of true sisters of the people ; we wanted women 
who would lay aside all pride and snobbery, and who 
would go among the degraded and unprivileged as their 
true human sisters and friends. Our idea is that we must 
share all we have and are, with those among whom we 
work, and that those very privileges of refinement and 
education are given to us in order that we may employ 
them in shedding sweetness and light upon other lives. 

Every candidate for the sisterhood comes at first on pro- 
bation, which lasts for at least three months. At the end 
of that time, if everything is satisfactory, she is formally 
received, wears our uniform, and enjoys all the privileges 
accorded to members of the sisterhood. The greater num- 
ber of our sisters live together in one large house in Fitz- 
roy Square, though we have two or three other branch 
establishments where one or two reside. The community 
life is as simple and homelike as it can possibly be. We 
have no rules except such as would be maintained in any 
well-ordered house, and every sister is trusted implicitly 
and absolutely. We encourage individuality, and each is 


free to carry on her own work in her own way, provided 
that she succeeds. 

When we find that a sister has capabilities for some 
special work, we allow her to devote herself entirely to it, 
and to develop her own ideas and methods. In this way 
we get a high degree of thoroughness and efficiency, 
because, not merely does the sister perform a round of 
duties, but her whole soul is given to her work, and she is 
determined to make it " go," somehow or other. If one 
plan does not succeed she tries another, and is constantly 
on the qui vive for fresh ideas and new experiments. 

The cost of the sisterhood has been partly met by the 
general funds of the West London Mission. In addition to 
this we have a special sisterhood fund, which is maintained 
by small annual subscriptions from those who sympathize 
with us in the work we are doing. This is gradually 
increasing, so that we hope, in a short time, the sisterhood 
will pay its own way, and will be quite independent of the 
general fund of the mission. 

We do not allow any difference to be made between 
rich and poor sisters. All are treated alike. No one is 
allowed to pay for board and lodging, although if she has 
the means and chooses to do so she can give whatever sub- 
scriptions she thinks fit to the sisterhood fund ; and to a 
sister, who has no private resources, we give a small sum, 
just to cover necessary personal expenses. We admit 
members of all churches so long as they are in sympathy 
with the objects and aims of our mission ; and they are per- 
fectly free to attend the services of their own churches 
when not on duty in our mission. 

We have at this moment in our ranks several members 
of the Church of England, as well as members of many 
Nonconformist churches; and we have so far solved the 
problem of reunion that we all work together most harmo- 
niously. I think it hardly occurs to us even to ask to what 
church the different sisters belong. 

I must now, however, try to give you some idea of the 


work that we have done during the last five years. It is a 
difficult task, because in the short time allotted to me it is 
almost impossible to give more than the barest outline of 
our different branches of work. Our sisters all begin with 
visiting in the districts surrounding our various mission 
centers, and so far as the very poor are concerned we con- 
sider this personal visitation and influence the very back- 
bone of our work. The typical district visitor is generally 
looked upon as a person who goes about distributing tracts 
and soup tickets, and who tries generally to ram religion 
down the people's throats. Our aim, however, is to go 
among the people as their real human sisters and personal 
friends, to make them feel that we really care for them and 
love them. We get to know their characters and surround- 
ings, their difficulties and temptations, their errors and 
sorrows, and to be so thoroughly in touch with them that 
we can understand the point of view from which they look 
at things. The ideas of life, morality, and religion held by 
people who have lived all their lives in one room are some- 
what different from our own ; and there is a tremendous 
distinction between downright, deliberate sin and that 
fatal weakness and degradation brought about by the ter- 
rible circumstances of their lives. In our experience, by 
far the greater number of people are weak and helpless 
rather than wicked. 

This knowledge is not gained in a day, or a year, and at 
first it was difficult to make the people believe that we 
had no motive of self-interest behind all that we were 
doing. But when once you get poor men and women really 
to believe that you care about them just as you care about 
your own personal friends in your own class of life, your 
influence over them is unbounded, and their confidence and 
affection are touching in the extreme. True Christ-like 
love is the only power which can bring about moral refor- 
mation and advancement. 

We have had striking proof of this in the work of one of 
our most valued sisters, who had great power with the 


lowest and most degraded type of women. They were so 
low that it was almost impossible to get them to any church 
or mission hall they were drunk and immoral but with 
infinite patience and tenderness, Sister Agnes visited them 
and cared for them ; and gradually they grew to love her, 
and to believe in her love for them. She told me that she 
had often to visit a woman for days, and weeks, and months, 
before it was possible to mention religion. But true human 
love seemed to make it possible for them to realize the divine 
love, and the power which God does give to those who look 
to him ; and as a result their lives in numerous instances 
are completely changed ; they have become sober and more 
self-respecting ; new hopes and aspirations have dawned ; 
and they are trying to live up to the light they have. 

It is, of course, absolutely forbidden ever to proselytize. 
Those who are in the habit of going nowhere on Sundays, as 
is too frequently the case, we invite to our halls, but we 
never attempt to induce those who go to churches or chapels 
to come to us. We are welcomed by Roman Catholics, for- 
eigners, socialists, and infidels alike. They look upon us as 
their friends, and trust us. 

Besides this moral and spiritual influence, we interest 
ourselves in the questions of the hour, which so deeply 
affect the happiness and welfare of the working classes. 
We enter heartily into the temperance movement, and are 
allied with the British Women's Temperance Association 
for that purpose. We talk with the men in the workshops, 
get to know the papers and books they read, and discuss 
social questions with them. 

We have actively assisted in the formation of women's 
trade unions, and endeavor to interest women in social and 
political questions that specially affect the position of women 
and helpless children. We help in the school-board and 
county-council elections, and we took our part in the gen- 
eral election last summer. 

All the different branches of work that we have started in 
order to help the people and brighten their lives, have 


arisen out of the personal knowledge we have thus gained 
of their wants and surroundings. We soon found that the 
poor women who were obliged to go out to work needed a 
day nursery, where the babies could be taken care of during 
their absence. We have therefore established a flourishing 
creche, which is under the charge of a sister who gives her 
whole time to the work. 

We have also established a nursing department, and have 
among our sisters six fully trained hospital nurses, who 
nurse the poor in their own homes. They work also under 
the guidance of our medical director, and spend their time 
in ministering to the sick and dying. It is difficult to real- 
ize how much the poor suffer in times of sickness. Living 
all together in one room, without any of the most ordinary 
appliances for the sick, often unable to provide either nour- 
ishment or medicine, their sufferings are terrible. No 
work that we have done is more blessed than that done by 
the nurses. From our own dispensary they can supply 
medicine, clean sheets, old linen, and sick-room appliances ; 
and, in cases of poverty, as long as the illness lasts, they 
provide suitable nourishment. We have another branch of 
work in our convalescent country home in Gloucestershire, 
also under the charge of a sister, where we send people to 
recover health and strength ; and where we give hundreds 
of tired workers who are not actually ill a pleasant fort- 
night's summer holiday. Our medical director has also 
conceived the beautiful idea of opening a home for dying 
people. It is impossible for the London hospitals to retain 
hopeless cases, and many poor sufferers return to their 
wretched homes, where they linger for weeks in agonies till 
death mercifully releases them. We have had awful- cases 
of consumption, cancer, and other lingering diseases ; and 
we shall shortly open a hospital containing about sixteen 
beds, where patients in a hopeless condition will be received ; 
and where everything that medical skill can do to alleviate 
suffering will be done ; and where the consolations of Christ, 
and loving, womanly care, will soothe the last hours of the 


We do all we can to bring brightness and variety into 
the gray, monotonous lives of the dwellers in the back 
streets. Time fails me to dwell upon our numerous clubs 
and social entertainments, both for grown-up people and 
children. We have boys' clubs, girls' clubs, lantern lect- 
ures, and concerts of all kinds. At one of our halls we 
have established what we call a coffee-concert, on Satur- 
day night. The hall is arranged so that people can walk 
about, or sit in little groups and talk. Coffee and refresh- 
ments are served at a charge of a few pence, and we have 
a regular jolly, lively programme. This has proved an 
immense success. The hall is crowded every Saturday 
night. Our two girls' clubs are also most successful. Those 
who know anything about such work understand the diffi- 
culties of dealing with the wild, untamed London factory 
girl. We certainly had some lively experiences at first. But 
the London factory girl, with all her lowness and coarse- 
ness, is an affectionate, leadable creature, if only you can 
take hold of her in the right way. It is not every one who 
can do this. Four of our sisters give up the greater part of 
their time to this work. Last June they took a large num- 
ber of the girls for a holiday down to our country home in 
Gloucestershire. They lived with them for ten days, shar- 
ing all their meals, and going with them on their rambles 
and expeditions. They had a most delightful time. The 
sisters said they had never enjoyed a country holiday so 
much before, and the happiness of the girls was pathetic. 
During the whole holiday the sisters told me they never 
heard a word nor saw a look they could object to, though 
many of these girls came from the lowest courts and alleys 
in west-central London. Every now and then we give a 
sort of " At Home " at the club, to which the girls invite 
their men friends. We invite some of our men friends at 
the same time, so as to give the girls a kind of object-lesson 
as to the way in which men and women ought to behave to 
one another. This has not been without its effect. 

We encourage every kind of thrift society, and in one of 


our women's slate clubs, alone, last year the sum of four 
hundred and six pounds passed through our hands. 

Another branch, that is conducted almost entirely by sis- 
ters, is what we call the " Relief Department." We had 
not worked for many months before we found we were 
overwhelmed with applications for help of all kinds. We 
therefore appointed two sisters, who were specially inter- 
ested in this work, to sit every morning from eleven to one 
o'clock in a room in one of our halls, there to interview 
every applicant for help. 

Full investigation is made in every case, and then, at a 
weekly committee, composed of all the sisters, we discuss 
each case, and decide what is the best way of rendering 
efficient help. We refuse to deal out charitable doles of 
money, which will just leave people in the same position at 
the week's end ; but we endeavor to render such assistance 
as will enable them to help themselves. In this work we 
have been assisted most generously and kindly by the vari- 
ous branches of the Charity Organization Society in our dis- 
tricts, several of our sisters being members of the various 
committees. We find work for the unemployed wherever it 
is possible, and considering all things we have been tolerably 
successful, though it is very hard work. We look after serv- 
ants who are out of situations, take care of them, and find 
them fresh places, helping them with their clothes if neces- 
sary. We look after families where the bread-winner is 
laid aside by illness, and get the patient to a convalescent 
home upon recovery. We help die boys and girls out into 
their first places. We have often and often mediated 
between landlord and tenant. We are in touch with the 
sanitary inspector, the Board of Guardians, Mr. Benjamin 
Waugh, and other authorities. We look after girls who 
have gone astray and are trying to do better. We enter- 
tain the old people in the workhouses with afternoon teas. 
Their lives above all others are the most hopeless and 
dreary. To our Sunday services at St. James' Hall and 
Prince's Hall come hundreds and thousands of respectable 


young men and women who are employed in the West End 
houses of business. For the last two years we have had 
a sort of Sunday evening " At Home " at Prince's Hall, for 
the young men and women in houses of business, at the 
close of usual services, which all end at nine o'clock. Tea, 
coffee, cake, biscuits, and bread and butter are served at a 
table at the end of the hall, and we all move freely about 
and talk to everybody. Occasionally we have some sacred 
music performed, but there is nothing of the nature of a 
meeting or service. We close the proceedings at ten 
o'clock with simple family prayer, a few verses from the 
Bible, the evening hymn, and short prayer. 

We also carry on a small and quiet work among the 
upper classes in the West End. In the very nature of 
things, it is impossible to give details of work of this kind. 
We have found, however, that the rich, and titled, and priv- 
ileged, often need the knowledge of Christ more than the 
very poor, and they also need the love and help of the 
sister. The poor have much more done for them than the 
rich ever have. There are more broken hearts and terrible 
tragedies in society life than one has any idea of. Our 
work in this direction is steadily increasing, and now that 
we are becoming known, people often come to us to pour 
out their hearts' anguish, and to seek comfort and help. 
We feel that wherever there is a human being to be helped, 
whoever it may be, there the Sister of the People has her 

I have spoken mainly of the outward and visible in our 
work ; but all that we do is based upon our belief that Christ 
is the great need of every man and woman who is born 
into this world. His is the only power that will reform 
society and regenerate the world; and behind all that we 
do for the social, moral, and political advancement of the 
people, we believe that the highest duty and privilege of all 
is to bring the individual man, or woman, or child to a 
knowledge of the love of Christ, and to personal trust 
in him. 



TO some readers it may seem that the space occupied in 
this chapter by the discussion of the dress of women 
and its proposed improvement is disproportionate to 
that which these subjects occupy in the public mind. It 
would appear, however, that these questions must be sur- 
veyed from both the social and the ethical standpoints. It 
is certain that woman's present ability to face all weathers, 
to participate in outdoor sports, such as cycling and tennis, 
and her present industrial freedom, curtailed as they still 
are, are in no mean degree due to overshoes and waterproof 
cloaks, and to her acquisition of blouses, tennis-shoes, and 
walking-boots. It is equally certain that woman's ability to 
engage actively in those moral reforms which demand per- 
sonal acquaintance with the denizens of the slums, and per- 



sonal inspection of their surroundings, presupposes still 
further modifications of her dress. In the close scientific 
study of present social conditions, and in the scientific 
administration of public charities, the race will not be to 
the woman shackled by corset and train. These considera- 
tions suggest the reason for including the discussion of 
woman's dress in this chapter. 

Of the seventy-one papers presented in report congresses, 
at least ninety per cent treat subjects that come properly 
under the head of social and moral reform, and the same 
is true of at least seventy per cent of the hundreds of ad- 
dresses made in department congresses. Therefore the 
attempt has been rather to exclude from this chapter all 
addresses that can be classified under another title. 

As in no other department of social and moral reform 
are women so numerously organized as in what is termed 
the temperance movement, and inasmuch as temperance 
reform is preliminary to many other moral reforms, it 
seemed proper to regard women's work for temperance 
as representative, and give it a place in this chapter. The 
other topics discussed in this chapter, such as " The Moral 
Initiative," " The Civil and Social Evolution of Woman," 
and " The Double Moral Standard," are universal in appli- 
cation and fundamental in character, and should be united 
in thought with all specific social and moral reforms pro- 
posed. [THE EDITOR.] 


This title indicates a topic which has come to me in hours 
of thought and of study, attracting me both by its philo- 
sophical and its practical aspect. The present century has 
seen great progress in these two departments. The old 
philosophies have been taken up, sometimes in a reverent, 
often in a skeptical, spirit, and the critical procedure has 


acknowledged no barriers beyond which it is forbidden to 
pass. Rules of life, on the other hand, have also been 
sharply reviewed and amended. The salient points of 
morals have been distinctly sought out and emphasized, 
and the two great orders of thought, philosophy and ethics, 
have been brought into new relations of nearness and dear- 
ness. Religious teaching has passed from the observation 
of rites and the inculcation of metaphysical views and doc- 
trines to the illustration of the intrinsic essence of Chris- 
tianity ; and the subtleties of mysticism, ritualism, and what 
not, have been forgotten in the sympathetic uprising of the 
heart of the multitude. When ten thousand people waited 
in the square around Trinity Church, in Boston, for the last 
glimpse of Phillips Brooks' coffin, when they joined in the 
Lord's prayer and in the hymn led by trumpets, which 
constituted all the outdoor service on that memorable 
occasion, those who were present saw the triumph of cordial 
over formal Christianity saw, and thanked God for what 
they saw. 

Something of this process of integration appears to me 
to have gone on with regard to the powers and offices of 
women during the last twenty-five years. I can remember 
when it was not deemed improper to plead in excuse for 
foolish and even wicked conduct, " She is only a woman." 
Only a woman only half the human race, and the mother 
of all mankind ! This reminds me of a bigoted European 
Catholic whom I once met in traveling, who, learning that 
we have no established state church. in America, inquired: 
"Well, what provision have you then for religion?" I 
replied, "We have the doctrine and example of Jesus 
Christ." " Nothing but that ? " he answered with contempt. 

Well, we do not often hear this phrase to-day, "Only a 
woman," and gradually we have been led to discard the 
fragmentary and imperfect views of our sex which their 
enemies have taught us ; for low-minded men are always 
the enemies of women, and always desire to see them in a 
position of subserviency and dependence. High-minded 


men, on the other hand, have tried to give us high ideas of 
what women ought to be and to stand for in social economy,, 
and some of them have had much to do with the present 
awakening and rehabilitation. For lofty ideals of woman- 
hood the literary world has not wanted. The tragedians of 
Greece, and her great philosopher, Plato, the writers whose 
treasures are gathered in our Bible, the poets of the Renais- 
sance noticeably Shakespeare, Milton, and Dante have 
shown us, with other types, the women of noble stature and 
august character. But the common world of men about us 
has not appeared to take much stock in these. A feebler 
and more frivolous type has been more congenial to them, 
and while expecting and exacting from us a stricter 
morality than that required of their own sex, they have 
been at no small pains to obstruct in us the sources of 
moral inspiration, and to make us feel that to please them 
is our highest duty and our greatest honor. 

The times of this ignorance we may say with St. Peter, 
" God winked at." In the old mythology Mars and Venus 
went together, the fighting man with the woman whose 
beauty is her chief endowment. But Mars is going out 
of high fashion. The soldier is no longer the supreme 
example of heroism, but simply a necessary evil. The 
thoughtful, the life-preserving virtues are in the ascendant 
to-day. Character attracts, character rules, and we have 
learned at last that it can not rule unless men and women 
have it equally, unless in both sexes its aspirations may rise 
to their own height and work out their own development. 

Now, what do I mean by this moral initiative as belong- 
ing to woman ? Is it a wise phrase that sounds metaphys- 
ical and means nothing ? My thought of it is simply this : 
The world has had much good to say of its women, and 
much evil, and both with reason. The first woman has 
been credited with all the woes which have befallen 
humanity, and with all the sins into which it has fallen. 

Buddhism considers the principle of evil in nature as 
resident in the female sex, and ascetics in all lands have 


held the same view. The legends of the mother of Christ 
have no doubt exercised a potent influence in elevating the 
moral position of the sex ; yet in romance and stage-play 
to-day, as well as in ordinary society pleasantry, the ques- 
tion is common, Where is the woman who is at the bottom 
of the mischief ? I think that wise people now ask an 
opposite question. When we meet with a man who . is 
without fear and without reproach, whose blameless life 
seems to have gone on from strength to strength, up-build- 
ing the community, and honoring humanity by his own 
noble image and conduct, we are apt to ask where the 
woman is. And our thoughts go back to the cradle in 
which his helpless infancy was tended even further, to the 
heart to which his own was the nearest thing on earth, to 
the breast from which he was fed with the essence of a 
pure life. Happy is the man whose mother has been a 
tower of strength to herself and her family. The first pre- 
cious lessons it has been hers to give. No matter what 
storms may have raged without, how mean the home or 
how wild the street, he has first seen the light in an atmos- 
phere of celestial purity. The mother love has watched at 
the gates of his childish Eden with a drawn sword. No 
evil counsel or influence has been allowed to come near 
him. And when in the necessary course of things he has 
passed out of her keeping, he has gone accompanied by the 
Christ-prayer, " I pray not that thou should st take him 
out of the world, but that thou shouldst keep him from 
the evil." This I call the moral initiative, the man's start 
in life. The nucleus of all that he is to believe, to aim' at, and 
to do, has been delivered to him, like a sealed packet full of 
precious things, by a mother who honors supremely all that 
honors humanity, who dreads and despises all that dishon- 
ors and deforms it. 

No one will deny that this type of woman is most pre- 
cious. The question will rather be how we may maintain 
and multiply it. And here the whole horizon of the past 
confronts us, as well as the veiled heaven of the future. 



In this past we read that all that is slavish in human insti- 
tutions is demoralizing ; that while discipline forms and 
exalts, despotism degrades and deforms, appealing back to 
the lower instincts, which have their place in animal life 
fear, cunning, low self-love, and the low attachments of 
mere habit and interest. From the tyrannies of the old 
order into the liberty wherewith Christ has made us free 
the world is slowly passing, but all that detains humanity 
on its lower levels retards the progress of the race. Oh, 
that men, themselves enfranchised, should wish to detain 
their women in the bondage from which they themselves 
have been delivered ! In true Christianity there is no moral 
distinction of sex, neither male nor female ; but in the 
political life even of free America the man opens the door 
for himself and shuts it against his wife, opens the door for 
his son and shuts it upon his daughter. And this, I say, 
is demoralizing. It compels one-half of the human race 
to look back toward the old barbarism, while the other 
insists upon looking forward to the new civilization. The 
man to whom the woman's freedom of soul is the first con- 
dition of his own, puts on that freedom a fatal barrier, 
and defrauds himself thereby. His mother should be his 
superior ; his wife should be his equal and companion. He 
invites them to acquiesce in a lower position, to exercise a 
self-control which he does not dream of exacting from 
himself, but also to sacrifice the self-respect out of which 
should spring this very power of self-control, of self-sacri^ 
fice, of subordinating the pleasurable to the ethical, the 
caprice of self-indulgence to the steady purposes of duty. 

I do not say that any of these thoughts are new, but I do 
say that as life goes on, and the world with it, they present 
themselves to me with new power and completeness. In 
reviewing my days, I recall the noble women whom I have 
known, deep-hearted and wise-thoughted. I have revered 
them as individuals, as stars in a dark sky, as striking 
exceptions to the poor average of feminine attainment, 
intellectual and moral. But I see them now as partial 


revelations of a glorious whole. The germ of all that I 
have admired in any woman surely resides in every woman ; 
and if you can reach the true woman in her you will call 
forth something of it. Men and women are alike cheated 
by the frivolity in which most of us are bred and educated. 
We are taught to be content with suiting the tone of our 
life to the careless pleasure of thoughtless men. 

Now, I say, let there be an uprising among us. Let 
thoughtless men take, on the contrary, their attitude from 
our nobleness of mind. Let them recognize in us not only 
a moral sentiment which they must respect, but a moral 
determination to which they must conform. 

Oh, women! let your sons see in you only what shall 
raise you in their esteem. And while you inspire them 
with tender respect, and train them to all that is generous 
and truth-loving, remember that you have a double duty to 
your daughters. They are to be the companions and 
inspirers of men. Oh, see that the source of moral power 
in them be not corrupted by cowardice nor impeded by 
senseless tradition. Let man that is born of woman be 
also trained by woman to the attainment of his fullest 
manhood, corresponding to her fullest and freest woman- 
hood. God has joined the sexes together in the highest 
spiritual, as in the simplest natural, need. What he hath 
joined together let not man put asunder. The woman 
has slowly conquered the right to education, both as learner 
and as teacher. Let the mother instruct the daughter to 
keep, above all else, the impregnable fortress of her own 
strength, faith, and purity. Let her find and follow the 
terrible right whose victories, adjourned but certain, are 
written all over the world. With deep reverence for 
father, brother, husband, let her yet revere and obey an 
authority deeper and far beyond theirs, the dictates of an 
enlightened and ever-studious conscience. Let her keep 
her own moral initiative. It is from God, and not from 

I believe in the political enfranchisement of women 


because I see in it the key to all that is rightly expected of 
them in the world's economy. I believe in it because I 
believe in logic; not so much in the short-sighted syllo- 
gisms which we teach as in the great logic which life 
teaches us, in which effects follow causes, and moral prin- 
ciples confirm themselves in moral results. 

May we not suspect that a latent sense of the superior- 
ity of service underlies the master's expectation that his 
slave or servant shall surpass him in patience and benevo- 
lence ? I find something of this element in the feeling of 
men toward women. " You are our subordinates, bound to 
serve and obey, and you should therefore have certain 
inestimable qualities which we do not feel obliged to pos- 
sess. You should^ better than we." And this brings me 
back to that fragmentary view of great things of which I 
have already spoken. Men have had their glimpses of 
what is right and proper. They have guessed well at the 
truth here and there. Women should exercise some vir- 
tues which for men are less obviously requisite, such as 
patience and endurance in forms peculiar to their life and 
constitution, and, above all, affections which it is hard to 
wear out, and faith which never flinches from its loyalty. 

But the progress of the great order reveals truth in its 
wholeness. These broken views of good and of merit are 
but parts of a great whole whose outline is now becoming 
visible to us. In the political world these great unifications 
are matters of familiar history. Macedon and Rome each 
produced a certain sense of unity from the chaos of differ- 
ing tribes and nationalities, but Christianity brings us this 
unity in the moral world, and shows us that there is one 
right and one wrong for all. What a human being would 
not himself endure he can have no right to inflict upon 
others ; of what he finds supremely precious he has no right 
to deprive any one. 

Lastly, women must be free, if freedom is to be enjoyed 
by men and safeguarded for them. Ignorance is the first 
condition of enslavement, and ignorant women will always 


be the tools of the men who are the enemies of freedom. 
To all that society expects from women let us then add the 
enlightened mind, the liberal and resolute will. This will 
secure to them the moral initiative. 


Coming much closer to childhood and youth, and through 
them to the moral perils of the world, toward which they so 
heedlessly venture, and into which they are lured at every 
turn, the woman is, I reason, the earlier foreordained moral 
factor in human progress. To her we may look for the moral 
initiative in many directions. Man's battle has been more 
largely with the untamed physical forces, hers with the 
perverted moral instincts. 

Intellect is needed in both. The savagery of neither 
domain can be subdued except by wise, rational warfare, 
except thought, tact, and judgment are strenuously brought 
to bear. . Morals and physics are not two, but one larger 
unity. Men must work on both sides of it, and so must 
women. But if women do not more readily turn to moral 
than to physical engineering, why are their first ventures 
in public work almost universally in some phase of reform 
or benevolence ? There are many large associations and 
business firms of women whose objects are philanthropic ; 
very few and small ones which seek to grow rich. Human 
nature is both one and two, but the masculine and feminine 
sides are very unlike in their manifestations. 

Some of our best friends insist that in civil and political 
life we may not count upon any saving or elevating influ- 
ences derived from special qualities or virtues of women ; 
but we appeal to the prisons, where men outnumber 
women as criminals, and to the churches, where women 
outnumber men in the quest for moral and religious truth 
to every State or municipal election in which women par- 


ticipate which all offer evidence that social order is intro- 
duced more readily by the hands of women than of men. 
Chivalry is not a lost art. Wherever masculine and femi- 
nine influences combine on any high plane of honor and 
integrity, they support each other in securing peace, 
decency, and progress ; but, that social order is more domes- 
ticated with women than men, we call to witness the bach- 
elor domicile, with its chronic untidiness, and the old maid's 
surroundings, spick and span with precision and shining 

Until we find that women bring no fresh moral attributes 
to the new fields in which they are rapidly securing a foot- 
hold, we shall still believe that the self-forgetfulness which 
nature forces upon them first and most continuously, was 
adapted to bear the first fruits of altruistic love. 

Then let them be moral and religious teachers, not merely 
of childhood, but also of manhood. We make no claim 
that, all things considered, women are better than men, 
only that their virtues arise in a different order of unfold- 
ing. They feel more sympathy for others' sufferings, and 
they have more time and inclination to apply the needful 
remedies. To women gross immorality seems to be a 
needless vice. Right principles, and justice to others, 
would banish it from the earth in a generation ; and most 
women are ready to "lure to brighter worlds and lead the 




The moral initiative, as related to woman, is indeed a most 
suggestive subject. Where is woman's place in such rela- 
tion ? Who shall answer this question satisfactorily ? Who 
understands it ? Does man ? Does she herself ? 



Man was originally created in the image of his Creator, 
of whom he is said to be the " express image." But God 
created man in his own image, male and female. There- 
fore, man and woman are included in the divine type. 
Yet we are accustomed to contemplate man as reflecting 
the image of God when we think of the fatherhood of God, 
and also of the second person of the Holy Trinity, in the 
person of the man Christ Jesus. 

But woman ! What does she signify who has been so 
dragged into the dust, so degraded, so sullied in the his- 
tory of mankind, that except as she has been raised up 
by a higher power, she is wont to fear, in her extremity, 
even to lift up her eyes to heaven and ask why she was 
brought into being? But she need not thus shrink away 
from the eye of God and man ; she, too, has a place in the 
Holy Type. 

The Christian faith is triune. Besides the Father and the 
Son there is a third person, the Holy Spirit, who also is an 
object of faith and worship. This holy third, the very 
mention of whose personality is almost sacrilege, is the 
Spirit of God the Holy Ghost, the Comforter, the Sancti- 
fier, the Holy Paraclete, that spirit who, by the promise of 
the risen Christ to the infant church, should abide with it, 
and nurture, teach, and guide it to full maturity, until he 
should come again to claim her as his own, his beloved, 
against whom the gates of hell should not prevail ; as his 
bride, who should sit with him on his throne to judge the 
nations of the earth and to dwell with him in power. 

But when we consider the peculiar characteristics of 
woman in distinction from man, in all her finer and more 
delicate and spiritual tracery of body, soul, and spirit, does 
not this seemingly contradictory subject find its solution 
in the unsclf-revelation (if I may be permitted the coining 
of the word) of that holy one who came down from heaven 
to dwell in the church of Christ, to inspire her unto a truer 
understanding of Christ ? 



Humanity keeps on repeating its fairy vision of an ideal 
woman and an ideal love. The eternal-womanly leads us 
ever onward. Long ago, in the thirteenth century, a man 
loved so desperately his ideal woman that he drew her 
from the heights of the empyrean to his rescue. Lost on a 
desert slope, perplexed and distressed, he meets a company 
of wild beasts. Suddenly one approaches him, who greets 
him thus : " A lady from heaven descended has sent me 
to thee." Thus, Virgil, the highest good of the intellect, 
appears to the help of the bewildered and lost Dante. 

The man, by reason of his wanderings, is slow to appre- 
ciate spiritual things, and the vision of his highest womanly 
is not at first revealed. But in the still silence of the uni- 
verse, from the very throne of God, it sees him and hast- 
ens to his salvation. It meets him on his own plane, and 
sends him the teachings of human science, of moral and 
political philosophy, under the guise of Virgil. 

The woman soul has stooped to the needs of the man she 
loved. Virgil, who personifies the intellect, guides him 
through the Inferno. He tells him, "Twixt Beatrice and 
thee there is a wall ; " but that soul which is created apt to 
love is mobile unto everything that pleases. Soon, as by 
desire, she is waked to action. 

" Love is that inclination. From necessity springs every 
love that is within you kindled ; within yourself the power 
is to restrain it by the free will. This noble virtue Beatrice 

Virgil is aware of his limitations, the limitations of phi- 
losophy and of the intellect. He fails when he tries to 
explain that men's mistakes are not remedied by prayers, 
" when prayers from God are separated." 

The intellect can not realize how man may swallow fate 
and cancel destiny through "free grace." Virgil says, 


41 Verily, in so deep a question do not decide, unless she tell 
it thee, who light, twixt truth and intellect, shall be. I 
speak of Beatrice." 

Then he begins to apologize, as he feels the inadequacy 
of himself to meet the wants of a soul so passionately in 
love as Dante is, and offers this consolation : "If my reason 
appease thee not, thou shalt see Beatrice, and she will freely 
take from thee this and every other longing." 

Finally comes the farewell. Before the ascent of Purga- 
tory is finished the man has outgrown the teachings of the 
intellect ; and Virgil says good-by to him in those wonder- 
ful, prophetic words, which the race has kept studying and 
reading for hundreds of years, but which it has never 
thought of applying. "The temporal fire and the eternal 
Son thou hast seen, and to a place art come where of 
myself no further I discern. By intellect and art I here 
have brought thee. Take thine own intuition for thy guide 
henceforth, until, rejoicing, come the beauteous eyes which, 
weeping, caused me first to come to thee." 

Virgil leaves him, and the Lady Matilda the enlighten- 
ing grace of God becomes his guide. She baptizes him 
in the lethe of self-forgetfulness. His self-condemnation is 
washed away ; he is born again in Eunoe, the stream of re- 
generation, " pure and disposed to mount unto the stars." 

Can this be the same craven soul that shrank in fear 
from the panther, the lion, and the wolf ? Redeemed from 
his false ways and himself, he waits for the vision of Para- 
dise. This he attains through another, the divine Beatrice, 
the true praise of God. " With eyes upon the everlasting 
wheels stood Beatrice, all intent, and I on her fixed my 

So they journey from star to star. One glory after 
another passes before his enraptured gaze, but always "up- 
ward gazes Beatrice," and Dante looks at her. She sees 
God ; he sees her. Does she look at him, it is to flash 
lightning into his soul, and deathless aspiration into his 
heart. "This is the love that makes fair, that lifts up" 


the love that fears not to tell her lover: " Turn thee around 
and listen; not in mine eyes alone is paradise." The high- 
est womanly sees not herself, but the face of God, and she 
desires the same for her beloved the beatific vision alone 
can satisfy. Seated on her throne, in the glory of the eter- 
nal light, the man sees her and continues his supplications, 
and implores her, by all the love she hath borne him, " Who 
for my salvation didst endure in hell to leave the imprint 
of thy feet." In return she smiles on him ; " then on the 
glory of the light supernal fixes her steadfast gaze." 

Her wise love knows the law that woman is the initiator 
that if her love would lift her beloved, it can only be done 
by desiring for him higher things than he seeks for himself ; 
for " the desire of woman's heart is the measure of the 
choice of man's will." 

This is law, poetry, religion, philosophy man will not 
rest until he regains paradise. But the good of the intellect 
will never open its pearly gates to him ; only by the love 
of the eternal-womanly may he enter in. Grecian art, 
science, philosophy, and the knowledge of the brain will 
not wash away one stain of self-condemnation, or whisper 
peace to the storm-tossed soul. Only the eternal-womanly, 
made concrete in the woman he loves, can inspire him to be 
"pure and mount unto the stars." 

What man is, what woman is, nobody knows ; but every- 
body would like to find out. Let us join in the search. 
The story of Dante and Beatrice is the solution of the mys- 
tery. " The fair, saintly lady, with eyes brighter than the 
stars," was then, is now, and ever shall be the magnet by 
which the race and the individual are blessed and redeemed ; 
for Beatrice is deathless aspiration after goodness, beauty, 
and truth the eternal-womanly. 

The nineteenth century will be known in history as the 
age of Helen, the age of self-activity, of self-consciousness, 
self-contemplation. But the sun and the stars are already 
whispering that the twentieth century shall be known as the 
reign of Beatrice the age of God-activity, of God-con- 


sciousness, of God-contemplation when the ideal woman 
shall be made real in the lives of the women of earth ; the 
age when there shall no longer be a separation between the 
woman in art and the woman in life, when it shall be as the 
laws of the Medes and Persians, " He loves not me who loves 
not honor more " the age of applied idealism. 


It has often been stated that if the majority of women 
really wanted their civil rights they could have them. This 
is doubtless true, since a whole nation could not, in the 
nature of things, be decapitated, nor the combined and per- 
sistent claim of a whole class in a community be ignored. 

But the majority of women do not as yet appear to desire 
civil and political privilege. It seems, in fact, that more 
men than women are in favor of granting such privilege. 
The men who are of this opinion believe in citizenship, and 
recognize that strength comes from the resolute shoulder- 
ing of responsibility, as the long, slender stem of the date 
palm grows steady when the leafy crown becomes heavy. 
They regard the suffrage as an expression of the true 
republican sentiment that those who obey the law should 
understand it, and help to frame it. They believe that 
with the help of women civilization would move on with 
faster and longer strides. 

What is the reason that so many women are indifferent or 
averse to the assumption of civic duties ? I think their, nat- 
ural conservativeness and their conscientiousness stand in 
the way. They already find in the complexity of our life 
numberless demands upon thought and strength. Their 
aspiration for increased knowledge and culture, their 
esthetic cravings, urge them to the limits of physical and 
mental endurance, and they feel that they can undertake 


nothing more. If man is a little world, woman is expected 
to be a little universe "all things by turns and nothing 
long." A woman must be versatile, and ready to fill any 
niche at a moment's notice. She must sew on a button or 
write a poem, must roast herself in the kitchen or receive 
guests in a drawing-room, with equal grace and facility ; 
and what with keeping up her geography and her accom- 
plishments she will beg to be excused from what she thinks 
the dry and uninteresting subjects of business, current 
events, and politics. 

It is easier under such circumstances to lead the natural, 
old-fashioned life of daughter, wife, and mother in a shel- 
tered home than to strike out upon the sea of life as a 
bread-winner in business or profession. 

The former course keeps us in the beaten track of prec- 
edent, and holds us in what is particularly agreeable to 
timid and conservative people, a good fellowship with the 
majority. In Howell's "Undiscovered Country" we notice 
that the heroine gets tired of being phenomenal, and 
throws herself into the pleasures of dress and luxury with 
keen zest. It takes courage to go against the stream, to be 
independent and ahead of your generation ; it needs a 
strong moral muscle to snap the withes of prejudice ; it 
demands heroism to obey a law higher than the laws of 
sympathy and imitation ; and if women, somewhat by 
nature and certainly by education, are lacking in such fiber, 
we can not be surprised at their slowness in rising to the 
emergencies of the hour. 

How can we hasten the social and civil evolution of 
woman ? Only by an education as to her true position in 
the physical and moral world, and as to her duty and her 
destiny. These views of women are not founded upon 
sentiment nor sentimentality they do not take cognizance 
of her beauty and her helplessness, which are incidental 
merely but they are founded upon the broad basis of 
philosophy and ethics. 

Herbert Spencer and John Stuart Mill, the greatest phi- 


losophers of our day, find women to be structurally the con- 
verse of men. Botany and biology prove that differentia- 
tion into sex is a secondary step in development ; that the 
woman must be brought to a common denominator with 
man, and be considered invariably as a human being. If 
we once settle that truth for ourselves, every deduction we 
make comes easily, naturally, and forcibly. 

Then women are to do whatever they find to do with all 
their might. They are to be properly trained for business, 
profession, or art ; they are to be protected by public senti- 
ment and law, and to be encouraged until they can stand 

Either obstacles must be removed or women must culti- 
vate strength to overcome them ; and, more than all, they 
must be made to see that they are of the people, and that 
the state belongs equally to them with men, and therefore 
must claim from them intellectual recognition and moral 



I feel this to be one of the greatest privileges of my life 
to be able to follow your dear saint, Susan B. Anthony, as 
much revered in our country as she is in yours. I remem- 
ber the time when these women were everywhere spoken 
against, and now you see this magnificent gathering is the 
result of their efforts. Let us, who are treading the flow- 
ery paths to-day, be thankful for the labors of those women 
who trod, with bleeding feet, the thorny paths forty and 
fifty years ago. 

Now, your president has wished that all the discussions 
shall be both amiable and reasonable. I will try to be both. 

In the old Jewish days the men used to say every Sabbath 
morning, " I thank thee, O God of my fathers, that I was 
not born a woman;" and the women said, "I thank thee, 


O God of my fathers, that thou hast created me accord- 
ing to the good pleasure of thy will." And so to-day, when 
we look on this grand women's council, never possible 
until to-day, I think we may say, "I thank thee, O God 
of my fathers, that thou hast created me a woman." I 
was once taunted by the saying, " Women will never be 
equal to men," and I remember the retort of Ernestine L. 
Rose on one of our platforms in Edinburgh. She said to 
the chairman : " Mr. Chairman, I believe it is a law of 
nature that no stream can rise higher than its source." 

It is but twenty years ago since Josephine Butler, the 
leader of the social-purity movement in my own country, was 
hooted in the streets of Liverpool, and people used to draw 
.aside their skirts as they passed her. It was only eighteen 
months ago that in London there was a great meeting on 
this social question. The bishop of London was in the 
chair, and Josephine Butler sat at his right hand ; and I 
thought of the time then and the time now. When Joseph- 
ine Butler rose to speak all who were in the hall rose to 
their feet, and gave her what you call the "Chautauqua 
salute." But they were not content with that. Three times 
they rose to their feet, and the men waved their hats, and 
many of them sat down and hid their faces in their hands, 
thinking of the old times and of the new. 

I was in the city of Edinburgh when the women students 
were trying to get a foothold to qualify themselves as phy- 
sicians, and do you know that these women were hooted at, 
and had rotten eggs thrown at them ? 

The old University of St. Andrews, in Scotland, has 
opened every door to women. There is no section of phi- 
losophy or science that is not equally open to men and 
women, and that is owing to Prof. Knight, of St. Andrews. 
We like to remember those who have helped us. 

I want to say now that fifty-one of the distinctions in the 
art classes were gained by the women in October last, and 
eight of the association students were kept for the M. D. 
degree on the loth of October; so we are steadily ad vane- 


ing, and this old world is growing brighter. I can not 
restrain my emotion when I think of the glorious oppor- 
tunities that are open to women. Let us rise to a sense of 
the importance of entering every open door. 

Now, dear friends, let us women in Great Britain, and 
you women in America, and the women from every land, 
clasp hands, while we pledge/ ourselves that we will labor 
and pray for the early dawning of that day when women as 
well as men shall be free politically, socially, and in every 
department of life. 


We seem to see the fulfillment of the prophecy, " The 
meek shall inherit the earth." A victory has been won by 
patient, loving women, whose souls have been stirred from 
the earliest days by suffering under inequality, while 
patiently bearing the limitations, and waiting for this hour. 
I can not help thinking to-day of those who wrought with- 
out even hope of final success in this world ; who waited 
for the fulfillment of their desires in that better land where 
all is perfect justice. In the early days of California I 
remember being told of a miner, who took up a claim, say- 
ing, " The signs here lead to gold." He worked on until 
one by one his fellows fell apart from him. Still he 
wrought on alone until the months ran into years, and his 
fellow-men said he was becoming insane. He was grow- 
ing old and his arms were growing feeble. The time was 
drawing near for him to rest, when other men, won by the 
power of his enthusiasm and his patience, said, " We will 
take his place." These new men, with the power which 
capital gives, placed their improved machinery at work, 
and soon the marvelous riches of a Comstock mine lay 
.spread before the world. 

Now, gentlemen and ladies, that early worker typifies the 


women who wrought alone in the darkness. The capital- 
ists who came in to gather the gold, and spread it upon the 
earth, represent those of to-day who, seeing the work of the 
women, see, also, the need of women's influence upon the 
earth. Let us then not seek to win fine praises ; let us not 
ask men for their applause ; let us only ask that our work 
shall be measured, and that justice shall be done. 



Man, and I use the term in its generic sense, is preemi- 
nently a social being, but to be entirely companionable 
there must be on the different planes of our being that 
equalized social evolution which alone can result in har- 
mony. I believe that the social element in woman has been 
choked and stifled by the ignorance, the stupidity, and the 
selfishness of man, as also by her own indifference to the 
demands of her higher self. 

A person can not evolve what he has not involved ; and 
whatever women en masse lack in their social develop- 
ment is the direct result of the barriers placed in woman's 
pathway to such development by her brother man, who 
viewed her as standing only at the level of the lower or phys- 
ical plane of his being. I need not substantiate my statement 
by illustrations to this intelligent audience ; I need not go 
back and refer to man's antagonism to woman's acquiring 
knowledge, even of the alphabet. Every progressive, at 
least every professional, woman of to-day knows right well 
how much energy and time she has been forced to sacrifice 
in her efforts to secure the means necessary to her evolu- 
tion ; and even when her efforts have been crowned with 
success, how tardily the recognition has been awarded her. 
Herculean have been the efforts that have won for the 
woman of to-day her social and civil standing. 


Primitive man, having acquired ascendency over his 
fellows through muscular power, relegated woman, with 
her less objective and less material forces, to an inferior 
plane ; and this fact has been an active factor in the long, 
dark past, ever tending to depress woman, who is eminently 
the conserver of the subtler and higher powers. 

The nineteenth century has brought a reversal of the 
old order, has discovered woman's potentialities, and to-day 
is using them wisely and well. She has found her true 
place in the realm of the ideal, and by the force of her 
great love-power is bringing man, the offspring of her 
love, up the mountain with her. Neither men nor women 
are as yet developed, socially or civilly, to the highest of 
their capabilities. One can not very far transcend the 
other, linked as they are by the common ties of nature and 
blood. Humanity is a unit, and the sooner we all discover 
the problem of life, and work for the equal and harmonious 
evolution of universal humanity, the sooner will an all- 
round social and civil evolution be attained.* 



In the very beginning of the human race woman had 
the care of children and the home, or whatever might 
serve for a home. As the race developed, passing from 
one stage to another, from simple to more complex, her 
home duties enlarged, and soon formed a nucleus of soci- 
ety, so that in the early history of the Egyptian and 
Hebrew peoples we find woman already a great factor in 
social life. 

This influence grew until the age of Greece and Rome 
was reached, where usage, more despotic and tyrannical 
than law, exacted of matrons and other women a life of 

* Dr. Jennie cle la M. Lozier concluded the discussion with an admirable 
address, of which, however, no report is obtainable. 


extreme seclusion, forbidding them to live in society, to cul- 
tivate the exquisite social arts which give intellectual 
interest to the female sex. Yet, had not these women 
burned with noble aspirations and patriotism Greece would 
never have had her greatest patriots. And even where such 
strict effort was made to keep women out of wider social 
influence, women like Sappho, Aspasia, Lais, and Phryne 
held a preeminently brilliant position, being courted by 
philosophers, poets, politicians, and princes. In Rome 
there was a decided change in the position of women. The 
Roman matron possessed all the patriotism of the Spartan, 
without her cruelty and coarseness, and all the purity of 
the Athenian without her extreme seclusion ; and yet, as 
Mr. Higginson says, " She fell short of the modern Euro- 
pean in that intellectual refinement and high accomplish- 
ment which, combined with virtue, belong exclusively to 

In the social life of the Roman woman we see a decided 
step forward, for her influence outgrew the limits of her 
family, and she became a factor in national enterprises. 
The oft-quoted Cornelia, the inspiration of the Gracchi; or 
Tullia Attia, the genius of Octavius ; or the women of Rome, 
during the siege by Brennus and the battle of Cannae, giv- 
ing their jewels for the service of the republic, testify to a 
great interest in the national crises, and comprehension of 

Again we find in the history of the French Revolution 
that society seemed to be disorganized. When men were 
intoxicated with the thirst for blood, women, like Madame 
de Stael, Madame Necker, Madame Tallien and others, used 
all their power to reorganize the social system, opening 
their salons, in which men were inspired to nobler efforts, 
rescuing the unfortunate victims from the guillotine, and 
bringing with them peace and order. 

While man acted as the provider and protector of home 
and society, woman was the leader and inspiration of it, 
serving always where she was most needed. Her life and 


influence were not isolated from the lives of others of her 
day, and she in her own way carried out the motives of her 
generation. In great emergencies, from the days when 
Boadicea ruled the Iceni, to the late Civil War in America, 
women have been brought forward. 

But that was only in critical times ; otherwise her influ- 
ence was hampered by established customs, and whenever 
she branched out from her so-called sphere there was a great 
uproar raised by her brothers, which forced her back, and so 
prevented her from serving society more effectually. This 
has decidedly changed in our century, and the most forci- 
ble proof of this change is the Congress of Representative 

With the dawn of this wonderful century woman's influ- 
ence in society has broadened, and not only does she wield 
power in her home, but her influence has spread on all sides. 
She has entered the domain of letters as a novelist, like 
George Sand and George Eliot ; as a philosopher, like Har- 
riet Martineau ; as a scientist, like Maria Mitchell and Miss 
Edwards ; as a poetess, like Mrs. Barrett Browning. She 
has entered the jealously guarded university, the church, 
and the various professions, and she is proving herself a 
great factor in the history of the human race. 

We wonder why society has not been revolutionized ; 
why there are so many millions of suffering, forsaken 
people in this world ; why society seems to be on the cone 
of a volcano most of the time ; why there is such dissatis- 
faction and unrest among the greater part of mankind; 
why there can not be more idealistic conditions in -the 
present century, when women, who have so many noble 
aspirations and motives, such wonderful power, have their 
hands free, and could do so much for humanity. 

These questions have puzzled wiser heads than mine; 
they are growing more difficult each day, because we are 
living in a transition time. In no other century have there 
been more discoveries, opening to men vast treasures of 
natural forces which may be utilized for the benefit of man- 


kind, more changes in government and in society. Caste is 
gradually sinking away under the brilliant light of educa- 
tion. All classes of men are discovering that they have a 
value ; that their lives are needed as much as those of their 
wealthier neighbors. The old idea that the useless man was 
only the poor man is passing away, and sentiments like the 
following are being expressed : 

" We are greatly mistaken if we think that paupers are 
simply persons clothed in rags, incapable of self-support. 
They are rather those, rich and poor, who, having strength 
to be useful, are useless. It is not sufficient to be pictur- 
esque ; the medieval beggar was very picturesque. Every 
life must be judged from its relations to society." 

The poor, the middle class, and the rich, all are parts of 
this great organism, each having a function to perform. 
And the most interesting fact of it all is that these work- 
ing classes are beginning to know that they are useful to 
society, and are clamoring for recognition from it. Because 
they do not receive it they are growing dissatisfied, and 
even dangerous. All through Europe a strong undercur- 
rent is working among the ordinary people ; and while the 
better classes are feasting and having good cheer the 
ground under their feet is being dug away by these great 
currents. The same is true here in America. 

This unrest, this dissatisfaction with the present condi- 
tion of society, is ruinous to progress and development. 
Especially here in the United States, where society was 
founded on a democratic basis, where each man was free 
and as good as his neighbor, where working classes are 
better educated than in any other country, society has been 
growing far apart from its original aim, shaping itself into 
distinct castes, and dividing the nation into separate parts, 
so that at present we have two very distinct classes the 
very rich and the very poor far apart, almost unknown to 
each other. The rich, wasting their strength in receptions 
and calls in the day, and in balls and feasting at night, 
give no permanent good to society; the poor, frequenting 


miserable saloons at night, and sleeping under sidewalks 
by day, bring no good to society. Both of these classes are 
wasting a vast amount of intellectual force and energy, 
which, if used, could be of immense help. But it is not my 
intention to make a discourse on political economy. I only 
touch upon these puzzling questions because they are hav- 
ing influence upon that same society in which we live, and 
which we women can influence. Women, if we wish to be 
leaders we must have the " understand ing of the times," 
and know what is before us and where our aid is most 

" The trouble is that the most effectual, the most charm- 
ing, the most powerful, and the most intellectual women are 
too much shut up in their own social circles to know any- 
thing about the great currents of existence, even in their 
own neighborhood. What chance have they to develop as 
members of this community, as social factors in the wider 
sense, as American citizens, as an influence for incitement, 
direction, or restraint ? " 

These words which I have just quoted were uttered by a 
woman, Mrs. Van Rensselaer. In them she has touched 
the keynote, as has also Miss Jane Addams, who has turned 
prophet, and with the sternness of Isaiah cries out : " The 
time may come when the politician who sells one by one to 
the highest bidder all the offices in his grasp will not be 
considered more base in his code of morals, more hardened 
in his practice, than the woman who constantly invites to her 
receptions those alone w T ho bring her an equal social return, 
who shares her beautiful surroundings only with those who 
minister to a liking she has for successful social events. 
In doing this she is as unmindful of the common weal, as 
unscrupulous in her use of power, as is any city boss who 
consults only the interests of the * ring.' " . 

" How, then, can women become leaders of society during 
this time of critical unrest and transition?" you ask. I 
answer, Women have more real influence upon society to- 
day than men have. Men in this industrial and commer- 


cial age are absorbed in business enterprises, and leave the 
home, the church, social, and philanthropic enterprises 
almost wholly in the hands of their mothers, sisters, and 

In this way all women, of every class and condition of 
life, are forming the social character of humanity. I have 
said all women, and this should bring our minds to reflec- 
tion, for it includes the rich, the intellectual, the bour- 
geoise, the working-woman, and the slum-woman. Now, if 
all these women could have only the understanding of the 
times, and could comprehend the wonderful influence, 
power, and possibilities which they possess, could feel the 
full meaning of the words " mother," "wife," "human 
being," we should fear no danger ; but as it is, since the 
great majority know nothing of the higher feelings, the 
greater responsibility falls upon the better-educated 
women. And in order that these better-fitted women may 
enlarge their influence and reach these great masses, they 
must give up some of their hobbies ; they must stop prid- 
ing themselves that they are a part of Euclid, Fifth, or 
Wabash avenues ; they must pride themselves that they 
are a part of humanity. They should use the talents which 
their Creator bestowed upon them for the betterment of 
those who have them not ; and if they did this the world 
would become much larger and more beautiful, because it 
would be their world. 

This is the feeling that is now filling the minds of the 
thoughtful women, sending them to colleges and universi- 
ties, and from there to college and social settlements, to 
working girl's clubs, to slums as missionaries and kinder- 
garten teachers ; it is this which makes them patronesses 
of orphan asylums, of refuges and other benevolent insti- 
tutions, and gives the modern woman that humane feeling 
for which she is respected and loved. 

But there is not too much of such feeling, and society could 
endure more of it. Every large city could afford to have 
from ten to fifteen college settlements, where women would 


come to live, not to preach, but with their lives to show what 
life is for and what it means to live. If we can not all go to 
live in these college settlements, or work as missionaries, 
we can keep our eyes and hearts open to the needs of 
humanity, and at least once a week become general human 
beings, step off from our society Olympus, and go into the 
other part of the city, and see if there is any lack there 
which we can fill. By doing this we should not only be a 
blessing to those who need us, but we should learn to know 
life, learn to know mankind, and gain some influence over 
the masses. We should gradually build a bridge over the 
chasm which is now dividing the classes of society, and 
smother the flames that are now blazing in millions of hearts ; 
we should see the needs of society, and then only should we 
know what it means to be "social leaders." 

The woman who is queen of some " four hundred " is not 
a leader in society, and never was one ; the true leaders 
were always those who contributed to general society some 
permanent good. 


Woman in her relations to dress seems to belong to one 
of two classes the woman to whom dress is a source of 
real enjoyment, in spite of all its trouble and worry, and the 
woman to whom dress is simply an obligation, if not a 
troublesome duty. Most of the busy, earnest women that I 
know seem forced to belong to this latter class. The con- 
tinuous changes of fashion, the difficulty of finding what is 
suitable in fabrics and trimmings, and after this the strug- 
gle with arbitrary dressmakers, combine to deaden any 
lingering satisfaction that dress may possess for women 
whose time and attention have many worthy claims. I am 
sure I do but express the wish and hope of every earnest 
woman attending this great congress that, before its 


adjournment, some solution of the dress problem may be 
arrived at. 

The ethics of dress present themselves to my mind under 
the three heads of comfort, suitability, and beauty. It 
would seem as though the natural instinct of human beings 
would be to make themselves bodily comfortable. The 
natural instincts show themselves in infancy. A healthy 
baby cries if its bands are tight, if its limbs are restrained, or 
when an unpleasant covering is put on its head. The baby 
girl resists restrictions, but centuries of inherited submis- 
sion to conventionalities and limitations of sphere, bring 
the tiny girl readily into the bondage of "what people will 
think " ; so that before the little girl of the privileged class 
is five years old she has accepted proprieties and restric- 
tions as sacred laws, in which, alas ! nature and comfort 
play very little part. 

We hinder the little girl from noisy, boisterous play, such 
as all young animals require. We tell her that she will 
"spoil her pretty clothes," "muss her hair," or be "unlady- 
like " by frolicking as a natural child should. We compress 
her physical life as the Chinese lady compresses her feet. 
We corset her infant activities, and give her jewelry, sashes, 
and pink shoes in compensation. Thus, it seems to me, is 
smothered in early childhood the instinct for comfort and 
nature in womankind. 

Loving, devoted mothers, who, on the one hand, are ready 
to make any sacrifice for the good of their children, accept 
blindly, none the less, the traditional method of physical 
restriction for little girls. Is it any wonder that the little 
girl so early in life settles down to imitate mamma in the 
cares of doll housekeeping, and learns to find discreet recre- 
ation in dress, jewelry, and beaux ? Let us for a moment 
consider the underlying, unconscious motive that dictates 
this inhuman bringing up of girls. Shall we not find that 
it springs from what Thomas Wentworth Higginson calls 
"the lingering light of the harem"; from the same motive 
that induces the Circassian parents of a handsome daughter to 


prevent her from doing hard work, or making her hands 
rough, so as to fit her the better for sale ? Those devoted 
nineteenth-century mothers, who themselves blindly follow 
the absurd fashions made by the capricious " demi-monde " 
of Europe, are thus unconsciously following the traditional 
limitations for women by training and educating their 
daughters for the marriage market. 

Is it to be wondered at that so few women know how to 
be bodily comfortable, or even try to be so ? If great phi- 
losophers are led to exclaim, " How shall a man escape from 
his ancestors? " may not we women, with doubly just reason, 
ask, " How shall a woman escape from her bringing-up ? " 

When we recall in our experience the hindrances and 
follies of our bringing-up, must we not consider the exist- 
ence of a body of such intellectual and progressive women 
as I see before me to be a miracle of evolution ? We have 
not reached the ideal comfort in dress, but we are seeking 
for it, and what a body of earnest women seek for they are 
apt to find. 

In my opinion the same cause that prevents comfort in 
dress prevents appropriateness in dress namely, a want of 
independent and self-respecting study of our true relations 
to life. We accept custom and fashion blindly. We wear 
silks and velvets, laces and diamonds, everywhere and at 
any time, ignorant or regardless of their fitness; partly 
from a natural love of adornment, but still more, I think, 
from a desire to seem rich. One frequently hears the ques- 
tion discussed whether women dress to please men or to 
please women. Either motive seems unworthy. As far as 
I am able to judge, the real motive in the follies of woman's 
dress is deference to the old Jewish idea that it was a dis- 
grace to a woman to be unmarried. 

Competition for husbands seems to regulate the undress 
of the ball-room and the rigid adherence to fashion. As 
regards the consideration of beauty in dress, a sense of true 
beauty must, I think, always include the idea of comfort 
and appropriateness. Ruskin says that " the beauty of 


anything consists in its fitness to its purpose." No form 
can be beautiful that is tightly pinioned by bones and 
steels ; velvet and diamonds, however beautiful in them- 
selves, cease to be beautiful when worn in the kitchen. 

The world has reached a stage of advancement when rea- 
sonable people seem to agree that the desire to be beautiful 
is a legitimate inclination of the human heart, and can no 
longer be regarded as a sign of sinfulness or depravity. 
The love of the artistic and the beautiful has made an 
immense growth in the past few years. Combinations of 
fabric and color that are a delight to the eyes meet us 
every day on the street and in show-windows, and are 
training us to appreciate one form of the beautiful. It is 
true that there is born of this very contact with lovely 
fabrics a desire for dress and luxury, which has given rise 
to the saying that " the fetish of woman is fashion, as the 
fetish of man is money." Nevertheless there is a control- 
ling undercurrent of good common-sense among us that is 
always curative when the evil becomes recognizable. 

Very few women, and still fewer men, understand the 
powerful result for beauty or ugliness that certain colors 
have when brought close to the face. The moral influence 
of color, also, has begun to be studied. Many physicians 
forbid nervous women to wear black, because of the depress- 
ing influence it has on the nerves. It has been found that, 
color is an important aid in the treatment of mental dis- 
eases. Conditions of great excitement are allayed by put- 
ting the patient into a violet or blue room ; melancholia 
and depression are dispelled by surrounding the sufferer 
with red. 

By the use of a text-book in schools the general princi- 
ples of the ethics and esthetics of dress might be learned 
by young people. Dress might thus become the expression 
of the individual. What an immense help toward the 
knowledge of a person it would be if in a sweep of the 
eye from bonnet to boots one could not only take in the 
coloring, shape, and ornamentation of a woman's dress, but 


gauge at the same time her common-sense and culture. As 
it is, the relation of many sensible women to dress, nowa- 
days, is pitiful. The instinctive desire to avoid singularity 
forces them to the adoption of some modification of the pre- 
vailing mode, and to a compromise with good sense and 
judgment. In our day every one seems to be presumed to 
be young, consequently no fashion is prepared for middle 
or old age. The mere finding for a middle-aged or elderly 
woman a head covering which bears an approach to com- 
mon-sense involves a vast loss of time and effort. One of 
the climaxes of the folly of fashion is, that tiny " cockatoo " 
headgear is considered proper to adorn old and wrinkled 
faces, while broad-brimmed, practical shade-hats crown 
young, fresh, pretty faces. We elderly women are thrown 
on our ingenuity and courage, and are forced to waste 
our time planning some middle ground between the two 

Should you ask me, Does the present condition seem too 
difficult for remedy ? I would remind you that four hundred 
years ago the cavalier's dress presented more follies and 
discomforts than does the dress of the woman of to-day. 
The long curls, the slashed and jeweled doublet, the cloak 
that hung from one shoulder, and the hat with drooping 
feathers that would stand neither rain nor wind, in days 
when umbrellas were not yet in vogue this dress lasted 
long because it was most decorative, and man was then an 
ornamental being. 

Out of the cavalier's dress was evolved the man's dress of 
the Revolutionary era the curled and powdered wig, the 
hat with no depth of crown, satin knee-breeches as tight as 
could be borne, silk stockings, low shoes with jeweled 
buckles, the coat that left the chest exposed in order to 
show embroidered shirt and lace ruffles. This dress did 
not, it is true, include corsets, but in other respects it was as 
senseless and inconvenient as the most ultra fashions of the 
modern woman's dress, and gave less evidence of individ- 
ual judgment or good sense. 


This was the man still ornamental, but on whom the 
sense of a higher manhood was dawning. Imagine a man 
in such a dress trudging through snow and mud to go to 
business every day, minus the modern umbrella, rubber- 
coat, and overshoes. Now, it was just this factor of business 
that brought man's dress to its present common-sense style. 
Out of this dress of the Revolutionary era was evolved the 
practical, sensible clothes of the man of to-day a dress 
which is, it is true, almost devoid of lines of beauty, but 
which enables man to "live, and move, and have his 
being" without trammel. 

As in all nature and among savages it is the male who is 
most adorned, and most given to folly in dress, because he 
is chiefly an ornamental animal, so it is the development of 
self-dependence, the increase of rights and privileges of 
free manhood, that have evolved the rationally dressed man 
of to-day out of the powdered-wigged, satin-breeched man 
of the Revolutionary time. The same causes will naturally 
bring about the same results in the dress of woman. 

So, when every mother gives her little girl full freedom 
for physical development, and talks to her of the profes- 
sion, trade, or business she is going to learn ; when each 
girl is taught to look forward with pride to a career for 
bread-winning which will leave her free to marry the man 
of her choice, and not make marriage a pursuit and a neces- 
sity, as it too often is at present ; when the great body of 
women learn to regard themselves as the guardians of 
morals, the creators of standards ; when a career is sought 
for a girl, just as it is for a boy ; when parents recognize 
that the only protection to their daughters against unhappy, 
loveless marriages, and their consequent divorce and crime, 
lies in having a source of income in the use of their own 
capabilities then the present follies of dress will be given 
up naturally. 



In considering the ethics of dress there are three points 
I should like to bring before your notice vanity, econ- 
omy, and construction. I consider that a greater simplicity 
in the dress of gentlewomen would lead to a decrease in 
wrong-doing. It is the imitative faculty which leads one 
woman to desire to dress as well as another who has a larger 
share of this world's goods. A foolish consciousness of self, 
which in this instance we may term vanity, is the cause of 
the downfall of some women. 

It behooves every worthy woman to do all in her power 
to lessen this kind of personal vanity among young women 
of all classes. So strongly do I feel on this matter that I 
have sometimes advocated the adoption of a national dress 
as a means of producing simplicity. 

But in apparent opposition to these remarks I should like 
to make an apology on behalf of many young women who 
do think and do talk much about their clothes, and who may 
therefore seem frivolous. These are girls who with small 
allowances and a certain amount of position must dress 
according to their station. These may, by reason of econ- 
omy, appear as well dressed as their wealthier friends, 
kinsfolk, and acquaintances ; and though a proud knowl- 
edge that their economy and careful purchasing enables 
them to present a good appearance, leads them, perhaps, to 
think more of dress than properly busy women should have 
time for, still into their thoughts on dress vanity will not 
enter. The third point is the interest of construction. To 
make a perfect article has a charm for some minds, and the 
question of bias bands or a straight flounce, of stripes or a 
floral design, then becomes a matter of moment ; and this 
interest, and the talk that follows, are only part of a desire 
to produce a perfect whole. 



Nature ornaments everything which she creates, but 
nature makes no ornaments which are not useful. To the 
specifications given by the last speaker, I have two or three 
others to add. One is utility. Now, though nature builds 
us most beautiful things, she makes beauty and utility to 
go side by side everywhere. Man and woman in this 
respect have never yet attempted to imitate nature. We 
should have the beautiful, perhaps, as much in view as ever, 
but we should not wish, therefore, to weight every woman 
with useless incumbrances. The many pieces which woman 
wears, the many ways of fastening, and the flimsy material 
which is always catching everywhere, may be very pretty, 
but they are certainly not useful. You know if we wish to 
.sleep at night and wake in the morning at a certain hour, 
we can set our minds on it and do so, but we wake up 
unrefreshed. Now, my accusation against woman's dress 
is that woman sets her mind, or a part of her mind, to look 
after her gown, and she never has her whole power at her 
command. A part of her mind is not available. Woman 
should dress in such a way as to be entirely unconscious of 
her apparel. 

Another point that I should like to speak of is good 
common-sense applied to our dress. We have simply 
allowed fashion and circumstances to move us forward. 
Man has been moved forward, and so has woman, but not 
because anybody has really studied the subject, and 
attempted to say : " Now we will adapt the clothing of these 
people to the people themselves." You know how long it 
takes nature to give us good fruit, if she is left to herself. 
She gives us a crab-apple first, but it is man, and mind, 
and good applied sense which give us our beautiful 
garden fruits and vegetables ; and we should apply to the 
dress of woman the full principle that, as rational beings, 


we should dress according to our character and circum- 
stances, and not go floundering on as we have in the past. 

One other point. We know that the great temptation to 
the poor woman is not only to exceed her income, but even to 
sell herself, that she may be finely arrayed. We know that 
the suffering which comes to poor women comes often in 
connection with their dress ; and yet we do not remember 
that we, to some extent, are responsible for this. Let us 
apply humanity to the dress question.. 

There is one good rule which a dear old lady gave in 
regard to dress. She said : " Let your garments be so good 
and so near the style that your companions and associates 
will not be mortified or in any way compromised by your 
appearance." That seems to be a sensible rule for present 



The canon of dressing is that you shall so appear as not 
to be a nuisance to your neighbors or yourself. The ethics 
of dress require that you and I shall, as far as in us lies, 
not wear anything the securing of which has given unnec- 
essary pain to any being in the whole of God's world ; and 
that leads into the great question of dressing thoughtlessly 
and carelessly. We are made to think, and thinking re- 
quires that we should know something of the history of 
a piece of stuff before it comes to be ours. When I think 
of how many lives have been darkened by the unspoken 
sorrow lying in clothing, when I think of how many a heart- 
break has been stitched into a bonnet, how many a ruined 
life has been sewn up in the seams of a gown, it is not too 


much to ask women who have had intelligence and power 
enough to be able to meet in this great Congress, to take 
their stand among those who will have nothing to do with 
clothing that has not been produced on the lines of recti- 
tude and equity. There was a color so fashionable eight or 
nine years ago that every woman wanted to have a little 
bit of it, which was produced at the cost of the illness, and 
even the dying, of those who produced it ; and to-day we 
should band ourselves together as Christian, civilized 
women, and say : " We will not adorn ourselves with what 
is to be procured by the unhappiness and the destruction 
of any life in this world." And yet, color is to be a great 
gospel in the future. We have as yet not trodden on the 
threshold of what the meaning of color and the harmoniz- 
ing of colors are to be. God has known it through all the 
ages. He has been speaking to us about what color means 
in all the waste places and wild places of the earth. For 
many a long year every woman that I have met has, to me, 
taken on a color or a tint. It has been difficult for me to 
see form, but I think I was born to see color. Form has 
been a matter of education. 

I want also to say this to you, that whenever mankind 
and womankind are lazy, and dignified in laziness, they are 
certain to adopt a monotonous agreement. Now I am 
going to say something heretical about black. Mothers 
who have children should never wear black. While my 
children were little I never wore a black dress within their 
sight. I myself am so dominated by color, so subtly 
influenced by it, that there are certain platforms upon 
which I can not speak so well as I can upon others, because 
of the coloring. That is because I have analyzed, it may 
be, my own springs of success and failure. A great many 
of us are dominated in the same way and do not know it. 

When the ethics of dress first came tip, what great 
laughter there was about it ! How Punch caricatured Mrs. 
Brown and Mr. Postlewait, and all the rest of the Oscar 
Wildeists ! But we to-day are infinitely better in our cloth- 



ing, in our coloring, and in our ideas of art, because of the 
crude, rugged violence that those apostles did to our Philis- 
tinism. Then there is something else to be said about the 
ethics of clothing. Men and women are not the only sen- 
tient beings upon this earth. The dumb creatures are 
dumb only because you and I can not understand the lan- 
guage they speak. I am certain that when the animals 
and the birds pray, God hears their prayers. It is only 
because we haven't learned their language that we do not 
know what they are saying, and realize the agony of their 
crying because of our cruelty. But I do say to every woman 
here who has a heart of tenderness, an ear for harmony, and 
an eye for coloring How can you and I be partners in the 
great cruelty and dishonesty of robbing God's plaisances of 
all their loveliest denizens the singing birds, the jewel- 
bedecked birds, and the little animals who have never 
harmed us? I see some hats and bonnets around me with 
things in them that I was forever cured of wearing two 
and a half years ago. I had gone down to give a lecture 
in one of our smaller country towns wearing upon my 
bonnet an aigrette, and after I reached home again there 
came a letter saying : " Dear Mrs. Chant, when I saw on 
your bonnet the other night that aigrette, through my 
tears I wondered how a woman so tender as you are 
could be so cruel. I think that you can not know that 
those aigrettes are taken from the mother and father 
herons just when the little ones are most needing their 
care." This was a voice from God sent through a human 
pen, and I cut the aigrette out of my bonnet. No one 
has said that my bonnets have not been quite as pretty 
and becoming since. It is a great pity, isn't it, with such 
an embarrassment of riches in the way of beautiful things, 
that we should encourage a great army of men to be ruth- 
lessly and brutally cruel? 

One of the worst bargain-hunters I know of is one of the 
richest women ; it is not the poor ones only who hunt for 
bargains. When you go along the streets of Chicago at 



night, and walk behind a girl who looks as if life were not 
going to be a happy thing for her, remember* that very 
often poor girl she is the product of the careless woman 
who likes to have bargains, and wants to have everything 
as cheap as possible ; who, instead of paying a proper price 
for one thing, and being able to enjoy it, pays an unright- 
eous price for a dozen things, and never has any enjoyment 
out of any of them. 


Shall we dress according to our own convictions, regard- 
less of the opinions of others ? Considering the state of the 
world, how much time, thought, and money, beyond procur- 
ing decent, hygienic clothing, shall go to dress? These are 
some of the questions we must consider. 

It seems to me that we should not compromise on our 
convictions of beauty, ease, and utility, that we should fol- 
low the fashions only so far as they do not interfere with 
our convictions. 

I have found some thoughts of others which fitly express 
my ideas on this point: " It will be evident to all lovers of 
nature that no fashions can be in good taste that seem to 
imply a contempt for the beautiful arrangement of created 
things. " " A dress which is in accordance with the age, 
complexion, and situation can never be wondered at as out 
of the way, or laughed at as not being in the fashion." 

On the need of beauty in dress : " As if he who so 
clothes the grass of the fields that even the meanest forms 
of his handiwork are lovely beyond all our poor imitating, 
were displeased in our delight in that wherein he most 
continually delights." 

The question of time, money, and thought is treated in 
this way: "The evil begins where woman is absorbed in 
clothes, and regards herself as a sort of peg whereon to 


hang a variety of gowns. " " Let us only so clothe our- 
selves," wrote Dinah Mulock Craik, "that this frail body 
of ours while it does last may not be unpleasing in the 
sight of those who love us; and let us so use it in this 
life that in the life to come it may be found worthy to 
be 'clothed upon' with its Maker's own glorious immor- 


From observation and thinking about women and their 
work in the world, and from a thorough study of the litera- 
ture of the " Reform Dress Movement," it has been my con- 
viction for years that there is nothing which more closely 
and intimately concerns the well-being of women, and 
through them the welfare of the race, than their dress 
not only in its physical effects upon the woman herself, but 
in its ulterior and more enduring effects upon the mental 
and moral status of mankind. If the dress of women has 
such important influences upon themselves and upon the 
men with whom they are associated, if this influence 
extends to the born and to the unborn, as it certainly does, 
then the question of dress becomes ethical and vital, and it 
assumes the importance of a subject worthy of our highest 
thought and our most serious consideration. True Chris- 
tianity gives encouragement and impetus to this idea, for 
it teaches that the body is a beautiful temple, to be guarded 
as a sacred trust and a most precious possession ; that it is a 
noble instrument upon which mind and spirit play ; a serv- 
ant, whose rewards are many and great for kind and intelli- 
gent treatment, but whose revenge is terrible for ignorance 
and willful abuse. 

Hence, anything that interferes with the natural and har- 
monious working of the body is wrong from an ethical or 
moral point of view. Consequently, as a natural result of 
this teaching, the wearing of any garment that impedes the 


circulation of the blood or hinders the free play of the 
muscles must be considered wrong. 

The wearing of any ligature that keeps the lungs from 
their full action in aerating the blood is wrong ; the wear- 
ing of any style of dress that keeps the woman who wears 
the dress from doing her full share of the work of the world 
is wrong. These things are all wrong, in that they lessen 
the health and vigor of the individual, make her a weaker 
member of society, and lessen her efficiency and usefulness 
in any line of work. 

" The judgments of science pronounced against dress 
from a hygienic standpoint are judgments against it from 
a moral standpoint," says Mrs. Ecob, and all right-minded 
persons must coincide with her opinion. It is worthy 
of note that the present style of dress for women confines 
their activities within very narrow limits, and really closes 
many avenues of honorable and lucrative employment that 
might be open to them if they wore a different style of 
dress. Girls in factories are not allowed to tend certain 
machines because of the flowing garments that they wear. 
Managers of manufactories say that there are many machines 
that women could run as well as men were it not for the 
danger of their clothing becoming entangled in the belt- 
ing of the machinery. It is not a question here of brains or 
of strength at all, but simply one of dress. There are 
undoubtedly thousands and thousands of women out of 
employment to-day in the United States, who, if they were 
clothed suitably for such work, might find agreeable and 
remunerative labor in shops and manufactories. 

The ethics of any question is always closely allied to the 
esthetics of the same subject. Nothing can be esthetic 
that is opposed to ethical principles, and so we find that 
the esthetics of dress is continually touching the ethics 
of dress. A perfectly healthful dress may not be in accord- 
ance with esthetic principles, but an essentially esthetic 
dress must be, of necessity, one that conforms to the laws 
of health of the body it covers. A trained gown worn 


upon the street, gathering up filth and the germs of disease, 
is an unsightly object, and offends our esthetic sense, 
because it is out of harmony with the surroundings, and the 
wearing of it becomes a question of ethics, when we con- 
sider the harm it does in crippling its wearer and endanger- 
ing the comfort and even the life of others. 

It is strange that good and thinking men, as a class, do 
not try to further the study of woman's dress from a 
hygienic and moral standpoint, and do not endeavor to aid 
in the evolution of a more rational dress than the one that 
has fettered woman for so many years, and which now 
retards her from reaching the full development of all her 
powers. One would naturally think that every intelligent, 
conscientious man would immediately recognize the great 
underlying principles beneath this question of woman's 
dress ; and would use his influence toward freeing women 
from their bondage to clothes ; and instead of flinging ridi- 
cule and abuse, and retarding her progress, would extend a 
helping hand to every effort his sister is making toward 
gaining a higher plane of life and of action. 

On the contrary, it is practically denied among men that 
there is any ethical principle in the dress of women. Few 
men have even thought of this side of the question, and 
but few fathers and husbands have had their attention 
directed to the fretfulness, ill-temper, and peevishness of 
women as results of false dressing, to the danger to life and 
limb that lurks in their gowns, to the dependence and 
cowardice that inevitably become characteristic of those 
who wear entangling skirts. If men could be aroused to 
the importance of this question, they would very soon 
realize that it concerns more important interests than their 
pocket-books. They would find that sons as well as daugh- 
ters suffer from the physical degeneracy of their mothers, 
and that crime seems to be a necessary concomitant of the 
physically depraved. To many thinkers the question of 
the dress of our women has more to do with the question 
of temperance than prohibition or total abstinence. They 


say that the vicious modes of dressing our women, are 
having their legitimate effect upon the children of this 
country, and that an unnatural craving for stimulants is 
one of the results of the physical deterioration of the race. 

Surely all these facts point to the ethical principle in 
dress, and demand the attention and study of the philan- 
thropists and teachers, the legislators and leaders of our 

Through a recognition of the importance of the ethical 
principles in dress much ought to be accomplished toward 
the evolution of sensible, healthful, and esthetic dress for 
women, and by this means the path would be made easier 
for the development of the woman of the future, who, 
assisted by health-restoring forms of dress, ought to be a 
woman with a more enduring physique than the woman of 
to-day, and who, with a strong and healthy body, should 
be in consequence a woman with a better developed 
brain and a more sensitive spiritual nature a woman 
keenly alive to all the beauties and harmonies of nature 
and strong to meet the opportunities and responsibilities 
of her world. 


Evolution has been defined as the elimination of the 
incongruous. In the process of elimination, however, an 
incongruity may be accentuated. It is proposed in this 
paper to discuss an incongruity which has probably reached 
its maximum accentuation ; I mean the dress of modern 
civilized woman, viewed in its relation to environment. 

Dress originated in decoration. The first stage is one of 
paint and tattoo. Following this is what we may call the 
bear-claw necklace period. Later, with the genesis of mod- 
esty, man covers some portions of his body. Invading cold 



regions, he meets the severities of climate by putting on 
the skins of the animals which he has slain. In a still 
higher stage he drapes himself with woven fabrics; and 
finally the male sex is wrapped in a dress conforming 
in shape to the outlines of the body. Taking and giving 
hard blows in battle, leveling forests, and building cities, 
man learned to dress so as to secure protection and freedom 
of movement. War-paint did not win battles; drapery 
proved an impediment. The unsuitable and fragile has 
been discarded, and a dress has been evolved which meets 
man's needs. His two legs are plainly and warmly clad in 
a garment which offers the least friction with wayside 
objects, and hence occasions least waste of power to the 
wearer. It is a garment equally suitable for the drawing- 
room and the deck of a ship ; for the street, the forest, and 
the mountain-top. His two arms are similarly clothed; 
the dress of those arms is what one would expect in a world 
scored with railroads and threaded with wires. For his 
head he has a plain covering, easily adjusted and as easily 
removed. His feet are well shod. His hands hold onto 
their ancient privilege of going bare. Primitive man 
fought to gain and retain ; and the desire for possessions, so 
far from diminishing, has steadily increased. Man has con- 
tinued to put wealth into such compact shape that he can 
carry about his person that which represents lands and 
goods. Besides this he chooses also to carry conveniences 
which are the symbols of civilization. Thus his garments 
have been more and more differentiated until they now 
have from ten to fifteen specialized receptacles. No one 
will claim that the dress of man is yet perfect ; but it is not 
easy to see how any marked improvement could be made, 
for there is, from top to toe, a correlation between the 
clothing and the needs of the body to be clothed. 

Consider now the dress of woman ; assuming ourselves to 
be ignorant of the habits and pursuits of the wearer, what 
might we infer from the conventional dress? We notice 
that utility is much subordinated to ornament. The motive 


may not appear, but the fact is obvious. The head- 
covering gives rise to doubt whether the wearer ever goes 
out in it, for it does not protect from heat or cold, from 
rain or sunshine. Moreover, it indicates that the female 
head is very different from the male head as to both shape 
and dimensions. The principal body-covering is seen to con- 
sist of a tight-fitting garment, confining the muscles on the 
outside of the bony framework and repressing the action of 
vital organs within this is assuming that the wearer has 
lungs and a heart and a stomach, as man has. Auxiliary to 
this fitted body-covering is another contrivance designed to 
act with the outer one in securing a general smoothness and 
immobility. Following this is the masterpiece of the entire 
apparel, a garment not bifurcated, and hence best adapted 
to a creature with but one leg. It is composed of volumi- 
nous folds, more or less ornamented, and of considerable 
weight. It appears also that this weight is sometimes sus- 
pended from that part of the body that probably contains 
the most delicate and most easily displaced of all the 
organs. Looking at the entire article, it seems most reason- 
able to suppose that, whether the wearer has one or two 
legs, she is not expected to walk much. This hypothesis 
gains further support when the length of this leg-covering 
is considered. It reaches practically to the ground. Indeed 
it has been known to lie several inches upon the ground. 
The term "ground" is used figuratively, for it is not to be 
supposed that the wearer goes outside of the house in this 
raiment. The dust of the street is known to contain dis- 
ease germs, and surely no intelligent person would consent 
to trail about after her a garment that could gather up such 
dust in addition to the filth that is visible to the naked eye. 
The foot and hand coverings are corollaries to the expres- 
sion of the other portions of the attire. Last of all, that 
most insignificant sociologic feature of man's dress, the 
pocket, is rudimentary or lacking. The dress thus de- 
scribed admits of but one theoretical interpretation. The 
wearer of these garments can not be a person of much 


activity, either physical or mental. Surely she can not 
travel, making either long or short journeys, because the 
prevailing systems of transit are not adapted to any one so 
tied up and helpless. Of course field sports are not for her ; 
she could not be expected to run, or row, or throw. The 
street, the garden, the market-place are obviously to be 
avoided. Housework, such as sweeping and cooking, 
could be done only with much difficulty and fatigue. 
Going up and down stairs would be dangerous, especially 
if she were to attempt to carry an important burden, such 
as a baby or a lamp. How limited must be the employ- 
ment, how restricted the pleasures, of one who wears this 
modern costume ! So far astray does one go who relies on 
the scientific principle of agreement between structure and 
function. Before passing to the sequel, and comparing the 
real case with our theoretical solution, we shall do well to 
remind ourselves that there is one human body. From the 
point of view of mechanics, it consists of a central trunk, 
mounted on two upright jointed supports, and furnished 
with other jointed members. The general anatomical 
and physiological characteristics are alike in the male and 
the female. They are nourished by the same food, and 
destroyed by the same poisons. They both require pure 
air and regular exercise. If man's feet are adapted for 
walking, so also are woman's. If the mechanism of his 
arms requires freedom in order that he may work, it is the 
same with her. In so far as their bodies are differentiated, 
the argument is wholly on the side of furnishing the 
female body with a more favorable dress than that 
designed for the male body, rather than with a less favor- 
able one. These things being so, what kind of a dress 
should we expect, a priori, to find on woman ? There can 
be but one answer. Since she is anatomically and physio- 
logically like man, if she lives under the same domestic and 
climatic conditions that he does, whatever, broadly speak- 
ing, is most suitable and convenient for him will be found 
to be most suitable and convenient for her, and a high 


state of civilization may reasonably be expected to exhibit 
conformity to this principle. The failure to meet any such 
standard has already been pointed out. The incongruity is 
not in wearing the dress she does, but in wearing it and at 
the same time attempting to be a sharer in modern life. 
Where man travels woman travels, and by the same means. 
She wears that costume on Piccadilly and Broadway. She 
gets into an electric car with her arms full of bundles ; she 
goes up and down stairs with the lamp and the baby. She 
appears on horseback, on the bicycle, in the tennis court, 
everywhere, in that long-skirted, tight-waisted dress, at- 
tempting to do what one would pronounce in advance to be 
unsuitable if not impossible ; and custom closes her eyes 
and the eyes of spectators to the incongruity involved. 
Nor is this all. In a still more important sense does 
woman propose to share in modern life. She expects to 
take the same course of study that a man does ; to hold her 
own in a profession, to assume a business role. These 
things she attempts while handicapped by a dress imposed 
upon her during the dark ages. Professor Lester F. Ward, 
author of " Dynamic Sociology," sums up the whole matter 
when he declares that " the dress of women is the disgrace 
of civilization." It is a disgrace because of the lack of 
adaptation of woman's dress to her environment. She has 
not yet emerged from what we may call the ornamental 
drapery stage. Costly gems, rare laces, exquisite fabrics 
can not cover up the fact that this dress, in its fundamental 
ideas, is the dress of the half-civilized, and not that of one 
who is master of herself and of the world. What is the 
explanation? How are we to account for this arrested 
development ? 

One of the objects that primitive man sought to gain and 
to retain was woman. One of the objects of his early bar- 
gaining was woman. Marriage by capture and marriage 
by purchase are undisputed facts of sociology. Might and 
force underlay early social and political operations, but 
while man managed by force, experience taught woman 


that she must manage by cunning. To win her own ends 
and secure advantages for herself she saw that she must 
please. To make herself personally pleasing by means of 
ornament was naturally her first device. It would appear 
that up to date, whether as slave, drudge, plaything, or 
companion, she holds to that primitive plan. It has not 
occurred to man to regard woman as his equal. The tes- 
timony from the history of the state and church and school 
proves this only too completely. In domestic seclusion, 
removed from every kind of competition with man, 
believing that her empire was to please, woman has had 
neither occasion nor encouragement to improve her dress. 
The explanation of the delay in the evolution of female 
dress is thus threefold. 

First, it has been assumed, though never proved, that a 
simpler, more convenient costume would not be pretty and 
graceful ; hence it could not be pleasing ; hence on no 
account could it be adopted. 

Second, simple, convenient garments would suggest 
equality of the sexes, and this would not be pleasing; 
hence they should not be adopted. 

Third, all influences have tended to foster a timid, con- 
servative spirit in woman, so that she is the obedient fol- 
lower of fashion rather than the independent beginner of 
rational customs. 

Men and women alike desire respect, admiration, and 
approval; but man long ago learned to scorn personal 
adornment as a basis of claim to favorable opinion. The 
decadence of this as a basis has been accompanied by a 
corresponding growth of appeal to the product of his brain 
and the work of his hands. It is his book, or discovery, 
or business enterprise that a man expects you to admire 
him for, not his coat. What is the sociological meaning 
of the modern movement on the part of woman for in- 
dustrial recognition, for legal and political equality with 
man? It means largely that an additional basis of claim 
to approbation and honor is now proposed over and above 


pleasing ornamentation. In this movement woman breaks 
with the traditions of the past, and declares herself not 
content with the status assigned her by primitive man. 
Around the world she is beginning to want education, and 
a less humiliating position in the church and the state. 
She is beginning to grope for her share, as half of the 
human race. She is beginning to want a pocket. Pockets 
mean power and independence, because they mean posses- 
sions. Not more closely do rings in pierced ears and neck- 
laces point to a former condition of slavery and barbaric 
adornment than does the absence of pockets betray the 
fact that woman not only is not accustomed to possess goods 
and chattels, but has been herself goods and chattels. 

About the time that women begin to demand pockets, 
wide, and deep, and abundant, we may look for another 
phenomenon dissatisfaction with property laws which 
are an indignity to every woman who marries. 

The question of immense practical importance now is, 
Will women recognize that the race is to the unimpeded ? 
Let no one suppose that the woman who wastes her phys- 
ical strength and nervous force, who squanders her time and 
dissipates her attention, is going to stand as good a chance 
as the one who treasures her strength and concentrates her 
attention. Nature is merciless to the ignorant and the will- 
ful. Premiums are for those who utilize every favorable 
factor and discard every unfavorable one. The women who 
see this principle most clearly, and who have the greatest 
wisdom in taking advantage of it, are the ones who in the 
long run are going to win. 

It is beyond question that woman's mode of dressing is 
an obstacle to her true progress. To the waste of her 
strength, and time, and attention,* and money, add the capi- 
tal and labor now devoted to producing and fashioning the 
materials for the dress-display, and it can not be doubted 
that her present mode of dressing is a large retarding force 
in the civilization and progress of the whole human race. 
But that other force which we call public sentiment asks for 


us no relief. It says rather to the wage-earning woman : 
Submit to the great god Fashion, else you shall not teach 
at our public school desks, or stand behind our counters, or 
even cook in our kitchens. And to the other it says : Sub- 
mit, though you have to violate every law of health and 
good sense, else you shall be ostracized. How much sub- 
mission there is need not be here recorded. Fashion finds 
allies in ignorance and conventionality. These powers 
hold such sway in social life-that one can almost believe the 
law of evolution has been suspended in woman's disfavor. 
On the other hand, the doing of those things which make 
woman's dress conspicuously incongruous is exactly what 
indicates the coming of a better day. The magnitude of 
the incongruities is the most cheering fact in the dress 
chapter of sociology. What once seemed the fittest seems 
so no longer, and nature will see to it that the fittest 

The girl who enters upon life in 1900 is going to have a 
fairer chance than her grandmother's mother had ; and who 
is not glad to think of that woman of the far-off future in 
whose coming the analogies of science permit us to believe ? 
In larger measure than any that we have experience of, she 
will possess truth, and truth will make her free. She will 
demand a knowledge of her own body, and how it is to be 
preserved in health and long life ; a knowledge of the earth 
on which she lives, and how to manage her living so that 
the forces of nature shall work for her ; a knowledge of the 
social and political commonwealth, in which she is to be a 
unit, not a fraction, as is the case with her sister of to-day ; 
a knowledge also of her social and political environment, 
viewed as a long result of time, connected with causes 
which have their beginnings in the animal life whence we 
came. On the intellectual side of her nature she will 
accept evidence or proof as a directive force, in place of the 
now dominant emotions. On the esthetic side she will 
realize that a home should not be a bric-a-brac shop, and 
that what a woman gives in attention to the adornment of 


her person she loses in power to see and appreciate the 
splendors of the wide world around her. 

This is the woman who may be expected to walk the 
earth before the decay of our civilization sets in, and the 
Anglo-Saxon starts on the down grade toward a second 
barbarism. This is the one to whom from the shores of the 
nineteenth century none too bright for women we send 
our greetings. Let us join hands to hasten her coming ; 
and hope while we work. 


The present dress of civilized women, upon a careful, 
unbiased examination, is neither healthful, convenient, nor 
beautiful. It is not such as the intelligent, scientific knowl- 
edge and artistic taste of to-day would invent, were it a 
question of invention, to supply a felt deficiency. But the 
woman's dress of to-day is not an invention. It is a growth 
an unconscious growth reflecting many of the blind 
movements, with their mistaken wanderings and false 
ideals, which have brought the human race to what it now 
is. But what is the future of woman's dress in relation to 
great social forces? There are two rapidly developing 
factors which, in the near future, must modify and later 
permanently revolutionize it. 

These two factors are, first, a rapidly increasing interest 
in science, and a growing reverence for its teachings ; and 
second, that spirit of humanitarianism which is breathing 
its life-giving principles into every department of human 

In science we have the great guiding-spirit of the future 
of humanity ; in humanitarianism, its inspiring emotion. 
Science recalls the laws which feed humanitarianism the 
laws of the common origin of all life, of inseparable rela- 
tions and of common dependence. 


The increase of this spirit of humanitarianism is very 
visible in all the movements of the day. But it is science 
alone which can do away with that blind obedience to 
custom and prejudice which binds us fast. A mind trained 
scientifically demands a basis of reason for what it does 
and does not. It is not afraid to investigate and analyze, 
knowing well that, in the end, it can only reach the truth. 
Moreover, in the school of science which deals with the 
mysteries of life, the study of the underlying laws teaches 
that true reverence for them which can not knowingly con- 
sent to their violation. 

A stricter regard for truth, and a willingness to sacrifice 
to it any ideals and illusions, however long cherished, will 
be one of the most evident results of a scientific education, 
which demands facts, and trains to exactness. If we in our 
every-day lives compelled ourselves to the utterance of per- 
fect truth, if we did not allow ourselves to cover our want of 
kindness with the cloak of the polite deception of the day, 
the very want of that deception would reveal such a start- 
ling chasm of inhumanity that we should be obliged to fill 
it with the reality. The abandonment of lies would in the 
end evolve for us the genuine article. And so in dress, the 
abandonment of deceptions would in the end produce such 
a sense of the necessity of reality that in time we should 
revive the physiques of antiquity. 

It is to the teachings of science that we must look for the 
production of a genuine respect for the human body, and 
for every organ forming a part of it of a proper concep- 
tion of the dignity of every physical function of a rev- 
erence which will hesitate to violate the laws of being. 
Thorough study of the anatomy and physiology of the body 
will call attention to the common violation of these laws, 
and its disastrous results. At last the true value of the 
body, its possibilities and claims to reverent attention, will 
dawn upon us. Such a knowledge of our own bodies, com- 
monly disseminated, would without doubt do more to 
change woman's dress than anything else. 


It is largely because women do not know how they are 
constructed that they persist in present styles. Equipped 
with full knowledge, any woman would hesitate before 
adopting the fashionable dress of to-day, and another gen- 
eration would see it virtually discarded. 

But science reveals not only the laws of the individual life 
but also the laws of heredity, and with them the individual's 
responsibility to future generations, in handing down to 
them the impaired vitality resulting from violations of 
physical laws. 

If to-day we find but little regard for these laws, is it not 
largely because, to the great mass of people, this field is not 
only an unknown one, but also, from a false sense of delicacy, 
a forbidden one ? 

When the teachings of science become common, when 
the youth of our land grow up in them, then shall light 
have fallen upon that spirit of humanitarianism which is 
still blindly, although intensely, stirring among the people, 
and their eyes shall be opened. 

What then shall become of the woman's dress of to-day? 
When the strongholds of custom and prejudice are swept 
away ; when simple, pure truth becomes lovely ; when real- 
ity is more than seeming, and "the body more than raiment "; 
when conscience shall have awakened to the call of justice 
and the claims of others can it longer remain what it is ? 

It is then to science and to humanitarianism that we must 
look for the evolution of a dress for woman, which, while 
healthful and beautiful, shall also be permanent in its lead- 
ing characteristics, because founded on intelligent action 
instead of blind caprice. In so far as we foster these two 
already developing forces, we shall aid in the inauguration 
of the social reforms which must inevitably follow in their 




The consideration of the subject of woman's dress leads 
us to the question whether, in the warfare that is being 
waged between woman and her dress, it is the woman or 
her uncomfortable and ill-adapted dress that is to survive. 
For here too, as elsewhere in the natural world, the strug- 
gle for life is persistently going on. Here too, inevitably, 
the stronger will win the day. The question is whether 
woman shall subordinate herself to a dress that hampers, 
or whether she shall subordinate her dress to her needs. 
The issue of the contest is by no means yet apparent. 

The salvation of woman seems almost hopeless, when we 
think of the frippery and airy nothings which we see 
exhibited in milliners' shop-windows, with the explanatory 
placard, " Ladies' spring bonnets " ; when we reflect upon 
those artificial, often costly, appendages with which women 
have been doing the double duty of sweeping the streets 
and adorning their own persons ; when we consider that 
educated women are no less slaves of fashion than are the 
ignorant ; that it is, indeed, regarded as praiseworthy if a 
woman can learn something, and yet outrival in dress the 
society devotee ; when we perchance listen for a few 
moments to the conversation in which almost any group of 
women will indulge after the ordinary greetings have been 
said ; or when we hear the comments made about any 
woman who, for the furtherance of any cause whatsoever, 
appears before the public ; her dress being first discussed, 
and afterward, if at all, her achievements. If a man 
appears before the public, it is the merit of what he has 
done, and not the clothes in which he has done it, that 
awakens interest. I have searched in vain, in the accounts 
of this Congress, to find a description of the cut and mate- 
rial of Mr. Bonney's coat. All these things, which we daily 
see and experience, lead us to the inevitable conclusion 



that the love of pleasing by the means of outward attire is 
inborn in woman, and that, until her education strikes far 
enough into her inner life to reach the springs of some 
worthier ambition, she is likely to remain the victim of her 
capricious and despotic rival dress. 

On the other hand, thefe are some reasons for believing 
that woman may yet come off victor. Women are begin- 
ning to learn that woman's dress is uncomfortable and 
unsuitable. Girls are so early placed in bonds that they 
forget about the freedom they enjoyed in the first few years 
of their lives ; they do not know what it is to have untram- 
meled arms and legs ; they do not know what a long, full, 
deep breath is ; and so they go on half-breathing, half-mov- 
ing, and consequently half-thinking ; thorough in nothing 
but their ignorance of what they most of all need to know. 

It is a hopeful sign that woman is taking a place also in 
the busy world outside of the home. For here first she 
learns to what extent her mode of dress is a crippling one ; 
when she tries to do, side by side with man, the things 
which need strength and freedom of motion ; when she 
attempts to do that which requires long-continued effort, 
be it of muscle or of brain, she finds that she is impeded. 
She is confronted by a dilemma ; shall she give up the race, 
or shall the hindering clothes be exchanged for those which 
are more suitable ? Which will she choose ? Time will tell. 
If any women are inclined to think that, in the nineteenth 
century, they are winning the day, in spite of dress, that 
they can follow unreasonable fashion and yet win, let them 
beware lest they deceive themselves. It is true that colleges 
and universities are opening their doors to women, that 
opportunities are opening to them on all sides in all walks of 
life ; but this is only the first step. It is true that women have 
proved that they can learn Greek and mathematics, and, 
indeed, everything else in the curriculum, and that they 
can sometimes excel ; this is but the second step. There is 
beyond all this the vast realm of the unknown. I can not 
believe that women will succeed in entering this realm, 


save with untrammeled feet. Whether women realize it or 
not, their demands to enter the lists with men have bound 
them to run the race ; and the winning is to the unimpeded. 
Another reason for feeling encouraged to hope is that 
some women have already reached, and many others are 
constantly nearing, that degree of development which 
enables them to demand a more comfortable, more health- 
ful, more suitable dress ; and again, that a few women have 
already the courage to put on and wear such a dress, and 
that there is in the United States one woman who is the 
happy possessor of ten capacious pockets ! * 


The Rational Dress Society in England has spared no 
means in its power for the last ten years in calling public 
attention to the errors of the lines on which women's dress 
is constructed, and to the great evils which naturally 
follow. The efforts of the society so far have not met with 
the success which might have been hoped ; but that this 
should be the case is not altogether surprising when one 
considers that until recently it was thought almost wicked, 
and certainly " unwomanly," for women, and more espe- 
cially for young women, to have any definite ideas upon 
those things in life which most immediately concerned 
their own welfare, comfort, or health. So we are now 
simply reaping the fruits of the mistaken teachings and 
preachings of many generations. 

Not that this explanation in the least exonerates the 
majority of women from their conduct with regard to the 
question of reform in dress. More particularly one must 
condemn the attitude assumed by those among them who 

*The reference is to Professor Ellen Hayes, author of the essay 
" Woman's Dress from the Standpoint of Sociology," in which she 
advocates pockets as the symbol of power and possession. 


have leisure and culture; for however absolutely con- 
vinced they may be intellectually of the truth of the princi- 
ples laid down by the society, they will not so much as 
move one hair's-breadth to help to remove what is truly a 
grievous burden from their less happily situated fellow- 
creatures. No, if it is wet they can go in a carriage. They 
do not so much mind having their dresses inside all covered 
with filthy dust from the streets, as the disagreeable office 
of cleaning them falls on their maids. They do have short 
dresses of some sort for the Scotch moors, and as they are 
rich enough to have plenty of dresses for each different 
occasion, they do not care to do anything to help to intro- 
duce a style of dress that would be better suited to the 
lives of the mass of womankind, and which would also 
benefit themselves immeasurably. 

This state of affairs tends to make the work of the 
Rational Dress Society much harder and its progress much 
slower than it otherwise would be. At present all women's 
dress is arranged on " the carriage round the corner " plan. 
That is to say, the dress assumes that the wearer has gone 
out for a drive, but, for a whim, has got down to walk a 
few steps, and will be getting into her carriage again 
directly. And just as it is probable that, while the majority 
of women do not imagine every one who sees them takes 
them for duchesses, still nothing would induce them to wear 
a dress or mark proclaiming that they could not possibly 
be duchesses, so nothing could induce a woman so to dress 
as to make it clear she had not a carriage. Until, there- 
fore, the frame of mind alters which leads all women 
even those who work in the fields to have their clothes 
made on this idiotic principle, progress in dress reform 
is likely to be slow. 

Another great difficulty is the peculiar notion that women 
must dress on the lines of a Noah's Ark figure ; or, as Mrs. 
King once wittily put it, that " a petticoat is a divinely 
appointed garment for women to wear." This Noah's Ark 
figure, however, is not only the principle on which women's 


dress is constructed, but, paradoxical as it sounds, it is at 
the same time the precise form which every one is most 
anxious to avoid. Hence the waist-pinching to break the 
artificially constructed straight line from shoulder to ankles. 
Hence the huge sleeves. Hence the marvelous skirt devel- 
opments in the form of trains, flounces, crinolines, and 
dress improvers. Hence, too, the masses of frills and trim^ 
mings of all sorts, which, by their perpetual tearing and 
coming to pieces, add so greatly to the worry of life. 

In some way or other the old idea must be eradicated 
that two legs are proper for a man but improper for a 
woman before any change is possible. And women must 
give up their present abject habit of wearing anything and 
everything if they hear it is the fashion. 

Many persons are just now in a very jubilant frame of 
mind because, as they say, women have successfully resisted 
what they call the invasion of crinoline. It appears uncer- 
tain, however, whether this is a fact or not, as there is a 
doubt whether crinoline was ever intended to be introduced. 
But be that as it may, the dress which is worn at present is 
not only awkward and uncomfortable to the last degree, 
but also peculiarly ugly, so that the rejoicing strikes some 
minds as uncalled for and irrational. 

It is strange how little the higher education of women 
has helped them to improve matters which primarily con- 
cern their own well-being. The perpetual hampering of 
themselves with clothing so constructed as to make the 
natural functions of breathing and walking artificially 
laborious, and the latter in many cases almost impossible, 
is nearly on a par with self-mutilation, and is fully worthy 
of the contempt and disgust which the latter would excite. 

Numbers of people are always ready to write violently 
condemnatory articles against what they call "tight 
lacing "; the one published in the National Review for 
March, entitled " Victims of Vanity," by Lady Violet Gre- 
ville, being a good example. But these writers quite fail 
to realize what would be the result of the carrying out of 


their advice. In the first place, they lose sight of the Noah's 
Ark figure aspect of the question before mentioned; and 
in the second they seem to imagine that the wearing of 
corsets only exaggerates the natural shape of the body, 
whereas it really aims at producing a new shape which 
does not exist in nature, but which looks much nicer with 
petticoats ! The nearer to this arbitrary and unnatural 
form any one can mold her body, the more she is pro- 
nounced to have a lovely figure. The natural human figure 
has no horizontal line around the waist, such as it is arti- 
ficially forced to assume with any corsets, loose or tight. 
The falling in over the hips does not begin under the arms 
like the letter V. The body first spreads out, and only falls 
in to the hips below the ribs. This falling in over the hips 
does not go round the body horizontally, but is much higher 
up in front than at the sides, and also it is very slight 
indeed. In addition to the alterations enforced by the cor- 
set, the perpetual pressure of the piece of steel down the 
front of the body is most injurious. There are two or three 
inventions of underclothing now procurable which support 
the bust perfectly without any of the drawbacks insepa- 
rable from our old friend " the corset." Indeed, this instru- 
ment of torture, and producer of ill-health, ought now to 
be relegated to a corner of museums, being as much out of 
date with our present knowledge of anatomy as is the 
armor of the Middle Ages with that of modern explosives. 
It is a pity all the notions of the beauty of women's dress 
should be so mixed up as to include the wearing of skirts 
as one of the necessary adjuncts. The beauty, such as it is, 
proceeds from the materials and the harmony of colors, 
and considering the amount of thought and money 
expended on the subject, it would be strange if a certain 
measure of beauty were not produced ; but the beauty 
would be quite as great, if not greater, in some of the forms 
of dresses with which the world is now familiar that are 
made on the dual, or two-legged, principle. This is truly 
the one essential point in dress reform, and the one to 


which all our efforts should be directed. If it became gen- 
eral, all other reforms must follow as a matter of course. 
Slight reforms and differences made, while preserving in 
the main the old lines, will never become permanent, and 
are only practically a waste of time ; but it is quite certain 
that a generation of women who had once become accus- 
tomed to the comfort and freedom of clothing made 
approximately in the shape of the human form would 
never consent to return to the cumbrous primitive petticoat. 


Ever since its inception, the Salvation Army has been 
know r n as an organization which upholds to the fullest 
extent the rights and privileges of women as reformers and 
apostles in Christ's name to the world. Through the dark 
days of persecution, when woman's ministry and public 
work of any kind were so much opposed, the battle was 
fought with dauntless courage ; and in many of the countries 
in which our flag is planted it is a recognized fact that the 
Salvation Army has been of good service to all women 
workers, as an advance-guard who have fought their way 
through the tangles and difficulties of an untrodden path, 
and left behind them tracks for the following hosts. 
Though the very name of our organization is indicative of 
the fact that we are a spiritual army, and that our main 
object is to bring the Christ light and message of glad tid- 
ings to the hearts of those sitting in darkness, yet in this 
very mission we can not be other than social and moral 
reformers. She who brings righteous, holy inspiration and 
goodness to the heart and home must bring also reforma- 
tion into all those social and moral relations which through 
sin have become so chaotic and perverted. 

Here, in this our dear country, during the last six years, 


the Army has forced itself into recognition by the public ; 
and even those who care little for religion, or who dissent 
from our doctrines and object to our measures, have learned 
to hail us as a powerful social factor in the upraising of the 
criminal and almost hopeless classes. Among our officers 
we have a larger number of women than men. 

That woman is especially fitted by God for this work 
through the gifts of tenderness, affection, and persistency, 
is becoming more and more a recognized fact. We make 
no difference in our work between the man and the woman. 
We do not give her a separate sphere of the work, or 
organize her efforts as though she were in any way dis- 
qualified for standing shoulder to shoulder with man at 
the battle's front. Every position that can be held by 
man every office and duty that can be performed by him 

we throw open to her; and we have but one gauge by 
which to test the qualifications for responsibility, namely 


I have watched the field of labor, and I have seen much 
energy, much good talent thrown away much good desire 
expended without result until organization has put each 
worker into her right place and brought to all the one aim 
and object. Our women are organized for war. In the 
hardness of the struggle, the devotion and self-sacrifice 
needed can be understood only by those who have looked 
face to face with the great social and moral questions, and 
have wrestled hand to hand. with the vice and sin which 
are our enemies and the enemies of our King. Daily are 
coming to my ears tributes of praise and admiration to the 
noble way our women, in the slums or on the street, in the 
saloons or in their ordinary corps work, are carrying this 
war this battle to the gates, and gaining the laurels of 
well-earned victory. The New York Herald, a little while 
ago, remarked that it had become an established fact in 
New York City that two wearers of the poke bonnet could 
quell a street riot more effectively than a squad of police ; 
while a policeman himself acknowledged to our slum 


worker that she and her women could lead with ease a 
ruffian whom it would take six policemen to drag. 

In connection with our slum and rescue work, we have 
found that it can be accomplished far more effectually by 
women than would ever be possible to the men of our 
organization. The very fact that women courageously and 
lovingly enter these strongholds of vice and iniquity un- 
protected, so far as the human eye can see are fearless in 
the face of what many might consider danger arouses in 
the hearts of these criminal and outcast men the little spark 
of chivalry and honor which lies dormant in their depraved 
nature. To take into such places our men warriors might 
indicate fear on the part of women while courage is one 
of woman's most beautiful attributes, coupled as it is with 
less vigor and strength of muscle. It is women who must 
be organized into battalions to seek out the woman whose 
honor and purity have been trampled in the dust, for in 
their pure faces and loving words alone can the outcast 
woman read that there is hope for her ; and they alone are 
qualified to kneel at the side of the abandoned one and 
plead with her whose life has been so embittered by wrong 
and shame. We have proved that women are not only 
capable of being thoroughly organized to lead, but also 
capable of being controlled and united to follow. Our 
opponents say that in organization each woman would 
want to-be herself a leader, and that chaos would result 
from her inability to obey and follow. We find this abso- 
lutely incorrect ; for the discipline of army organization 
has proved to us that woman, as a private, as an officer, or 
as a commander, can quite as well and methodically fill her 
place as any man that ever took the field. 

Love to God, devotion to the cause of humanity, and the 
inspiration of the life and spirit of the great lover of the 
world can add to woman's own qualifications the divine 
inspiration which makes her more effective than could be 
any winged angel untrammeled by the cares, anxieties, 
and sufferings which are our heritage. 



As a student of anthropology and heredity, one is some- 
times compelled to make statements which seem to the 
thoughtless listener either too radical or too horrible to be 
true. If I were to assert, for example, that good men men 
who have the welfare of the community at heart, men who 
are kind fathers and indulgent husbands, men who believe 
in themselves as pure, upright, and good citizens if I 
were to say that such men as these are thorough believers 
in, and supporters of, the theory that it is right and wise 
to sacrifice the liberty, purity, health, and life of young 
girls and women ; and, through the terrible power of hered- 
ity, to curse fatally the race, rather than to permit men 
and boys to suffer in their own persons the results of their 
own misdeeds, mistakes, or crimes, I should be accused of 
being morbid and a ''man-hater." But let us see if the 
above statement is not quite within the facts. I shall take 
as an illustration the words and arguments of a man who 
stands second only to the chief police officer in the largest 
city in the United States ; and since he was permitted to 
present his arguments in one of the most widely read 
journals of the country, without a protest from the editors, 
it seems fitting that they should be dealt with as of grave 
importance. All the more is this the case since they were 
intended to influence legislation in the interests of state- 
regulated vice. Among other things, he said, " Of course 
there are disorderly houses, but they are more hidden, and 
less of that vice is flaunted here than in any other city in 
the world. Such places have existed since the world began,, 
and men of observation know that this fact is a safeguard 
around their homes and daughters. Men of candid judg- 
ment, religious men, know too that they had ten thousand 
times rather have their live, robust boys err in this indul- 


gence than think of them in the place of those unfortu- 
nates on the island whose hands are muffled or tied behind 
them. This is a desperately practical question, with more 
than a theoretical and sentimental side. It ought to be 
talked about and better understood among fathers. Thank 
God that vice is so hidden that Doctor Parkhurst had to 
get detectives to find disorderly houses, and that thousands 
of wives and daughters do not know even of their exist- 
ence. Such horrible disclosures as were made before inno- 
cent women and girls in Doctor Parkhurst's audience do 
vastly more harm, in arousing their curiosity and polluting 
their minds, than a host of sin that is compelled to hide its 
head. When I was captain of the Twenty-ninth Precinct, I 
went with Doctor Talmage on his errand for sensational 
information for his sermons. I know from observation, and 
from reports which I was careful to gather, that never in 
their history were the places he described so thronged by 
patrons, largely from Brooklyn, or so much money spent 
there for debauchery, as after those sermons." 

Now I assume that this police inspector is a good citizen, 
father, husband, and man. I assume that he is sincere 
and earnest in his desire and efforts to suppress crime, and 
promote, so far as he is able, the welfare of the community. 
I assume, in short, that he is in intent and fact a loyal citi- 
zen and a conscientious officer. I have no reason to believe 
that he is not saying what he conceives is best and right ; 
and yet even he is quoted as openly advocating the sacrifice 
of purity to impurity, the creating of moral and social 
lepers in one sex in order that moral and social lepers, or 
the ignorantly vicious, of the other sex may escape the 
results of their own mistakes or vices. It impresses me 
anew that such teaching from such authority, supported 
positively or negatively by public opinion, not only is the 
most unfortunate that can be put before a boy, but that it 
goes further, perhaps, than anything else can to confirm in 
men that condition of sex mania which the inspector says 
should be cultivated by means of regularly recognized state 


institutions for the utter sacrifice and death of young girls, 
rather than that it should end in the wreck of the sex 
maniac himself. But were our statesmen students of the 
laws of heredity, they would not need to be told that there 
are, there can be, no " safeguards around our wives and 
daughters" so long as their husbands, fathers, and sons are 
polluting the streams of life before they transmit that life 
to those who are to be our daughters and wives. 

But not to go so deeply into the subject for the moment 
as to deal with its bearings upon heredity, upon what 
principle his arguments can be valid I fail to see. Why is 
it better that some girl should be sacrificed, body, mind, 
and soul? Why is it better that she should be the man's 
victim than that he should be his own ? And then, again, 
the problem is not solved when she is sacrificed. He has 
simply changed the form of his disease, and in the change, 
while it is possible he has delayed for himself the day 
of destruction, he has in the process corrupted not only his 
victim but the social conscience as well. Were this all, per- 
haps it would be still thought wise to follow the advice of 
the inspector, and, alas, of many physicians, and continue 
to sacrifice, under the brutal wheel of sex power, those who 
are from first to last a prey to the conditions of a social and 
legal environment in which they are allowed no voice. 

But this is not all. The seeming cure is no cure at all. 
It is simply a postponement of the awful day for the sex- 
pervert himself; and worse than this, more terrible than 
this, it is the cause of the continuance of the mania, not 
only in himself but in his children. He marries some 
honest girl by and by, and thus associates with the burnt- 
out dregs of his life one who would loathe him if she knew 
his true character, and his concealed but burning flame of 
insanely inherited, insanely indulged, bestially developed 
tendency. But he is now, under the shadow of social 
respectability and church sanction, to perpetuate his unfort- 
unate mania in those who are helpless, the unborn. Hered- 
ity is not a slipshod thing. It does not follow one parent 


and one alone. The children of a father who " sowed his 
wild oats " by the method prescribed by the inspector (and, 
alas, by social custom) are as truly his victims as is the 
wreck of humanity who is to be quarantined in some given 
locality, and made a social leper and a physical wreck that 
he personally may be neither the one nor the other. But 
nature is a terrible antagonist. She bides her time, and 
when she strikes she does not forget to strike a harder, 
wider-reaching, more terrible blow than can be compassed 
by a single individual or a single generation. This is the 
lesson that we have absolutely thus far refused to learn. I 
do not hesitate to take direct issue with the inspector and 
social custom, therefore, and say that it is far better for 
society, far better for the fathers of unfortunate victims of 
sex mania, far better for the victim himself, that he be " on 
the island, with hands muffled or tied behind him," where 
death to one individual will end the shame and misery for 
all, than that, by applying the remedy of state regulation, 
the result should be as it is, as it always has been, as it 
always must be, namely other generations of sex maniacs, 
scrofulous, epileptic, or simply constitutionally undermined 
weaklings. The boys who are encouraged to ''sow their 
wild oats," and taught that it is safe to do so under state 
regulation, should hear the reports of some of the students 
of hereditary traits, conditions, and developments. There 
is to-day in an asylum, not so far from this inspector's own 
door but that its records are easy of access, one victim of 
this pernicious theory whose history runs thus : He was a 
gentleman of good social, financial, and mental status and 
surroundings. He was a "young man about town." He 
possessed, perhaps it was an hereditary trait, more con- 
sciousness of the fact that he was a male animal than of the 
fact that he was, or should be, an intelligent, self-respecting 
human being, who had no moral right to degrade another 
human being for his own gratification, while he assumed to 
still retain a higher and safer plane than his companions in 
vice. He was, in brief, no better and no worse than many 


young fellows who alas ! that they are so taught by men 
who believe themselves good and honorable "turn out to 
be good family men." 

After his system was thoroughly inoculated, physically, 
mentally, and morally or ethically, with the tone, the con- 
dition, the trend of the life which the inspector and many 
other good men insist is unfit for the ears of women, but 
necessary to the welfare of men, and " best " for them, he 
married a lovely woman from a good family. All went well. 
Society smiled (this is history, not fiction), and said that 
rapid men when they did marry made the best husbands 
in the world. It is said such men know better how to 
appreciate fully purity at home. Society did not state that 
there could be no purity in a stream where half of the trib- 
utaries are polluted. But society was satisfied to talk of 
" pure homes " so long as there was one pure partner to 
the compact which resulted in the home. It does not talk 
of an honest firm if but one of its members is privately 
and in his own person honest, while he accedes to the dis- 
honest practices of his associates. But society was satisfied. 
A child was born ; society was charmed. Four more chil- 
dren came ; society said that this late profligate was doing 
his duty as a good citizen of the state. He is now about 
forty-seven years old. He is a " paretic " in an asylum, and, 
if that were all, then the inspector's theory might still 
stand, because he might say that at least the awful calamity 
had been staved off all these years, while he had built a 
"pure home," and left to his country others to take his 
place. The facts are these : His oldest son is an epileptic ; 
the second is a physical caricature of a man ; the third is 
a moral idiot ; he has no moral sense at all, although he is 
mentally very bright. He delights in victimizing dogs, 
cats, or even smaller children ; all things, in fact, which are 
in his power, are his legitimate prey. Then there is a girl. 
In the phraseology of the doctor, " She shows only the gen- 
eral, constitutional signs of her inheritance." The young- 
est son is now less than seven years old ; he is such a hope- 


less sex maniac, even now, that the parents of other children 
do not dare allow them to be alone with him for one 
moment. In telling of this case, the asylum physician, 
himself a profound student of heredity, said of this last 
child : " He would shame an old Parisian debauchee." The 
Spartans were not so far wrong, after all. They killed all 
such children before they had a chance to grow up and 
still further pollute the stream of life. 

And so our good citizen followed the usual course pre- 
scribed by the inspector and by society. Leaving out 
the horrible necessary sacrifice of a woman, or of some 
numbers of women, the result of the plan is this : A house 
of vice, in a secluded quarter " for greater safety " ; a few 
years of license which he believed to be his legitimate per- 
quisite in the world, and " no harm done"; the association 
of the later years of his wasted energies, and his vice-soaked 
life and flesh, with the life of a pure girl ; the legacy to 
society of five more sex maniacs, born in wedlock, which 
by its present terms, laws, and theories still further develops 
sex mania in men, and thereby implants the disease in each 
new generation, to be fought with or yielded to again ; a 
driveling wreck of a man in an asylum at the prime of his 
manhood ; and a worse than widowed wife, with a knowl- 
edge in her soul which is an undying serpent, as she looks 
in despair upon the five lives she has given, in her pathetic 
ignorance and trust. And this is not an unusual record. 
Of course its details are seldom known outside the physician 
and the family. This case is not known. It is the legiti- 
mate fruit of a tree which society, and avarice, ignorance, 
and vice carefully foster. It is the tree the fruit of which 
fills our mad-houses, asylums, poor-houses, and prisons year 
after year ; and yet we tend it carefully, and keep its roots 
strong and vigorous by the very methods recommended 
by the police inspector, and by all believers in state-regu- 
lated and state-licensed vice : that is, licensed vice must 
be systematically continued " for the good of robust boys, 
who might else be on the island with muffled hands ; it 


must be kept in certain quarters, and secret, for greater 
safety to men, and that our wives and daughters may not 
hear of it." Not hear of it until when? Not until the 
years come when the honest physician must tell the wife - 
and at least there are physicians honest enough for this 
if not the cause, at least the horrible facts, w r hen it is too 
late for her to prevent the awful crime of giving life to the 
children of such a husband. We hold it a terrible crime to 
take life. Is it not more terrible in such a case to give life ? 
Think of it ! In the one instance, the results to the victims 
are simply the sudden ending of a more or less desirable 
existence in a more or less desirable world ; in the other 
case, it is assuming to thrust, unasked, upon the helpless 
children a living death, an inheritance of pollution, which 
must, and does, develop itself in one or another form as the 
years go by. 

When society is wiser it may be a bit more like the Spar- 
tans. It will say, " Far better that they be on the island 
than that they should lay their fatal curse upon the world, 
to expand and blight to the third and fourth generations" 
and I believe it was the " sin of the fathers " which was 
thus to follow the children, was it not ? What was that sin ? 
Are not its roots to be found in the very soil advocated as 
good by the believers in state regulation of vice, and in a 
double standard of morals, and in the ignorance which they 
say is desirable for " our wives and daughters"? Igno- 
rance that such things exist, the secret, legalized, regulated 
slaughter social, moral, and physical of hundreds and 
thousands of one sex at the demands and for the gratifica- 
tion of the other. Are there not sex maniacs in more direc- 
tions than one ? Is not this very double standard theory a 
sex mania in itself? Are not the men who advocate laws, 
and the legislators who make laws, which recognize these 
double moral standards, who ignore the plainest finger- 
board set up by nature in hereditary conditions are not 
these in a sense one and all sex maniacs ? When they talk 
of keeping our wives and daughters " pure and ignorant," 


they do not seem to realize that the taint of blood that 
flows in the veins of that very daughter, which she herself 
does not understand, and which an ignorant mother does 
not dream of, and therefore can not stand guard over, 
flows as an ever-present threat that she shall be one of those 
outcasts whom her own father is laboring to quarantine in 
darkness and oblivion. 

Nature has no favorites. Heredity does not spare your 
daughter ; and yet men who plant the seeds of sex perver- 
sion in their own families have the infinite impudence to 
cast from their doors the blossoms of their own tillage. 
They go into heroics about being "disgraced." "You are 
no longer a child of mine," is a sentiment which rings in 
a thousand pages of literature ; in one hundred cases out 
of one hundred and one it should be met by the reply, 
" This act of mine proves, as no other could, that I am 
indeed your daughter ! Blood of your blood, and flesh of 
your flesh ! Nature has told her secret through me. Let 
us cry quits. You put the cursed taint into my blood, and 
I could not protect myself. I am the one to complain, not 
you. Do not cry out for quarter like a very coward. Face 
your record made in flesh and blood. This polluted life of 
mine is nature's reply to your life of license and unclean- 
ness. I am nature's reply to your uncontrolled desires, 
inside of marriage and out ; I, the moral or mental idiot ; I, 
the diseased, polluted wreck ; I, the epileptic ; I, the lunatic ; 
I, the drunkard; I, the wrecker of the lives of others I 
am your lineal descendant! You sacrificed others reck- 
lessly, by act and by law, to your desires and your arbitrary 
sex power; you cultivated a taint in your blood. It is true 
that you took the precaution to transmit it through purity 
and ignorance to me. That very purity and ignorance of 
my mother served to save your peace of mind, and enabled 
you to take advantage of her for infinite opportunity for 
mischief. It, alas ! could not save me, for I am your child 
also. Her ignorance was your partner in a crime against 
me, her helpless infant and yours. Do not complain. Dis- 



like my face as you will ; presented to you in whatsoever 
form or phase of distortion it may be, I am your direct 
lineal descendant ! Build better, or go down with the 
structure you planned for other men's daughters, and in 
which, alas, you locked me before I was born ! " 

If, because of their sex, men demand privileges, rights, 
emoluments, honors, opportunities, and freedom which 
they claim as good for and necessary to their welfare, while 
they insist that all these are not to be allowed to women 
that they would be her damnation are not these men 
also sex maniacs ? Has not humanity been long enough 
cursed by so degrading and degraded, so ignorant and so 
fatally wrong a mental, moral, social and legal outlook? 
I am attacking no individual, I am using an individual 
utterance on this subject simply to present better the 
side of the case which is sustained by all our present 
laws, conditions, and male sentiment. I wish to present the 
reverse side of this awful picture. From man's point of 
view it is often presented and in many ways, but once or 
twice have I seen the other side in print, where it was 
looked at from a rational or scientific point of view. 

Last year a book was written which touched, to a moder^ 
ate degree, woman's side as well as the general human side 
of this problem. It was put in the form of a novel, that it 
might appeal to a larger reading public than would an essay 
or magazine article. It had a tremendous sale, and the only, 
or at least the chief, adverse criticism upon it was that it 
pictured a type of father which either did not exist or was 
too rare to be taken even as an illustration in fiction. Now 
it is this very type of father of which the inspector speaks 
thus : " Men of candid judgment, religious men, know too 
that they had rather have their live, robust boys err in this 
indulgence, than think of them in the places of those unfort- 
unates on the island," etc. That is exactly the point made 
by the book referred to, which was criticised by one editor 
as " morbid in its imaginings about fathers." Is the inspec- 
tor " morbid " ? He said, " This is a desperately practical 


question, with more than a theoretical or sentimental side. 
It ought to be talked about and better understood among 
fathers." And I agree with him perfectly so far. It is, 
indeed, a desperately practical question for both men and 
women, and anthropology and heredity teach, in all peoples 
and in each succeeding generation, that the question has 
not been solved by the adoption of the double standard of 
morals. It is so desperately practical that the land is 
literally covered with the deplorable results, in hospitals, 
in prisons, in imbecile asylums, and in mad-houses. But 
when he goes on to " thank God that this vice is hidden, 
and that thousands of wives and daughters do not know of 
its existence," it impresses me that the inspector, in con- 
doning the sins of fathers and commending ignorance in 
mothers, is attempting to still further hedge boys about 
with a condition which inevitably makes of them sex 
maniacs in more directions than one. 

Is not his mother as deeply interested in her boy's welfare 
as is his father ? Is it not to her eyes and wisdom that his 
younger days are mostly left, and to her watchfulness, intel- 
ligence, and information that he must be trusted, that he 
may not develop or acquire fatal habits ? Or if he has them 
in his blood as a heritage from his father, by whom vice was 
looked upon as " safe " if only kept from the ears and eyes 
of wife and daughter, is it not imperative that the trained 
eye and mind of a mother who is not ignorant of, nor blind 
to, the very earliest indications that there is a blood taint 
should be directed to him, so that, so far as 'possible, she 
may labor to modify and control his awful inheritance 
before it has him in a fatal grip? Instead of this it is advo- 
cated as desirable that she be even " ignorant of " the exist- 
ence of such vice ! It is due more to the fact that she has 
been ignorant than to any other one thing that, later on, the 
boy's developed hereditary curse or his acquired bad habits 
have so fixed themselves upon his young mind and body 
that the inspector and the boy's father find themselves in a 
position to choose between a straight-jacket for the boy 


himself, or first, a wrecked and outraged womanhood, and 
second, descendants of his that are marked with a brand 
worse than Cain's. 

The inspector says that such disclosures as Doctor Tal- 
mage's sermons before innocent women and girls do vastly 
more harm than a host of sin that is compelled to hide its 
head. Now, what is the implication? Did he mean to 
imply that those places have since the sermon been 
thronged with the wives and daughters of Brooklyn ? If 
not, how does he know that it polluted their minds ? Has 
he not jumped at that conclusion, and cast a slur upon the 
wrong sex the sex that did not squander its money in 
patronizing these resorts ? Was not that a rather desperate 
effort to sustain an argument by a non sequitur ? 

Are women's minds polluted by a knowledge of vice 
which they avoid intelligently rather than escape from 
ignorantly? Are ignorance and innocence the same 
thing ? Does the inspector believe that a knowledge of the 
degradation into which their sons are led and pushed by 
just such theories as these, backed by a blind hereditary 
impulse which has no intelligent care from a wise parent- 
age does he believe that such knowledge would drive or 
lure "our wives and daughters " into this polluting vice? 
And is it not strange to hear of a condition of things 
which can be spoken of as good and desirable for boys and 
men which is in the same breath depicted as pollution 
even to the ears of women ? Can good women live with 
these men and not be polluted ? How about the children ? 

Man has for ages past claimed to be the logical animal. 
Beasts have no logic at all, and in this regard woman has 
been gallantly classed, if not exactly with the beasts, cer- 
tainly not with men. We may say that she has been 
counted by man as a sort of missing link. She has logic, 
plenty of it, if she agrees with all he says ; otherwise, she 
is an emotional, irrational, unclassified creature. Now, 
when it comes to dealing with his fellows, man has, in the 
main, a fair amount of reason and logic ; but the mo- 


ment he is called upon to think of woman as a simple 
human being like himself, to deal with and for her as such, 
to give her a chance to do the same with and by and for 
herself, that moment man becomes an emotional, irrational 
sex maniac. He is absolutely unable to look upon woman 
as, first of all, a free individual, a human being on exactly 
the same plane as himself. She is instantly to his mind 
"wife," "daughter," or "victim" always. Never for one 
little instant is he able to contemplate her as a human unit 
and entity, entitled to life and liberty for and because of 
herself. Always it is her relation with him that he sees 
and deals with ; and, alas for his theories of justice, gal- 
lantry, or right, it is always as his subordinate, for his use, 
abuse, or pleasure, that he thinks of and plans for her. 

Why confine guilty houses to one quarter? To keep 
their vicious inmates away from our " wives and daughters," 
and the streets which they are on, says the inspector. But 
this is making sex irregularity a reason for restricting lib- 
erty of residence and resort, even of promenade and pleas- 
ure. That is to say, it restricts the liberty of one party to 
the vice. 

Unfortunately, it is the wrong partner in vice from 
whom state regulations seek to "protect our wives and 
daughters." It is the one who can do the intelligent wife 
and daughter no harm whatever who is restricted. Man, 
we are told, is the logical animal. Why not apply a bit of 
his logic here ? Why not set a watch on and restrict the 
one who does the real and permanent harm to the race ? 

Men claim that it is necessary to their health, happiness, 
and comfort to sacrifice utterly the characters, health, lives, 
and even liberty of locomotion of tens of thousands of 
women every year. This is simply infamous, and nature 
teaches its infamy and unnaturalness. From the protozoan 
to the highest bird or beast there is no distinction of right, 
of opportunity, or of privilege as to occupation, life, liberty, 
or the pursuit of happiness anywhere in nature between 
the sexes, until we reach the one species of animal where 


one sex has been subordinated to the other because of 
industrial conditions by financial dependence. 

It is largely to the ignorance of wives and daughters on 
all these points that is due the possibility for passing, in 
some States, bills to reduce "the age of consent," at which 
a girl is held legally responsible for her own ruin, to ten 
years. If there were one good woman in the legislature no 
such bill would have a ghost of a chance to pass, or be 
kept from the public knowledge and rushed through a 
" secret session." Yet fathers of daughters pass such bills. 
It is then true, after all, that men are not so good protectors 
of woman as woman is of her sister ! Ten years of age ! 
A girl is a baby then ! Think of your own little girl at 
ten ! Do not dare to stop thinking, and writing, and talk- 
ing on the subject until such infamous laws are an impossi- 
bility! Do not allow any one to make you believe that it is 
not " modest " or " becoming " for a woman to know about, 
and fight to the bitter death, any and all such laws. 

You have no right not to know about this matter ! You 
have no right to dare to bring into this world a child who 
shall be subject to such a law. It is beyond belief, but it is 
true. And then men talk of "protecting" women. Men 
who hold that a girl is not old enough to give lawful con- 
sent to lawful marriage until she is eighteen years old, say 
that she is at the age of ten to be held as old enough to 
give consent to her own eternal disgrace, ruin, and degra- 

The ignorance of one sex in almost all of the vital affairs 
of life, coupled with its financial dependence upon the 
other sex, has gone far to make of all men, in one form or 
another, sex maniacs ; and to make of many children the 
victims of a polluted ancestry, and the progenitors of an 
enfeebled race. 




The education of public opinion by the combined action 
of men and women, seeking no political or personal aggran- 
dizement, not necessarily agreeing with one another either 
in politics or religious faith, but agreeing on the necessity 
of certain fundamental principles, such as Truth, Justice, 
Chastity, as essential to public and private morality, has 
been and is the characteristic work of the Moral Reform 
Union, founded in London in the year 1881. By all the 
means in its power it encourages the study and discussion 
of moral questions, and disseminates as widely as possible 
leaflets and literature on such subjects. Those who are 
well acquainted with the practical condition and private 
morals in our own time will not need to be told that uncom- 
promising hostility to the patronage of vice under cover of 
official regulation of prostitution (known among English- 
speaking peoples as the " Contagious Diseases Acts ") is an 
essential principle of the Moral Reform Union. 

Some of the most useful work of the Union has been the 
steady and persistent drawing forth of expressions of opin- 
ion adverse to these acts from the religious bodies of the 
United Kingdom, its colonies and dependencies. And this 
work is becoming more than ever necessary at the present 
time, when the advocates of these acts are endeavoring to 
carry out by indirect means what the public opinion of 
England forbids them to do openly and avowedly. In com- 
bating and laying bare the revolting injustice, the loath- 
some indecency, and the cynical insolence of these acts, 
we are necessarily brought to insist upon the great truth of 
the equal moral standard for men and women, and the pro- 
mulgation of this equal standard is an essential part of the 
educational programme of the Moral Reform Union. 

At the same time that the Moral Reform Union finds 


itself compelled, by the special circumstances of our own 
time, to join in active, aggressive warfare against this worst 
form of sexual vice and injustice, it also holds itself bound 
to give all the assistance in its power to other work in 
which the moral progress of humanity is involved ; such, 
for example, as the movement directed against cruelty and 
intemperance ; against gambling, and against such gigantic 
forms of national greed as we English people have to be 
ashamed of in our governmental patronage of opium in 
India and China. 

But while it is our special work, because it is our special 
duty, to struggle, and particularly to educate the moral 
sense of our own compatriots, we recognize emphatically 
the solidarity of the whole human race, and the common 
duties of all nations. We therefore take all opportunities 
to be in correspondence with, to assist and to seek the 
assistance of, those who are striving to raise the moral 
standard, in any part of the w r orld. 

Believing that this Congress of Women in Chicago in 
1893 can not fail to impress upon women that it is their 
duty to take a leading part in the moral elevation of the 
world, we send you our cordial greetings ; and for this pur- 
pose we have selected a German lady as our representative, 
in token of the union of nations we desire to see engaged 
in this sacred work. 


A young Hindu gentleman, with that fine command of 
our language that characterizes the educated classes of 
India, said to me the other day: " The better classes in 
India regard everything English as degrading." To my 
exclamation of surprise he replied : " The teachings of 
English-speaking peoples are good, but their examples are 
bad in India. I am a Hindu ; the Hindu religion teaches 


its followers to drink no alcoholic liquors. The English 
drink much, are drunken, and our lower classes in India 
do not discriminate between the teachings and the exam- 
ples of English-speaking people, but follow the latter. 
These examples have brought great degradation and harm 
to many of our people." 

I blush for the civilization which produces such results. 
The story in our own land is no better. It is a matter of 
common knowledge that alcohol is the greatest criminal 
force in the world. It has the power to brutalize, barbarize, 
and besot its consumers. Its use can transform the most 
accomplished specimens of civilization to worse than 

And yet, in the face of these facts, in this afternoon of 
the nineteenth century, the sale of these liquors is protected 
by t]ae laws of our free, self-governing people. The tax 
upon their manufacture is one of the largest, if not the 
largest, source of our national revenue. As used by unscru- 
pulous men, alcohol is debauching our politics. It is a well- 
known fact that the purchasable material in all politics is 
the saloon element. 

The answer to the question, " Will the future witness our 
still greater progress in the ideas of advancement that con- 
stitute a nation's strength ?" depends upon what the coming 
American people do with the alcohol question. But why 
do we refer this problem to you ? Why wait ? Why not 
arise and sweep the iniquity from the face of the earth ? 
Who would do the sweeping? Majorities of men make 
laws in this country, and that majority to-day is not ready 
for such sweeping. If majorities are wrong, a government 
like ours is helpless, for a republic has no power with which 
it can compel majorities. It is one of the weaknesses of a 
republican form of government that the vices as well as the 
virtues of the people appear in their legislation. This gov- 
ernment of ours is just as strong on any question as the 
people are, and it is just as weak as they are. 

Just as soon as a controlling majority of the people of 


the United States do not believe in or want alcoholic 
beverages, the law protecting traffic in such liquors will be 
swept from the face of the earth, or rather from our part 
of it. How soon will that time come ? During the last 
twelve years the question of constitutional prohibition has 
been submitted to the direct vote of the people of seven- 
teen States. All except Kansas, Iowa, Maine, and the 
two Dakotas voted, " No ; we will not prohibit the manu- 
facture and sale of alcoholic beverages." 

At the Fair the other day I heard a well-dressed woman 
urge a young man, her son, to take beer, " because it is 
such a good tonic; it will rest you." Ninety-nine people 
out of a hundred of those drinking beer there and else- 
where began in that way. 

Alcohol is the basis of beer, wine, and the whole foul 
brood of fermented and distilled liquors. Alcohol deadens 
the nerves, and thus makes the drinker feel better for a 
time ; while it has the power, taken continuously, even in 
small quantities, to create an uncontrollable and destruc- 
tive appetite for more. The people, thinking a little harm- 
less, are taking it, and do not want it abolished ; thus they 
become its victims. 

The first step is education of the whole people as to the 
evil nature of alcoholic beverages, and especially of the 
danger of beginning their use ; and this education must 
come before appetite is formed, or it is too late. 

Popular misapprehension is at the root of this evil. We 
have spent time, money, and energy in denunciation that 
should have been devoted to education. But a better day is 
dawning. In October, 1882, trembling at my own temerity, 
I pleaded with the Vermont Legislature for a law that 
should require all pupils in all schools to study the subject 
of physiology and hygiene, including special reference to 
the nature and effects of alcoholic drinks and narcotics. 
The first temperance education law was there passed. 
Michigan and New Hampshire followed the same year; 
New York in 1884; Pennsylvania, Massachusetts, and eight 


other States in 1885 ; the National Congress, for all schools 
under Federal control, in 1886; and thus on, until to-day 
forty-two States and Territories have enacted temperance 
education laws. There are only five more States to win 
before this education will be required for all pupils in all 
the public schools of this land. 

When the first law was enacted, twelve years ago, there 
was not such a text-book in the world as the law demanded. 
To-day there is a large variety of good school literature on 
the subject, beautifully graded to the capacities of all 
classes of pupils, issued by many different publishers. 
There were no school methods for teaching this branch ; 
that is now remedied, and every year is showing better and 
more intelligent work done in this study in the schools. 

There are twelve million children in the United States 
under temperance education laws. These are the masses 
of to-morrow, and, more than that, the leaders, the presi- 
dents of the United States, the congressmen, legislators, 
lawyers, jurors, ministers, teachers, generals, and admirals 
of the future ; these, with the leaders of fashion, of society's 
gay throng, and of the church of God of to-morrow these 
are all in the schools of to-day. 

When these shall come to their majority, having all alike 
been taught in the schools, during the most impressive 
period of existence, God's law of abstinence from alcoholic 
drinks and narcotics, then the saloon will perish. 


During the coming weeks many of the brilliant intellect- 
ual women of our own and other lands will discuss in the 
World's Congress of Representative Women the relation of 
women to the world's work through organized effort, in 


respect to religion, .philanthropy, education, moral reform 
and civil law and government. 

These discussions will, doubtless, show the great advance- 
ment of women throughout the world since the discovery 
of America by Columbus. 

In considering this intellectual evolution, may we not also 
notice that there has been a great change in the physical 
characteristics of women ? 

Family portraits of the average woman of fifty or one 
hundred years ago reveal a style of feature and form as 
different from the average woman of to-day as is the tone 
of the old-fashioned daguerreotype from that of the mod- 
ern photograph. 

In the daguerreotype we see what at that time repre- 
sented the accepted types of feminine modesty. The 
shoulders are sloping, the countenance passive, and the 
hands, demurely folded, are expressive of the deepest 

A composite photograph representing a type of the 
American woman of the present age would show, without 
regard to prevailing fashions, the shoulders thrown back, 
the head erect, and the whole poise, in fact, one of inde- 
pendence and self-reliance. 

May we not believe that this external change has been 
wrought because of the broader thought and the greater 
confidence in her own powers that has come to her through 
experiencing success in wider fields than her grandmother 
trod? "As a woman thinketh, so she is." 

The temperance work has been an important factor in 
bringing woman into public life, and revealing to her a 
glimpse of the kingdom she is to go up and possess. 
Through organized temperance work, with its unions reach- 
ing nearly every town and hamlet in the land, the woman 
of even average ability, the woman who twenty years ago 
would declare such actions impossible, has learned how to 
preside over a public meeting, to treat an amendment, to 
frame a motion, and in other ways to express in a clear 


and parliamentary manner her desires, opinions, or con- 

The public has listened and applauded, for the art of 
expression is a magical, beautiful gift ; and no longer is it 
said in woman's praise, " There is nothing wherewith their 
womanliness is more properly garnished than with silence." 

In considering, therefore, " The Power of Womanliness 
in Dealing with Stern Problems," we are to treat those rela- 
tions that exist in the public work to which woman seems 
to be fittingly called. 

The temperance work, bringing together as it does in 
council so many different minds, has proved a most difficult 
subject to deal with, for upon no other great moral question 
is there such a diversity of opinions concerning methods 
and principles. To keep in step with the age there must be 
progressive thought to meet new conditions, and aggressive 
action to cope with present ones. 

Progressiveness and aggressiveness usually foster a com- 
bative spirit, and in seeking for the best methods of dealing 
with the liquor traffic, and other questions of social and 
political reforms, there is danger of developing qualities 
that may detract from true Christian character and womanly 

In doing public work what should be woman's highest 
standard of duty toward her co-workers? What deterio- 
rating influences to a beautiful womanly character may pos- 
sibly arise, and what types should be avoided as likely to 
do harm to the cause and bring its advocates into disrepute ? 
The first type to be avoided is the masculine woman. 

While woman to-day stands the acknowledged peer of 
man, and strives to do her work as well, let her not do it 
after the fashion of man, but let her seek rather to exalt 
the highest and noblest traits of womanly character. 

Another type of character to be avoided is that of the 
scheming, ambitious woman, who employs political ma- 
chinery and wire-pulling to bring about desired results. 
Happily, this class, as yet, is but a small minority, for a 


large majority of those who are wrestling with the stern 
problems that hold in their solution the betterment of 
humanity are allied with some organization, because it 
exists to accomplish a great purpose. With utter self- 
abnegation they seek to be messengers of redemption to 
those who are in the bonds of sin and misery, and to 
remove the power of temptation from the pathway of their 
erring fellow-creatures. To the work they give unself- 
ish toil and ceaseless thought, sacrificing personal ease 
and pleasure to advance the kingdom of truth and 

These are the women who should stand at the front and 
stamp their womanly worth and integrity upon every 
organization composed entirely of women. The last 
twenty-five years have brought many changes, perhaps the 
next twenty-five will bring greater ones. If there are to be, 
then as now, the best types of womanhood in the ascend- 
ancy, women must be large-souled and honest in dealing 
with each other. Evidences of chicanery, of insincerity 
even, will quickly disgust and prejudice the honest heart 
and cause it to seek refuge in narrower circles. The ethics 
of womanliness does not require a personal following. 

It is Emerson who says, " Better be a nettle in the side of 
your friend than his echo." The great national gatherings 
that bring together women from the North, South, East, 
and West develop a broad judicial faculty, and friendship 
does not mean that any woman is to allow her more brill- 
iant friend to do her thinking for her. Even when differ- 
ing widely, women have learned to love and respect their 
co-workers. They should also learn to stand truer and 
more steadfastly together ; for woman's organizations, as 
distinctively such, must be based upon faith and love, and 
trust in womankind. Without this faith and trust the 
foundations totter. 



" What was the origin of the British Women's Temper- 
ance Association ? " is a question often asked, and one to 
which I have thought it well to reply. 

In June, 1875, " Mother " Stewart, a well-known leader in 
the Woman's Whisky War of 1873-74 (a crusade against the 
American saloon that attracted universal attention, and 
resulted in the closing of thousands of dram-shops and the 
reformation of tens of thousands of men), met Mrs. Parker 
of Dundee at a great temperance convention in the city of 
Chicago. Mrs. Parker was very much interested in the 
crusade movement in America, having read of its results 
while in her own home in Scotland, and when she met 
" Mother " Stewart, was eager to invite her to Scotland. 
Upon Mrs. Parker's return home a correspondence was 
begun, which resulted in the visit of " Mother " Stewart to 
Great Britain in January, 1876. On January 2ist a recep- 
tion was given her in the rooms of the National Temperance 
League, London, where two hundred and fifty ladies and 
gentlemen assembled. 

At this meeting Mrs. Margaret Bright Lucas, Mr. Robert 
Rae, and Dr. Dawson Burns spoke with enthusiasm of 
the women's temperance work in the United States, and 
a resolution was adopted inviting 4t Mother " Stewart to 
hold temperance meetings throughout England, and a com- 
mittee was appointed to arrange the work. On April 10, 
1876, a call for the formation of a national society, which 
ran as follows, was sent out by Mrs. Parker and " Mother " 
Stewart : , 



MADAM: At the earnest request of the Women's National Christian 
Temperance Union of America, conveyed to us by Mrs. Annie "VYitten- 
myer, its esteemed president, Miss Frances E. "\Villard, corresponding 


secretary, and others, we hereby convene a meeting of women connected 
with the various temperance organizations in the United Kingdom, to be 
held on Friday, the 2ist inst., in the Central Hall, Newcastle-on-Tyne, at 
10 o'clock, to consider a cordial invitation to the women of England, Scot- 
land, and Ireland to be present personally, or by delegation, at the first 
international women's temperance convention the world has ever known, 
which is fixed to take place at Philadelphia, United States, on June loth. 

We trust that the women of Great Britain and Ireland will as cordially 
cooperate as they do heartily sympathize with the glorious work done by 
their noble American sisters, and that the forthcoming convention will be 
memorable for numbers, influence, and results. A number of ladies have 
already intimated their cordial approval of the proposal to hold this meet- 
ing at Newcastle, some of them have signified their willingness to act as 
delegates if appointed, and the prospects of a successful meeting are 

The wrongs that women suffer through the effects of strong drink on 
their hearts and homes are so many and grievous that every Christian 
woman in the land should rise in the might and influence God has given 
her, and in His strength do all in her power to sweep the scourge from the 

On behalf of the women of the United States, 

MRS. E. D. (Mother) STEWART. 

On behalf of the women of the United Kingdom, 


In response to this appeal, the first British women's con- 
ference was held at Newcastle-on-Tyne, April 21, 1876, 
and I give the account in official language taken from the 
first published report : 

" Mrs. Parker, in opening the proceedings, said : 

"* In accordance with the earnestly expressed wish of the 
Women's Christian Temperance Union of America, and the 
firm conviction in our own minds that God has already pre- 
pared the hearts of Christian women throughout the land 
to do a great work for him in the cause of temperance, this 
convention has been called. . . . The glorious temper- 
ance work accomplished by the Christian women of Amer- 
ica has been told to the world, and its beneficent results 
have spread from the shores of the Atlantic to the Pacific 
Ocean, and extended throughout the civilized world. . . . 

" ' In response to the kind invitation sent by our American 
sisters to attend the International Temperance Convention 


to be held in Philadelphia in June, and with a view of fur- 
ther strengthening their hands and our own, we purpose 
(with the sanction of this convention) to appoint delegates 
to represent the temperance women of Great Britain and 
Ireland in the first international women's temperance 
convention the world has ever known.' " 

Reference was made to the valuable labors of Mrs. E. 
D. (Mother) Stewart in the cause of temperance in Great 
Britain, and the meeting requested the president to convey 
to her a testimonial of their high appreciation of her efforts, 
and their desire that an interchange of ideas and coopera- 
tive measures may be maintained with this association 
after her return to America. 

Included in the resolution passed by the conference to 
welcome the delegation from the Grand Lodge of England, 
it was stated, " We have also elected ten delegates to go to 
America to represent us at the International Temperance 
Convention at Philadelphia." 

Mrs. Parker, as president, in opening the proceedings, 
stated that " the work of the American ladies in bringing 
on a Christian and a temperance reformation had found its 
echoes on the shores of Britain, and she believed had spread 
throughout the civilized world." 

At this conference it was resolved that the name adopted 
should be the British Women's Temperance Association, 
and that they at once elect office-bearers and an executive 
committee. The first president was Mrs. Parker of Dundee, 
and the twenty-two members of the committee were from 
all parts of the country, only one, Mrs. Margaret Bright 
Lucas, being resident in London. At this gathering seven 
ladies were elected delegates to the International Women's 
Temperance Convention to be held in Philadelphia. 

The first conference of the British Women's Temper- 
ance Association was brought to a successful conclusion by 
a large meeting, where several women made their debut in 
public life whose names have been known and honored 
from that day forward. 



On the 22d of May, 1877, the first annual meeting was 
held in Memorial Hall, Farringdon Street. The president, 
Mrs. Parker, took the chair, and in her opening remarks 

" The result of the American crusade is world-wide ; it is 
one of the most sublime moral movements on which the 
sun ever shone. History will record it in deathless charac- 
ters. The magnitude of these results can not be known 
until the light of eternity dawns. The gentle footsteps of 
these women are echoing yet, and we on British shores 
owe our inspiration in a great measure to them. 

" Having, as your president, had the honor of being sent 
as a delegate to America to the first international women's 
temperance convention the world has ever known, it is 
due to you and to them to say that I was everywhere wel- 
comed with enthusiasm and affection, and endowed with 
all the honors it was in the power of those noble workers to 
bestow. They also deputed me to bear to you their heart- 
iest greetings ; and thus, my sisters, hands join hands across 
the broad Atlantic, and pledge each other to labor and 
pray for the early dawning of that day when the cruel 
traffic in alcohol shall be no more. My visit to America 
has impressed me with a sense of the magnitude and 
advanced character of the work undertaken by our sisters 
there ; and here let me say that the church everywhere 
helps the w r omen who labor thus for the good of humanity. 
A great work lies before us. I trust that from this conven- 
tion shall go out a power which shall move the people in 
every part of the British dominions, and that many prac- 
tical means of usefulness will be suggested." 

At the annual meeting Mrs. Clara Lucas Balfour was 
elected president, and was succeeded by Mrs. Margaret 
Bright Lucas, the honored sister of John Bright, who occu- 
pied that position until her death, in 1890. During her 
presidency (in 1885) the British Women's Temperance 
Association was affiliated to the World's Woman's Christian 
Temperance Union, which was founded in 1883, and of which 


Mrs. Lucas became the first president, it being the year of 
the Colonial and Indian Exhibition, in connection with 
which the Colonial Congress was held. Mrs. Lucas and 
other ladies were delegated to attend it on behalf of the 
association, so that advantage might be taken of the unique 
occasion which had brought so many of our colonial friends 
to England, to press the temperance question upon them. 
The following address was issued : 

FELLOW-SUBJECTS OF OUR BELOVED QUEEN: We welcome you with joy to 
our shores, and we desire still more closely to knit the bond which binds us 
together, by a union of work for the good of our fellow-creatures. Will our 
sisters join in our efforts to stem the ravages of strong drink wherever its 
devastating power appears? We, British women, enrolled under the ban- 
ner of " Temperance," offer to you the right hand of fellowship. We have 
joined with the Woman's Christian Temperance Union of America in the 
World's Woman's Temperance Union, and we earnestly invite you to work 
with us, heart and soul, in the endeavor, with God's help, to put away this 
curse, and all evil which mars this fair world of ours, and shuts out the 
light of the kingdom of heaven. 

MARGARET B. LUCAS, President. 

JESSIE A. FOWLER, Honorary Secretary. 

In 1886 Mrs. Lucas paid her second visit to America, as a 
delegate to the National Convention of the White Ribbon 
Women. Her reception was one that will always mark an 
epoch in the annals of the woman's temperance move- 
ment. The delegates rose in separate groups to give their 
greeting. First the crusaders in a body, second the women 
of New England, then of the Middle States, after these, 
those of the Western and the Pacific Coast, and last the 
Southern representatives, while English and American 
flags waved on the platform, and all joined in singing 
" God Save the Queen." The stirring scene was described 
by Miss Impey, one of the delegates who accompanied Mrs. 
Lucas, in the following words : 

" While the enthusiasm was at its highest, Miss Willard 
took Mrs. Lucas by the hand, and they stood together 
before the cheering audience a living illustration of the 
union between England and America, the mother and 
daughter, in this mighty crusade against strong drink." 


Mrs. Margaret Bright Lucas was. a Liberal in politics, and 
was president of the Bloomsbury Branch of the Woman's 
Liberal Association, working in the interests of that party, 
as it helps to advance the great reforms for the betterment 
of the social system. She accepted and indorsed Mrs. Faw- 
cett's explanation of the reason why women require the 
franchise, viz. : " That the suffrage is the only means of 
cleansing the statute books of the laws that are oppressive 
to one sex." Mrs. Lucas lost no opportunity in her public 
addresses of emphasizing the fact that temperance legisla- 
tion, to be successful, requires the woman's vote. " In pol- 
itics," she said, " my principle is that women should work 
for women until they receive justice. My first duty is to 
woman, and as long as I can work I shall strive to obtain 
complete equality between women and men before the law." 

After a short illness this veteran reformer, on February 4, 
1890, at the age of seventy-one, passed through "the portal 
we call death " to her heavenly home. 

At the annual council of the British Women's Temper- 
ance Association, in May, 1890, Lady Henry Somerset was 
elected her successor. 


In the year 1883 Miss Frances E. Willard, of the National 
Woman's Christian Temperance Union of the United 
States, with her private secretary, Miss Gordon, visited 
every State and Territory of the Union, holding conven- 
tions and forming territorial and local branches. 

When on the Pacific Coast, Miss Willard saw for the first 
time the life of the Orient meeting in tawny waves the cur- 
rent of Western civilization in the city of San Francisco. 
Her observations upon the opium habit, and other demoral- 
izing innovations, caused her to turn with new zeal toward 


the countries over that great Pacific Ocean upon whose 
shore she then stood, and for the first time she formed a 
definite determination to do all in her power to extend the 
mighty sway of White Ribbon organization, principles, and 
methods to the Eastern nations, indeed to every land upon 
the globe. . This new impulse was communicated to the 
National Woman's Christian Temperance Union at its next 
annual convention, held in Detroit in the autumn of 1883. 
By her request a preliminary committee was appointed, 
consisting of the general officers (Miss Willard of Illinois, 
Mrs. Buell of Connecticut, Mrs. Woodbridge of Ohio, Mrs. 
Stevens of Maine, and Miss Pugh of Ohio). 

Previous to this convention, Mrs. Mary Clement Leavitt 
of Boston had started on an organizing trip in the far West 
under the auspices of the National Woman's Christian 
Temperance Union, and Miss Willard wrote asking if she 
would be willing to take the White Ribbon to the Sand- 
wich Islands, Australia, and other countries. Mrs. Leavitt 
accepted the commission, and sailed from San Francisco to 
the Hawaiian Islands in -1884, organizing our society there, 
which has ever since maintained a healthful growth, and 
whence she was enabled to sail for Australia, friends in 
Honolulu bearing the expenses of her voyage. From Xew 
Zealand Mrs. Leavitt wrote Miss Willard that she could not 
see her way to go on to Asia unless at least a guarantee was 
given her that the necessary expenses of the journey 
should be paid by the Union. This was promised at once, 
and what was known as the " Leavitt Fund " was started by 
inserting a notice in the Union Signal, the official paper of 
the World's Woman's Christian Temperance L^nion. To 
this the White Ribboners responded so heartily that more 
than sufficient money for Mrs. Leavitt's needs was raised, 
and, by the latter's request, the name was changed to the 
"World's Fund," and applied to the aid of Miss Gray in 
Scandinavia, and other workers for the World's Woman's 
Christian Temperance L'nion. For about seven years Mrs. 
Leavitt devoted herself to the work of organization in the 


Hawaiian Islands, Australia, Madagascar, Africa, Burmah, 
India, China, Madeira, Mauritius, Ceylon, Siam, the Straits 
Settlements, Corea, Japan, and Europe, returning to Great 
Britain and America in 1891. No woman in the history of 
the world has made an expedition at once so long, so varied, 
and so productive of beneficent results. Wherever Mrs. 
Leavitt went she told the story of the Woman's Crusade 
against drink in the United States, and of the Woman's 
Christian Temperance Union, which was the organized form 
and sober second thought of that great uprising. Wherever 
she went she carried the polyglot petition, which through 
her efforts was signed in well-nigh fifty languages, by per- 
sons of all races, nationalities, and religions. This petition 
asks for the overthrow of the alcohol and opium trades, and 
the elevation of the laws concerning social purity to the 
standard of Christian manhood and womanhood ; for, as is 
well-known, the trinity of evils that most closely encompass 
the human race is the use of alcoholic beverages and opium, 
and unchastity in all its forms of degradation. 

Mrs. Leavitt made known in every country the White 
Ribbon as the badge of purity, peace, patriotism, and pro- 
hibition ; and urged that the noontide hour of prayer for the 
temperance work and workers should be observed by the 
women who, taking the pledge, formed with us the sacred 
tie of total abstinence and service. Her pioneer steps made 
smoother the pathway for us who have followed. She laid 
the foundations of the work broad and deep wherever it lay 
within human possibility to establish it, and her name is 
revered in all the lands where her consecrated lips uttered 
messages of righteousness. 

Until the year 1891, the World's Woman's Christian Tem- 
perance Union was conducted by means of committees 
appointed by the national societies in America and Eng- 
land. The general officers of the Woman's Christian Tem- 
perance Union served in this capacity in the United States, 
and in England a committee was appointed by the British 
Women's Temperance Association for the same purpose. 


Mrs. Margaret Bright Lucas became the first president of 
the World's Woman's Christian Temperance Union in 1883, 
and the British Women's Temperance Association was affil- 
iated to the organization in 1885. No constitution could be 
formed except a provisional one, which served until a 
permanent one was adopted at the first convention of the 
World's Woman's Christian Temperance Union, held in 
Faneuil Hall, Boston, Mass., U. S. A., November 10 and 
11, 1891.* 

The officers elected are as follows : Honorary president, 
Mrs. Mary Clement Leavitt of Boston, Mass., U. S. A.; 
president, Miss Frances E. Willard, Evanston, 111., U. S. A.; 
vice-president-at-large, Lady Henry Somerset, 47 Victoria 
Street, London, England ; secretary, Mrs. Mary A. Wood- 
bridge, Ravenna, Ohio, U. S. A.; assistant secretary, Miss 
Anna A. Gordon, Evanston, 111., U. S. A.; treasurer, Mrs. 
Ella F. M. Williams, 26 Chomedy Street, Montreal, Canada. 

The following departments of work were adopted: i. 
Evangelistic World's temperance mission w r ork, Bible 
readings, Sunday-school work, penal, charitable, and reform- 
atory work, social purity, work among sailors, and work 
among policemen. 2. Organization Juvenile work and 
young women's work. 3. Prevention Peace and arbitra- 
tion. 4. Educational Scientific temperance instruction in 
schools, banks, press work. 5. Social Parlor meetings, 
fairs and expositions. 6. Legal Petitions and treaties. 

In Mrs. Leavitt's report, extending to June 19, 1891, she 
states that she had then traveled upward of ninety-seven 
thousand miles during her pilgrimage of seven years, 
and had utilized the services of more than two hundred 
interpreters in forty-seven different languages. During 
all these years of travel she was assisted financially by 
the National Woman's Christian Temperance Union to 
the amount of less than two thousand dollars, all other 
funds being contributed by friends of our cause in for- 
eign lands. After a brief stay in the L T nited States, and 

*See Appendix. 


attendance at the first world's convention, Mrs. Leavitt 
sailed for South America, where she spent the winter of 
1891-92, and planted the work amid many difficulties, thus 
finishing her prodigious undertaking, having, as she said, 
" not only gone around the world but well-nigh all over it." 
The winter of 1892-93, Mrs. Leavitt has spent in Honolulu 
witnessing the effect of her labors in these beautiful 
islands, the first place visited on her long tour, and gaining 
in that balmy climate renewal of physical strength from a 
greatly needed rest. 

In the autumn of 1888 Miss Jessie Ackerman, the second 
round-the-world missionary of the Woman's Christian 
Temperance Union, was sent forth, following in Mrs. Leav- 
itt's footsteps, sailing from San Francisco and visiting the 
Hawaiian Islands first of all. Later she has labored in 
Japan, China, Siam, and the Australian Colonies, and 
recently has visited the Straits Settlements, Burmah, India, 
and Ceylon. She has made Australia her headquarters for 
four years, and has had remarkable success in organizing 
unions in all its seven colonies, including Tasmania and 
New Zealand. Two years ago, in May, 1891, the first inter- 
colonial convention of the Woman's Christian Temperance 
Union was held in Melbourne, the metropolis of Victoria, 
with forty-eight delegates; these represented eight thou- 
sand White Ribboners, at work in all the colonies of this 
vast island continent except Western Australia, which was 
not then organized. The National Woman's Christian 
Temperance Union of Australia was then formed, with a 
full corps of officers and superintendents of departments, 
Miss Ackerman being elected president. Miss Ackerman 
has called for no financial help from the American White 
Ribboners. Her method is that of giving a lecture at the 
close of her temperance mission in each place on some 
interesting theme of travel, taking the proceeds of the 
admission tickets to bear her expenses in furthering her 
work. vShe expects after the next convention of the Nat- 
ional Woman's Christian Temperance Union of Australia, 


to be held in May, 1894, to continue her round-the-world 
journey in due course. 

In 1 890 the third and fourth round-the-world missionaries, 
Dr. Kate C. Bushnell and Mrs. Elizabeth W. Andrew, were 
appointed and sent out together ; the former had been for 
five years the evangelist of the Social Purity Department 
of the National Woman's Christian Temperance Union in 
the United States, and the latter for nearly eight years had 
been on the editorial staff of the Union Signal, the world's 
and national organ of the Woman's Christian Temperance 
Union. It was understood that special emphasis should be 
given to the purity question, as well as to the presentation 
of our general lines of work. We received a commission 
in some respects different from that given the two pioneers 
who had preceded us, in that we were expected to make as 
quick a survey of the field as was possible consistent with 
the demands of the work in each country. It is perhaps for 
this reason that Miss Willard has requested me to write the 
paper now presented I having so recently visited many of 
the lands inclosed within those bands of white which are 
swiftly uniting the women of the whole world in loyal 
sisterhood ; and I trust that any appearance of obtrusiveness 
as regards my own personality may be forgiven because of 
this fact, and my desire to give the latest word obtainable 
from these far-away countries, a large number of which my 
friend and I have traversed within two years. 

W T e left our native land from the eastern side early in 
1891, and gave six months of service in Great Britain. 
Thence we went to South Africa, visiting Cape Colony, 
Natal, the Orange Free State, and the South African Repub- 
lic, formerly known as the Transvaal. A winter in India 
followed, and later seven months of unremitting travel and 
toil in the colonies of Australia Victoria, South Australia, 
New South Wales, Tasmania, and New Zealand. We went 
back to Ceylon at the end of 1 892 for a brief stay, then to 
Egypt and Syria for a month, returning to England in 
March, 1893, having traveled since leaving the United 


States eighty-seven thousand miles, crossed the equator 
four times, taken sixteen sea voyages, and given six hun- 
dred and seventy addresses to an estimated attendance of 
forty-five thousand people. After attending the World's 
Christian Temperance Union Convention, to be held in 
Chicago, October, 1893, we expect to resume our tour of the 
world, returning to England, visiting our unions on the 
Continent of Europe, and passing thence to Ceylon, Burmah, 
the Straits Settlements, China, Japan (with possibly Siam 
and Corea included), finishing with a visit to the Hawaiian 
Islands, and reaching home again by way of San Francisco. 
In all this swift and expensive traveling for two persons,, 
passing quickly from land to land, we have received not a 
dollar from the home treasury, neither have we had private 
means to draw upon, but every" need has been supplied 
through Him upon whom we cast all our care before we 
began this journey of faith and service. He has opened 
homes, and hearts, and purses wherever we have gone, and 
I record this to His praise, and in memory of all the abound- 
ing kindness received from our devoted White Ribboners 
in all the countries we have visited. 

At the first convention of the World's Woman's Chris- 
tian Temperance Union, in 1891, at which delegates were 
present from twenty-one countries, it was proposed by the 
Plan of Work Committee, Mrs. Leavitt, chairman, and 
carried by the convention, that at least six missionaries of 
the organization should be appointed, as soon as arrange- 
ments could be made to do so, with proper salaries and 
traveling expenses paid, to work in the following countries: 
One in Japan, one in China and Siam, one in British India, 
one in South Africa, one in West Africa, one in Egypt, 
Syria, and Asiatic Turkey, and a superintendent of world's 
temperance mission work was appointed to raise money and 
find workers, to complete the plan. It was also resolved to- 
establish a bureau in each country as a center of informa- 
tion, and a repository of literature. In accordance with the 
foregoing plan, Miss Alice R. Palmer was sent out to South 


Africa, the White Ribboners of that country pledging her 
financial support while in the field. She reached Cape 
Town July 19, 1892, and entered on her new labors with 
the same earnest vigor which had characterized her in 
her native State of Indiana as a phenomenally successful 

This same year Miss Mary Allen West, so long the senior 
editor of the Union Signal, was appointed to service in 
Japan. She arrived there in October, 1892, and was 
received by the Japanese people with an overwhelming 
welcome. Invitations poured in upon her for public work, 
which her generous heart could not find courage to refuse. 
She held not less than three meetings daily except when 
actually on the wing and sometimes during the last two 
months of her earthly career, five addresses were given 
within twenty-four hours. " Her brief tour in Japan was 
triumphal. The hearts and homes of the Japanese people 
were opened wide to her, and she was admired and feasted 
and listened to, as few have been, in their own or in foreign 
lands." She gave a mighty impetus to our work in the 
" Sunrise Land." The name proved prophetic to her, for 
here her earthly day was swallowed up in the eternal 
morning as the old year drew to its close. Miss Willard 
wrote thus of her tried and trusted comrade : " It is so 
everywhere, the rising tide of the world's greatest reform 
threatens to draw in its leaders and its rank and file to pre- 
mature weariness, disease, and death. Our brave general 
has fallen at her post with her face to the foe ; her death 
renders the soil of Japan forever sacred to all White Rib- 
boners, and the fragrance of her memory gilds that far-dis- 
tant country with a perpetual charm." 

The following countries have come into the World's 
Woman's Christian Temperance Union: The United 
States, Great Britain, Australia, Canada, the Hawaiian 
Islands, New Zealand, Queensland, Victoria, South Aus- 
tralia, New South Wales, Tasmania, Ceylon, Sweden, 
Turkey, Japan, China, Siam, the Straits Settlements, 


Burmah, India, Cape Colony, Mauritius, Madagascar, 
France, Denmark, Norway, Chili, Natal, the Orange Free 
State, Sierra Leone, Asia Minor, Corea, the Bahamas, New- 
foundland, the Madeira Islands, Spain, Russia, Mexico, 
Italy, Egypt, Syria, Greece, the South African Republic, 
Brazil over forty. 


The United States heads the list of federated countries, 
as being the mother of the whole movement, taking its rise 
in the Woman's Temperance Crusade of 1874, and as having 
led the way to the development of more than forty depart- 
ments of work, under the general divisions of Evangelistic, 
Organization, Preventive, Educational, Social, and Legal. 
The first president was Mrs. Annie Wittenmeyer. Miss 
Frances E. Willard has led the hosts since 1878, a cherished 
and honored leader. The membership includes nearly one 
hundred and fifty thousand with a following" of not less 
than three hundred thousand ; all the States and Territories 
are organized and officered. 

Among the large undertakings projected by the National 
Woman's Christian Temperance Union, or numbered in the 
list of its affiliated interests, may be named the National 
Temperance Hospital, the Woman's Temperance Pub- 
lishing Association, the Temple, scientific temperance 
instruction in the public schools, and the sending forth 
of the polyglot petition. 

The National Temperance Hospital, located in Chicago, 
was founded in 1884, with the avowed object of scientific- 
ally demonstrating to the world that alcohol can be dis- 
pensed with in the treatment of disease. This institution 
has had large success. The Clara Barton Training School 
for Nurses is a successful part of its plan. Two enthusiastic 
young women from Japan are now in the hospital taking a 
course of study which will enable them to return to their 
native land thoroughly prepared to treat disease without 


the use of alcoholic spirits. Mrs. M. E. Kline is president 
of the Board of Directors. 

The Woman's Temperance Publishing Association is the 
largest publication society of women in the world. Its 
headquarters are in the Temple at Chicago ; it has been in 
existence only fourteen years ; its postage bill during 1 892 
was over ten thousand dollars, and the number of pages 
printed one hundred and thirty-five millions ; its principal 
publication, the Union Signal, the World's and National 
Woman's Christian Temperance Union official organ, which 
has an average circulation of eighty thousand weekly, and 
the paper goes to nearly fifty countries of the globe. 
Frances E. Willard is the editor-in-chief, Lady Henry 
Somerset contributing editor, Miss Margaret A. Sudduth 
managing editor, and Mrs. Harriet B. Kells office editor. 
Mrs. Caroline F. Grow is the business manager. The 
affairs are administered by a Board of Directors composed 
of women, whose president is Mrs. Matilda B. Carse. It has 
regular publications for the assistance of the unions, such 
as monthly Bible readings, and responsive readings relat- 
ing to all the departments of work ; also a paper called the 
Oak and Ivy Leaf for the young women of the society, and 
The Young Crusader for the children, besides a great variety 
of leaflets and books to meet all the needs of this vast and 
far-reaching organization. 

The Temple at Chicago stands as a monument to women's 
faith and enterprise, situated in the very heart of the busi- 
ness thoroughfares of this phenomenal city, thirteen stories 
high, costing one million, one hundred thousand dollars, 
commanding and beautiful in its proportions, containing 
Willard Hall, that Mecca of faithful White Ribboners and 
the place of daily noontide prayer and soul-winning, large 
enough to hold seven hundred people, ample in its accom- 
modations not only for the World's National, State, and city 
Woman's Christian Temperance Union headquarters, as 
well as our great publishing interests, but also affording 
office room sufficient to bring the rental up to a figure of 


two hundred thousand dollars annually. It is surely des- 
tined within a few years to be a gift from God himself to 
the National Woman's Christian Temperance Union, in 
answer to the faith and devoted service of Mrs. Matilda 
B. Carse, the founder, and those who have devotedly worked 
and prayed with her. 

Some one has called the Temple " the great monument of 
the modern temperance reform, the mile-post of the 
century's philanthropy." No liquor or tobacco can be sold 
under its roof. It is lined throughout all its thirteen 
stories in white marble, and has two beautiful fountains, 
one furnished by the women of Chautauqua County, New 
York, at the entrance to Willard Hall, and the other 
designed by Miss Whitney, the great sculptor, to be 
unveiled during the Columbian Exposition, is the gift of 
White Ribbon children the world over in the Loyal Tem- 
perance Legions. 


Another notable achievement of the National Woman's 
Christian Temperance Union is that of obtaining laws 
in all the States of the Union, save eight, requiring that 
the baleful effects of alcohol, opium, and tobacco be taught 
in all grades of the public schools, and a national law 
requiring the same teaching to be given in all schools 
in the District of Columbia and the Territories, also in 
all national military and naval academies, thus bringing 
more than twelve millions of children under this benefi- 
cent instruction. 

At the head of the Department of Scientific Temperance 
Instruction for the World's and National Woman's Chris- 
tian Temperance Union is Mrs. Mary H. Hunt of Massa- 
chusetts, and the work has been extended, with variations 
as to interest, method, and legal force, to Canada, Sweden, 
Finland, Germany, Bulgaria, Turkey, India, Siam, China, 


Japan, South Australia, Queensland, New Zealand, Victoria, 
Hawaiian Islands, South Africa, and Mexico. * 

This world's petition first emanated from the White Rib- 
boners of the United States, but has become truly a world- 
wide possession and undertaking. The president, Miss 
Willard, thus writes : " It is intended that the whole force of 
this world's union of women shall be turned upon interna- 
tional questions affecting social and temperance reforms. 
As one of the instruments to this end, the great petition 
gives a practical direction to the new world-sense that 
thrills the hearts of women in this last decade of our cent- 
ury. It calls for no money, it even demands no personal 
pledge from those who sign or indorse it, but it only asks 
that the nations of the world may put away the unholy 
traffic in alcohol and opium with which every Christian 
nation is more or less in complicity. 

" The circulation of this petition must in the very nature 
of things cause an arrest of thought wherever it goes, and 
aid us, as Christian women, banded together in the belief 
that our united faith and works will, with God's blessing, 
prove helpful in creating a strong public sentiment in favor 
of personal purity of life, including total abstinence from 
all narcotic poisons, and the protection of the home by out- 
lawing the traffic in alcoholic liquors, opium, tobacco, and 

A petition nearly twelve miles long, signed in well-nigh 
fifty languages, carrying already almost two million names, 
" and which it is hoped will have double that number before 
it is called in for exhibition at the World's Fair in 1893, 
preparatory to setting forth on its world-wide mission to the 
rulers of all nations, will be in itself a vast object-lesson, 
crystalizing into one burning focus the hopes and prayers, 
the agony and tears of wives and mothers, sisters and 

* It is impossible to give space to the particular report presented of the 
temperance work in each of the countries named; and such reports more 
properly belong to the unabridged record of the Congress, which is to be 
published by the United States Government. 


daughters around the globe, and it might well be a specta- 
cle on which angels should gaze with sympathy." 

Perhaps the best work done in any one country in the 
circulation and obtaining signatures to the world's petition 
is that accomplished by Miss G. F. Morgan of Brecon, South 
Wales, throughout Great Britain. So zealous were her 
efforts that Lady Henry Somerset was able to carry the 
signatures of two hundred and fifty thousand persons with 
her, to be presented as England's contribution to the world's 
petition work, when she went to America to attend the first 
World's Woman's Christian Temperance Union convention 
in 1891. 

I close in Mrs. Leavitt's words : " If there was in the 
beginning any doubt as to the feasibility of Miss Willard's 
grand conception, it must have long since passed away. 
The White Ribbon has belted the world. The noontide 
prayer never ceases." The World's Woman's Christian 
Temperance Union is an accomplished fact. 

N. B. The summary of temperance work in other 
countries will be found in the Appendix. [THE EDITOR.] 



OXE still frequently hears that the cause popularly 
known as the "Woman's Rights Movement" has 
made little progress ; that the interest in it, always 
limited to a small and peculiar class, has grown languid 
even within that class ; that the majority of men hold in 
contempt claims and aspirations which the majority of 
women regard with indifference. These assertions are 
made in the face of such facts and conditions as are pre- 
sented in this chapter. Here we find representatives of 
countries as remote and as different from one another as 
Sweden and the United States, Scotland and Australia, 
Finland and England, telling, with variations but slightly 
accentuated by nationality and form of government, the. 

28 (413) 


same story of the steady growth in the minds of men and 
women of a conviction of their essential equality ; and of 
the development in women of a consciousness of respon- 
sibility for the weal of that public of which they are a 
part. The twenty-four addresses here reproduced in part 
are but a fraction of all those bearing on the same themes 
delivered during the congress week. 

No bodies of women organized for any public object 
could be more conservative than those found in " The 
National Association of Loyal Women of American Lib- 
erty " and "The Women's National Indian Association." 
The former stands for the protection of the American pub- 
lic school system ; the latter for the protection of a waning 
race, aliens in their native land. The former springs from 
maternal instinct, supported by religious zeal ; the latter 
springs from the sentiments of -pity and justice fused into 
the spirit of philanthropy. What could be more feminine 
from the conservative standpoint, what more conservative 
from any standpoint, than the motives, the raisons d'etre, of 
these organizations ? Yet their members confess that the 
ballot is the ultimate instrument by which their ends are 
to be gained and retained. 

If there is a conservative institution in the world - 
one resting on precedent, one observant of forms it is 
Masonry ; and the charity in whose name it exerts its vast 
power is an indispensable characteristic of the " womanly 
woman." Yet here we have the " Order of the Eastern 
Star " lauded as a training-school in which women are learn- 
ing to administer the large affairs and the public offices to 
which modern life is calling them. 

It is to be noted, also, that what is clearly stated in 
this chapter concerning women's public interests, their 
civil rights and corresponding obligations, their political 
privileges and consequent duties, is in every previous 
chapter hardly less clearly implied. One hesitates to 
emphasize upon the attention of the reader the personality 
of the women here introduced ; but their character and 


their positions are a sufficient answer to the charge still 
heard, that enlarged civil rights and the ballot are sought 
and advocated only by the poor, the eccentric, the miser- 
able ; by those who, having failed in their personal careers, 
seek a public arena for airing their private wrongs. 

More emphatically than any preceding chapter does this 
inculcate the need of adding to the catalogue of womanly 
virtues that of public spirit, which is the only virtue that 
implies and, in its turn, generates that consciousness of 
kinship with others which alone makes obedience to the 
Golden Rule possible. 

In this chapter addresses are given in practical com- 
pleteness. In some instances abstracts, or condensations 
of the discussions, are given instead of extracts. [THE 


The cause of the emancipation of women, represented in 
England more completely by the Women's Franchise 
League than by any other society, has made great progress 
on this side of the Atlantic during the last four years. 

Our new society, the formation of which constitutes an 
epoch in the history of the cause, >was founded in 1889, by 
some of the oldest workers in questions affecting the inter- 
ests of women. Those who founded this league perceived 
that the time had come when a much broader and bolder 
claim must be made on behalf of the sex than had hitherto 
been preferred. 

For twenty years the ordinary suffrage societies had 
restricted their efforts to obtaining the parliamentary vote 
for a certain number of spinsters and widows. They had 


never ventured, since Mr. Mill and Mr. Jacob Bright had had 
charge of the question in the House of Commons, to hope 
that "duly qualified" wives might be allowed to share in 
the privilege demanded for " duly qualified " spinsters and 
widows. They do not now venture in plain language to 
ask for votes for married women, although the limitation 
resulting from the legal qualifications required in this 
country not only makes such a claim easy, but renders 
ignominious the cowardice which dares not face so small an 
ordeal. These are the facts : 

Mr. Gladstone in the election of 1886 had openly ex- 
pressed his desire that women should assist in the carrying 
of home rule for Ireland. Women's Liberal associations 
were quickly formed all over the country and a general 
federation of these associations was constituted. A great 
council of delegates from about four hundred of these 
associations meets every year in London. Mrs. Gladstone 
occupied the position of president until last year, and 
retired only on account of the heavy duties connected 
with her husband's accession to office. In May, 1892, 
the United Associations of the Federation unanimously 
decided to press upon the Liberal party the question of 
the representation of women, and in consequence of the 
stong exertions of the Women's Franchise League a 
unanimous vote was given to enlarge the demand by the 
inclusion of all ratifying women, whether married, single, 
or widowed. In having obtained this unanimous vote from 
so powerful and representative a body as the Women's 
Liberal Federation, one great point was gained, as Mr. 
Gladstone has more than once opposed women's suffrage 
bills, among other reasons, because they did not include 
married women. 

There are in this country only about nine hundred thou- 
sand women, including probably about two hundred thou- 
sand married women, who are able to fulfill the legal condi- 
tions which, in the case of men, qualify them for the vote. 
That is to say, the married and unmarried women together, 


if enfranchised, would, under the present law, amount to 
only one-seventh of the voting power of the country. Yet 
so timid are the women's suffrage societies that, even this 
year, after the emphatic vote of the Women's Liberal Fed- 
eration, they made no protest when Mr. Charles McLaren, 
who had charge of the bill, declared in a letter to the hon- 
orable secretary of the League that it " would be impossible 
to take a second reading on a bill which expressly enfran- 
chised married women." 

As Mr. Charles McLaren is himself a man of large and 
liberal mind, and quite in favor of the programme of the 
Women's Franchise League, which claims absolute equality 
of rights and privileges for women with men in every depart- 
ment of human life and duty, such a statement must appear 
incomprehensible to outsiders. 

The explanation lies in the want of courage and faith 
shown by those who have directed the movement. They 
are only slowly beginning to realize the issues at stake. 
They have not fought the question with the open assurance 
of those who know they have a good cause and have faith 
in the sense of justice of their countrymen. Timid coun- 
sels have prevailed, and every year our suffrage bills have 
been drafted to suit the supposed narrow prejudices of 
Tories or second-hand Liberals. It has been taken for 
granted that a fair bill could not pass the House of Com- 
mons, and therefore it was held to be useless to present one. 
All wives must be excluded from the vote. Men must be 
deceived and over-reached ; they must be coaxed into giv- 
ing way. We must drive in the thin end of the wedge, and 
then all would come right, etc. Of course these tactics have 
failed, as they were bound to fail. The indignation roused 
at the attempt to exclude the class which contains the 
greatest number of sufferers for want of representation, has 
alone been sufficient to paralyze the efforts made to give 
votes to the unmarried and the widowed. The policy of 
the Franchise League is wholly different. We hold that 
raising the status of the wife is of more importance than 


giving votes to a few women because they are not married. 
We believe in the essential oneness of the interests of 
women and men, and we appeal to the sense of justice of 
the latter to allow us our fair share in shaping the destinies 
of our common country. Men and women have separate 
spheres no doubt, but it is not for one sex to arrogate to 
itself the sole right to define the limits of those spheres. 
We ask for perfect freedom, that each may develop the best 
that is in him for the good of the whole. We do not 
believe that men will be able or will desire to resist the 
expression of the united voice of the women of the country. 
We seek to mold public opinion by creating public sym- 
pathy with our loyal desire to help in public work. 

To sum up its objects, then, the Women's Franchise 
League claims equality 

(a.) Of political rights and duties. 

(&.) Of educational opportunities (whether as a means 
of culture or as aids to secure the means of living). 

(c.) Of wages for women, for work of equal quality and 
quantity with that done by men. 

(d.) Of the right to hold any office or position, paid or 
honorary, to which her fellow-citizens may elect her, or 
which is in the gift of the state. 

The League claims, also, equality 

(a.) In the marriage laws. 

(b.) In divorce. 

(c.) In our right to the custody and guardianship of 
children born in wedlock. 

(d.) Of personal freedom and the rights and liabilities of 

The legal position of the wife in England is a scandal to 
civilization. We desire to set down nothing'in malice and to 
exaggerate nothing, but the object of this report is not to 
send a glowing account of English women's freedom to our 
sisters across the sea. We do not need to tell you that 
there are in England as large a proportion of happy homes 
as in any country on the face of the earth. What we do 


need to point out is that this happiness is not the result of 
legal protection, but of the fact that the vast majority of 
our countrymen are too just to abuse the enormous powers 
at their discretion. 

How greatly such powers are abused by some, however, 
and almost with impunity, is partially detailed in a painful 
article on the " Maltreatment of Wives," which appeared in 
the March number of the Westminster Review of this year, 
by Miss Mabel Sherman Crawford. This article opens with 
a quotation from the address of Mr. Justice Denman at the 
Liverpool Assizes last July. In commenting on the many 
serious cases for trial of aggravated assaults on wives by 
their husbands, the judge said : " It is lamentable to find 
the view pervading certain classes that the life of a wife is 
less sacred than that of other people." 

It may be lamentable, but it is not surprising, that igno- 
rant and brutal men should not show more respect and con- 
sideration for their wives than is shown by the law of the 
land, and by the magistrates, who often deliberately refuse 
to use the meager powers the law allows to protect married 

Mr, Gladstone is fully aware of the moral importance of 
supporting the case for the wife, and has denounced in 
strong language some of the inequalities of the laws with 
regard to her. Indeed, with regard to the position of 
women generally he has shown that his conscience is not 
quite at ease. While suggesting a doubt whether the Cre- 
ator intended woman for political life, he acknowledges in a 
recently printed letter that " men have been most unfaithful 
guardians of her right to moral and social equality." 

We ask these " unfaithful guardians " to give up a charge 
for which they are obviously unfitted. There is no such 
thing as "moral and social equality" apart from political 
equality. An unrepresented class is always a neglected, 
abused, and degraded class. 

The present is a very serious as well as a most interest- 
ing crisis. What will the Liberal party do for us ? Will it 


be true to its own traditions and to the great principles 
which have given it the preeminence it now enjoys? The 
Women's Franchise League is supported by advanced 
thinkers in all ranks of society. The leaders of the work- 
ing-men are almost to a man on our side. The chiefs 
of the Liberal women Lady Aberdeen, Lady Henry 
Somerset, Lady Carlisle, Lady Stevenson, Lady Trevelyan, 
among others support our programme and are vice-presi- 
dents of our society. At the last election we were strongly 
appealed to not to make a test question of the women's 
right to representation, on account of the Home Rule Bill 
for Ireland. How long are we to be expected to postpone 
the pressing necessities of a whole sex to the convenience 
of party politicians? The country is quite ready for 
woman suffrage. Everywhere men gladly welcome our 
help in elections. While Welshmen, railway men, miners, 
teetotalers, and every section of the labor party were 
pressing their claims with scant consideration for the con- 
venience of the party, women alone quietly resigned long- 
cherished hopes and worked with a will for the party 
pledged to do justice to the sister 'island. The women of 
the Liberal party know, however, that they could do better 
work for others if they were themselves free ; and they 
wait for the symbol of their freedom in the vote. 


In alluding to the lady whose paper you have just heard, 
Mrs. Jacob Bright, sister-in-law of the Hon. John Bright, 
and well worthy to bear that honored name, I should like 
to tell you it was almost entirely owing to Mrs. Jacob 
Bright that the Married Women's Property Act was passed, 
by which men voluntarily gave over from their own man- 
agement about thirty millions of money annually. That is 
what is computed to be the amount of property owned by 


married women in England. It was a grand thing to do. I 
feel that when men have been induced in England to allow 
married women to have control of their own property, 
there is not anything that they can not, by degrees, be 
induced to do. 

The Women's Franchise League for the first time in the 
history of the women's movement has claimed simply 
equality between men and women. By this we do not 
mean equality in physical capacity or an equality which is 
unnatural ; we are all of us well aware that there is no such 
thing as natural equality. We are born with very unequal 
powers. When we ask, therefore, that women shall be on 
an equality with men, we are not standing forward as say- 
ing, I am as good as you. What we claim is not a pre- 
tended equality ; we make no wild assertion that we are as 
wise and as good as men ; nothing of that kind enters into 
the minds of women. We simply claim, as your Declaration 
of Independence claims, that we shall not be stigmatized by 
disabilities and have disadvantages placed upon us, because 
of an accident of birth. We ask only an absolutely free field, 
in which the natural equalities or inequalities may be devel- 
oped. We do claim for one-half of the human race a fair 
field and no favor in this battle of life which we all have 
to pass through. We demand equality in opportunity for 
education ; we demand equality in every respect before the 
law. The days of slavery should be over for women as 
well as for the black race. We demand equality between 
the father and the mother in the household ; we demand 
equality between men and women in every trade and pro- 
fession. We ask that the disability that has been put as a 
great stumbling-block in the way of women shall be lifted 
out of the way, and that when a child begins life, that child, 
be it a boy or a girl, shall find no artificial difficulties, no 
unnatural obstacles in the way. It shall be allowed to go 
along through life cultivating to the best of its capacity 
that which is given it, yielding to the world the utmost 
service of which it is capable. In the first place, we must 


have equality in education and training. It may be true 
that women as a sex are inferior to men as a sex ; I am 
not disposed to discuss that matter further. But if the 
woman is naturally inferior to the man, then there is all 
the more reason why every advantage of training and edu- 
cation should be presented to the girl. When you handi- 
cap a horse in the race, I am not aware that you put the 
heavier weight on the weaker horse. 

I suppose the American women have greater educational 
opportunities in many respects, and have gone far beyond 
us. On the other hand, Englishmen have opportunities 
of education which are not equaled anywhere else in the 
world. Although Englishwomen have within a compara- 
tively recent time been admitted to the various universities, 
they are still educationally left far behind their brothers. 
Our old universities are to some extent. open to women, but 
far from efficiently. In the universities of Oxford and 
Cambridge we have scholarships I don't know what you 
call them here ; but there is a very large income belonging 
to both of those universities for this purpose. The profes- 
sors are also paid by endowment. When a man goes to one 
of these great universities he reaps the advantages of cent- 
uries of hoarded learning. Women are expected to be 
thankful, and are thankful, that they are admitted to one 
little tiny corner ; but in that tiny corner there are no free 
places. The women have to pay their own professors 
entirely for the extra work which is done. The women 
have had to help the men from the very foundation with 
money that has been accumulating for centuries. But this 
help is entirely lacking in the case of the women, although 
a great number of those institutions have been left money 
by women for the education of men ; that is one respect in 
which the Englishwomen are still very far from equality. 
We are, however, encouraged in regard to the universities 
of Oxford and Cambridge. They are doing very well. 
Saint Andrew's University has this very year set aside a 
sum from its funds of no less than forty thousand pounds a 
year for women. 


Ladies and gentlemen, I have stated why we ask for 
equality in education ; I now proceed to invite your atten- 
tion to the necessity of equality before the law, and equality 
in domestic life. I can not, with the brief time at our dis- 
posal, attempt to tell you what our civil laws about women 
had become in England under an absurd theory that women 
were to be legislated for as something quite different from 
men, not equal beings with men, or the other half of the 
human race; but I will tell you briefly this: In 1837, the 
year that Queen Victoria came to the throne, the greatest 
law reformer England has ever known, Lord Brougham, 
said the laws about women were in such a bad state that he 
dared not endeavor to amend one of them, because, so vile 
were they, as soon as the attention was directed to them he 
believed that most of them would crumble away, and most 
of the human relationships would be left without a law. 
This was said as recently as when the queen came to the 
throne, and this condition lasted for many years afterward. 
The position of English married women was that of slaves ; 
they had no personal liberty. It had been held by judges 
that a husband had the right to imprison his wife if she 
was about to do anything contrary to his wishes. She could 
not hold any property which came to her by any means 
whatever ; it was her husband's and not hers. The married 
woman could be deserted by her husband and left to strug- 
gle alone in the world. She had absolutely no rights 
over the child whom she bore in pain to him, and whom 
she nursed with her very heart's blood. If it pleased her 
husband, without giving any reason whatever he might 
take the babe from her breast, and he might take the grow- 
ing girl and hide her from the mother at that very moment 
when, the mother most yearns for her. As a judge declared 
only ten years ago, " The English law does not see the 
mother ; the English law sees only the father of the child, 
and not the English wife." In short, the wife is "under 
coverture," as it is called in civil law. She is as com- 
pletely covered by the personality of her husband as though 
she did not exist. When her husband was a good man, she 


was a happy woman ; when the slave had a good master, all 
went well. Englishmen did not make these laws one by 
one with the deliberate intention of subjecting or mislead- 
ing the young women of England, but they heaped up great 
mountains of cruelty and injustice, on the theory expressed 
in the quotation which I have already given from Lord 
Brougham, that, when any of the laws were touched, so vile 
were they, that they must fall to pieces. This is the result 
of the theory of inequality. Let us take a firm ground on 
equality, and see that the laws between men and women 
shall be made equal. That can only be done, ladies and 
gentlemen, as I fully believe, by the women themselves 
having a voice in the making of laws which shall govern 
all. I regret to tell you that the Women's Franchise League 
is the only society in England which demands absolute 
equality between men and women, demanding that mar- 
riage shall not be for the woman any disqualification. That 
brings me to the point with which I shall conclude. I 
believe that marriage should take place only where the hus- 
band, entirely of his own free will, divests himself of any 
mastery the laws of custom and society can give him, and 
stands on an equal plane with the woman who shares his 
life, recognizing in her his equal in every daily walk of 
life ; his equal in the nurture of their children ; his equal in 
the authority and the cares that belong to their joint house- 
hold. That point some have already reached. We hope 
in the future to see all marriages so made that one can 
realize the highest possibility of that great relationship. 


I suppose I have been asked to take this subject of the 
work of women in relation to politics because the women of 
Great Britain have taken a more advanced position on this 


subject than the women of any other nation. Of the origin 
and character of that work itself I hope to have an oppor- 
tunity to speak to-morrow, when called upon to represent 
the Women's Liberal Federation of England and the 
Women's Liberal Federation of Scotland. To-day I should 
rather approach my subject from the point of view of those 
who ask whether women should seek to be an actual force 
in politics, for I know there are many who, not unnaturally, 
hesitate over the answer to that question, here as well as at 
home. I would like to explain from the outset that it is a 
mystery to me how any woman who has faced the matter 
can think it anything else but her plain matter-of-course 
duty to take an interest in politics, as far as she is able ; and 
when one comes to look at the matter from a Christian 
point of view, the obligation becomes a hundredfold more 
imperative. So, in answer to the question, I reply, in words 
which I have often used on my own behalf and on behalf 
of hundreds and thousands of other women in our country 
who have taken up political work during the last six years, 
" We are politicians because it has been shown to us that 
we can not do our duty, either to our own homes or to our 
country, without being so." 

Friends and foes alike often tell us that politics will 
always mean dirty work, and that fine sentiments and high 
aims are all very well for public platforms, but that they 
will not go down in practical daily life ; and that this being 
so, we had better keep clear of what will inevitably tend to 
lower our standards of right and wrong. Our action in 
taking up politics is regarded in this light not only by those 
whose gibes and sneers we may very easily ignore, but it 
pains and grieves many good men and women some, 
indeed, of the best men and women, and some of these may 
be very dear friends of our own. We have to meet their 
remonstrances. They tell us sadly that in their eyes we 
have come off our pedestal ; that we have disappointed 
them ; that a woman's influence and power were meant to 
be exerted at home, not in the din of public life ; and that 


they can not bear the idea that any woman for whom they 
have any regard should be mixed up with the rough-and- 
tumble of politics. They want to keep us apart from all 
that ; they want to build a temple for us where they can 
enshrine us apart from and above the world's rough ways 
and evils. And we, feeling to the full the value of their 
estimate of womanhood and their chivalrous feeling for us, 
shrink from their reproaches, and from the thought that 
we are becoming unwomanly in their sight, and perhaps, 
indeed, taking away their ideal of womanhood. But we 
must face it out, and see on what these objections are 
founded. That they do point to a possible danger we must 
admit, and we must beware of it. But, as a rule, I think we 
may say that we shall find that the objections proceed prin- 
cipally from two sources : First, a very partial ideal of 
what a woman's life should be ; and second, a low estimate 
of politics. Let us look at the last first. When we go to 
political meetings men's political meetings we hear 
often a great deal of what politics should accomplish ; that 
the end of all politics is the well-being of the people. We 
hear of all the good and noble things that such and such a 
policy has accomplished and will accomplish for the people 
things that affect the lives and homes of the people, that 
make a vast difference to their happiness and to their 
power of living good and healthy lives. Many are the 
eloquent speeches we hear on the subject. And yet they 
come home and tell us that politics are not for women, 
that they would debase and degrade women ; these politics 
which are to raise the whole people would contaminate us. 
How do we reconcile these two statements? Do those 
who make the speeches believe in what they are saying 
publicly, or do they say it only to catch the ear of the 
people, and do they really believe in their hearts that polit- 
ical life as a matter of fact means only a race between men 
and between parties for power, influence, place and fame ? 
With such an estimate of political life we can have nothing 
to do, and we do not wonder that any who incline toward 


such a view should use their best endeavor to keep us out 
of it. But we believe there are grand principles which may 
and which should inspire the government of the people, by 
the people, for the people ; we believe implicitly in their 
power, when properly applied, to reform, and ennoble and 
uplift; and that it is our duty as citizens to help forward 
such application. We desire to carry out these principles 
faithfully in our own lives, and we look upon those who 
follow politics for selfish and unworthy ends as traitors to 
the cause. And the reason why the vast majority of us 
who take up political work claim the suffrage, is because 
we believe we can not do our duty in these directions until 
we have it. 

Any of us who know anything of the lives of the poor, 
know how the social questions which we discuss back- 
ward and forward are living, pressing realities to them. 
Questions about education, labor, the sweating system, 
licensing evils, the workhouse system, are all sternly real to 
them, and especially so to the women. We must so believe 
in our politics that we shall both believe and act as if poli- 
tics must deal with these questions. We are not content to 
talk about these problems ; we desire to understand them, 
and to help our fellow-women, who have such hard lives 
and so little leisure, to understand them too, so that they 
may decide what is to be done they who will have the 
power when the time comes. 

We must also believe in the power of right political 
thought in foreign politics. We must not give way to the 
idea that what is wrong in private life can ever be right in 
political life. We must not believe that what would be 
dishonorable or unjust in dealing one with another can be 
right and honorable in dealing with nations. 

Then, as to the other misconception, which lies often 
at the root of the objections of which we have been speak- 
ing a partial ideal for women. A true standard for woman- 
hood is a great need ; for the good of both women and men 
it is needed. The ideal women in poetry and fiction are 


generally represented in their own homes, spreading a 
bright and holy influence as sister, daughter, wife, and 
mother. Woman at her own fireside is enshrined as woman 
at her best. Far be it from me to disparage such an ideal. 
I only venture to say that it is an ideal which does not 
include the whole of a woman's life, and that true ideals 
are always expanding and enlarging. Woman is a human 
being as well as a woman, and must have duties as such 
toward human beings outside her own home circle, and 
toward her country. 

" Oh, yes ; she has social duties," some will say. What does 
that mean, I wonder? She must be kept apart from the 
roughness of life, apart from the evils of life ; this would 
not mean studying social questions, and taking a high stand 
regarding them. No ; social duties would mean, I suppose, 
leaving cards and returning visits, dining out and going to 
evening parties, developing all social talent and doing that 
which really is woman's duty in political life, making her- 
self agreeable to all who would advance her husband or his 
party, never mind who and what they are. Would that fill 
out the social life of the ideal woman who must not touch 
political life for fear of its defiling her ? No, let us remem- 
ber rather the ideal sketched for us by Lowell in one of his 
beautiful poems : 

For with a gentle courage she doth strive, 
In thought, in word, in feeling, so to live 
As to make earth next heaven ; and her heart 
Herein doth show its most exceeding worth, 
That, bearing in her frailty her just part, 
She hath not shrunk from evils of this life, 
But hath gone calmly forth into the strife, 
And all its sins and sorrows hath withstood 
With lofty strength of patient womanhood. 

That seems a truer notion of the responsibility of life 
than the picture of her who is simply the angel of the home. 
Does not the older conception of the perfect woman also 
seem rather unfair to the husband ? Does it not imply that 
he recognizes only a perfection which consists in minister- 





ing to his and his children's wants and pleasures? Is there 
not a nobler idea in a husband's and a wife's giving up part 
of each other's life, giving up their children, too, to the 
service of humanity, and by their sacrifice perfecting their 
own lives? 

But it may be said in answer to this that women can and 
do give up their lives to the service of humanity without 
ever touching politics. 

That is so ; but is it right ? At least, is it right for those 
of us who believe in our country, and in the justice and 
wisdom of her laws ? Where the people are ground down 
by their rulers, or where they have no voice in the making 
or modification of their laws, it may be the only plan to try 
to alleviate suffering or help forward the people by work- 
ing through individual agencies ; but surely in countries 
where boards are appointed to attend to education for the 
poor, to municipal or other local affairs, and where we elect 
representatives to look after the interests of the people,, 
we must needs show our respect for our country, its laws r 
and its institutions by striving to make these boards, and 
parliaments, and congresses as efficient, as pure, as earnest 
for the real good of the people as it is possible for them 
to be. 

I must not dwell longer on this subject. I should like 
you, however, to ask our friends who grieve over us what 
their ideal of a woman's life is ? If they agree that a true 
woman's life should touch life from every side, then poli- 
tics must be included. It must not predominate, but it 
must be included, otherwise assuredly there will be a want ; 
there will be a lack of balance, for certain conditions of life 
will not be weighed or understood. And so once more I 
say that the reason why those for whom I speak have 
become politicians is because we have the strong convic- 
tion that woman has a political duty which she owes to 
her country; not the same as that of men, but, as in all 
other departments in life, man and woman working side 
by side, each in his or her own way, will best be able to 



accomplish the allotted task of leaving the world better 
than they found it. 


It may be that the best way in which I can illustrate what 
women can do in politics is to give you a brief chapter 
from the history of my own State of New York. It has 
been said that all things come to him who waits, but I think 
that sentence can be improved upon by saying that all 
things come to her who strives. It is better to strive than 
to wait. In 1878 a bill passed through the Legislature 
which gave the women of New York the right to serve as 
members of the school board and as school board officers. 
Then Governor Robinson vetoed the bill ; he said the God 
of nature didn't intend women for public offices. Mr. 
Robinson asked a reelection for Governor ; we decided that 
the God of nature did not intend Mr. Robinson for Gov- 
ernor of New York. We opposed his election in every way. 
We organized, in every city, political meetings. In many 
of the cities there are strong political organizations. You 
have heard how it has worked in Kansas, how they have 
retired the Hon. John J. Ingalls to private life. In New 
York we organized against Mr. Robinson. Here and there 
we held our conventions, and Mr. Robinson was retired to 
private life. Within a few days Mr. Cornell took the seat 
of Governor, and the Woman's Suffrage Bill was passed 
through both branches of the Legislature and received the 
Governor's signature. That bill provided that any moral 
woman might serve as a school officer, and might vote at 
all school elections. Step by step we have built up the bill. 
We have passed a bill decreeing that saleswomen generally 
shall have seats while they are not occupied in waiting on 
customers. We have passed a bill providing for women on 
the boards of public institutions, such as the lunatic asylum, 


prisons, etc. We have passed a bill that no insane woman 
shall pass through the State unless she be accompanied by 
a woman, and we have passed a number of bills of minor 
importance. We have passed the Police Matron's Bill. 
When we first took hold of this matter, all women who 
were arrested were entirely in the hands of men. If a 
young woman was arrested for a first offense, it was men 
who examined her, talked with her, took care of her. If a 
lady in any of our streets in New York was knocked down, 
she was taken to the police station, where she was put into 
the hands of men. If a woman were accused of theft, she 
was searched by men, notwithstanding the manifest dis- 
gracefulness of it. Since we passed the Police Matron's 
Bill, we have had a matron in charge of certain police sta- 
tions, of every station to which women are taken. These 
are some of the victories we have achieved. 

The latest triumph we have gained in the State of New 
York, and the most important that has ever been gained, is 
the passage last winter of the bill which provides that 
women are eligible to seats in the Constitutional Conven- 
tion of 1894. That is a great concession, as great as has 
ever been made to women. 

Mrs. Fenwick Miller told you of the wrong that existed 
in England in the fact that men alone are guardians of the 
children. Do you know in almost every State of the Union 
that infamous law prevails ? Under the former law in New 
York the father of the child, although only a minor, might 
take the child from its mother's arms as soon as it was born. 
That law stood on our statute books for years. It was one 
of the things we fought against most strongly. I will give 
you one instance of the working of this law. A couple 
were married in the State of New York, and they were very 
unhappy together. After a child had been born the 
mother went to live in New Jersey, where, under the laws, 
the woman had an equal right with the man to the child. 
The wife went away to take care of a neighbor one night, 
and toward daylight, as she was coming home, she saw her 


husband starting from the house with the baby in his arms. 
She followed him as fast as she could. It was where Staten 
Island and the Jersey shore are right opposite each other. 
Perhaps some of you recollect there is a long trestle there 
that branches over that arm of the sea; the man started 
across that slippery way, the woman following him step by 
step, he bearing the child in his arms. It was dark, and 
everything was wet, and as he went on the mother followed, 
not knowing what moment she might slip to her death, but 
determined to follow her child. Half-way across the man 
turned and said if she didn't stop he would cast the child 
into the sea. That did not deter her, as she probably knew 
what kind of a man he was. Step by step she followed 
until they had crossed the long, weary way, until the oppo- 
site side was reached ; then the man made a dash for the 
ferry, and the woman ran after him as fast as she could, but 
not so quickly. A boat was waiting, and as the man sprang 
on the boat he turned and said, " Stop that woman ! she is 
crazy; the child is mine." So it was by the laws of the 
State of New York then, but we went up to the Legislature 
and we had that law changed, and now in my common- 
wealth of New York I can proudly say that the mother and 
father are equal guardians of their children. They say to 
us that when we go up to the Legislature we are lobbyists. 
We are not lobbyists ; we are there representing the unrepre- 
sented half. We have paid our proportion, from the very 
foundation to the frescoed dome of that capitol. We have 
paid half of every man's salary there. Now, friends, this 
incident which I have related took place on the Jersey 
shore, just in sight of the Statue of Liberty. The Statue of 
Liberty is represented how? As a man? Oh, no! it has a 
woman's form. As I pass the New York Statue of Liberty 
it seems as if there comes a message from those mute 
bronze lips saying, " The day will yet come when I shall 
light a republic whose sons and daughters will be equal 
sharers in the birthright I represent." 



If before sin had cast its deepest shadows or sorrow had 
distilled its bitterest tears, it was true that it was not good 
for man to be alone, it is no less true, since the shadows 
have deepened and life's sorrows have increased, that the 
world has need of all the spiritual aid that woman can 
give for the social advancement and moral development 
of the human race. The tendency of the present age, 
with its restlessness, religious upheavals, failures, blun- 
ders, and crimes, is toward broader freedom, an increase 
of knowledge, the emancipation of thought, and a recogni- 
tion of the brotherhood of man ; in this movement woman, 
as the companion of man, must be a sharer. So close 
is the bond between man and woman that you can not 
raise one without lifting the other. The world can not 
move without woman's sharing in the movement, and to 
help give a right impetus to that movement is woman's 
highest privilege. 

If the fifteenth century discovered America to the Old 
World, the nineteenth is discovering woman to herself. 
Little did Columbus imagine, when the New World broke 
upon his vision like a lovely gem in the coronet of the uni- 
verse, the glorious possibilities of a land where the sun 
should be our engraver, the winged lightning our messen- 
ger, and steam our beast of burden. But as mind is more 
than matter, and the highest ideal always the true real, so 
to woman comes the opportunity to strive for richer and 
grander discoveries than ever gladdened the eye of the 
Genoese mariner. 

Not the opportunity of discovering new worlds, but that 
of filling this old world with fairer and higher aims than 
the greed of gold and the lust of power, is hers. Through 
weary, wasting years men have destroyed, dashed in pieces, 
and overthrown, but to-day we stand on the threshold of 


woman's era, and woman's work is grandly constructive. 
In her hand are possibilities whose use or abuse must tell 
upon the political life of the nation, and send their influ- 
ence for good or evil across the track of unborn ages. 

As the saffron tints and crimson flushes of morn herald 
the coming day, so the social and political advancement 
which woman has already gained bears the promise of the 
rising of the full-orbed sun of emancipation. The result 
will be not to make home less happy, but society more holy ; 
yet I do not think the mere extension of the ballot a panacea 
for all the ills of our national life. What we need to-day is 
not simply more voters, but better voters. To-day there 
are red-handed men in our republic, who walk unwhipped 
of justice, who richly deserve to exchange the ballot of the 
freeman for the wristlets of the felon ; brutal and cowardly 
men, who torture, burn, and lynch their fellow-men, men 
whose defenselessness should be their best defense and 
their weakness an ensign of protection. More than the 
changing of institutions we need the development of a 
national conscience, and the upbuilding of national char- 
acter. Men may boast of the aristocracy of blood, may 
glory in the aristocracy of talent, and be proud of the 
aristocracy of wealth, but there is one aristocracy which 
must ever outra